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general in Britain', and Conau lord of Meiriadoc or Denbighlands. The Armoric language now spoken in Britany is a dialect of the Welsh : and so strong a resemblance still subsists between the two languages, that in our late conquest of Belleisle (1756), such of our soldiers as were natives of Wales were understood by the peasantry*. Milton, whose imagination was much struck with the old British story, more than once alludes to the Welsh colony planted in Armorica by Maximus, and the prince of Meiriadoc.
Et tandem ARMORICOS Britonum sub lege colonos h. And in the PARADISE Lost he mentions indiscriminately the knights of Wales and Armorica, as the customary retinue of king Arthur.
Begirt with British and Armoric knights.i This migration of the Welsh into Britany or Armorica, which during the distractions of the empire, in consequence of the numerous armies of barbarians with which Rome was surrounded on every side,) had thrown off its dependence on the Romans, seems to have occasioned a close connexion between the two countries for many centuriesk. Nor will it prove
* Maximus appears to have set up a Compare Borlase, Antiq. Cornwall, separate interest in Britain, and to have b. i. ch. 10. p. 40. engaged an army of the provincial Bri- * [Mr. Ellis further observes, that the tons on his side against the Romans. Sclavonian sailors, employed on board Not succeeding in his designs, he was of Venetian ships in the Russian trade, obliged to retire with his British troops never fail to recognise a kindred dialect to the continent, as in the text. He had on their arrival at St. Petersburg. Hia considerable interest in Wales, having storical Sketch of the Rise and Progress married Ellena daughter of Eudda, a of the English Poetry and Language, powerful chieftain of North Wales. She i. 8.-PARK. ] was born at Caernarvon, where her cha- Mansus. pel is still shown. Mon. Antiq. p. 166. i Parad. L. i. 579. Compare Pellouseq;
tier, Mem. sur la Langue Celt. fol. § See Hist. de Bretagne, par d'Ar- tom. i. 19. gentre, p. 2. Powel's WALES, p. 1, 2.
* This secession of the Welsh, at so seq. and p. 6. edit. 1584. Lhuyd's Ety- critical a period, was extremely natural, mol. p. 32. col. 3. And Galfrid. Mon. into a neighbouring maritime country, Hist. BRIT. lib. v. c. 12. vii. 3. ix. 2. with which they had constantly traffick
less necessary to our purpose to observe, that the Cornish Britons, whose language was another dialect of the antient British, from the fourth or fifth century downwards, maintained a no less intimate correspondence with the natives of Armorica: intermarrying with them, and perpetually resorting thither for the education of their children, for advice, for procuring troops against the Saxons, for the purposes of traffick, and various other occasions. This connexion was so strongly kept up, that an ingenious French antiquary supposes, that the communications of the Armoricans with the Cornish had chiefly contributed to give a roughness or rather hardness to the romance or French language in some of the provinces, towards the eleventh century, which was not before discernible'. And this intercourse will appear more natural, if we consider, that not only Armorica *, a maritime province of Gaul, never much frequented by the Romans, and now totally deserted by them, was still in some measure a Celtic nation; but that also the inhabitants of Cornwall, together with those of Devonshire and of the adjoining parts of Somersetshire, intermixing in a
ed, and which, like themselves, had dis. Jesus College, Oxford; but these transclaimed the Roman yoke.
lations being more distinguished by their (That the British soldiers, enrolled by elegance than fidelity, the learned Mr. Maximus, wandered into Armorica after Owen produced a literal version of the his death, and new named it, seems to Heroic Elegies, and other pieces of this be unfounded. I cannot avoid agreeing prince of the Cambrian Britons, which with Du Bos, that quant aux tems ou la was published with the original text in peuplade des Britons insulaires s'est éta- 1792. It comprises the poem mentionblie dans les Gaules, it was not before the ed by Mr. Warton, which is marked by year 513. Hist. Crit. ii. 470.-Turner.] many poetic and pathetic passages. Lly
It is not related in any Greek or Ro- warc flourished from about A. D. 520 to man historian. But their silence is by 630, at the period of Arthur and Cadno means a sufficient warrant for us to wallon. See Owen's Cambrian Bioreject the numerous testimonies of the graphy.-Park.) old British writers concerning this event. iM. l'Abbé 'Lebeuf. RECHERCHES, It is mentioned, in particular, by Lly- &c. Mem. de Litt. tom. xvii. p. 718. warc hen, a famous bard, who lived only edit. 4to. “Je pense que cela dura one hundred and fifty years afterwards. jusqu'à ce que le commerce de ces proMany of his poems are still extant, in vinces avec les peuples du Nord, et de which be celebrates his twenty-four sons l'Allemagne, et SUR TOUT celui des HAwho wore gold chains, and were all kill. BITANS DE L'ARMORIQUE AVEC L'ANGLOIS, ed in battles against the Saxons. vers l'onzieme siecle,” &c.
(Eight of the Elegies of Llywarc-Hen, • (Armorica was the north-west coror Llywarc the Aged, were selected and ner of Gaul, included between the Loire, translated by Richard Thomas, A. B. of the Seine, and the Atlantic. Park.]
very slight degree with the Romans, and having suffered fewer important alterations in their original constitution and customs from the imperial laws and police than any other province of this island, long preserved their genuine manners and British character: and forming a sort of separate principality under the government of a succession of powerful chieftains, usually denominated princes or dukes of Cornwall, remained partly in a state of independence during the Saxon heptarchy, and were not entirely reduced till the Norman conquest. Cornwall, in particular, retained its old Celtic dialect till the reign of Elizabethm
And here I digress a moment to remark, that in the circumstance just mentioned about Wales, of its connexion with Armorica, we perceive the solution of a difficulty, which at first sight appears extremely problematical: I mean, not only that Wales should have been so constantly made the theatre of the old British chivalry, but that so many of the favourite fictions which occur in the early French romances, should also be literally found in the tales and chronicles of the elder Welsh bards". It was owing to the perpetual communication kept up between the Welsh and the people of Armorica, who abounded in these fictions, and who naturally took occasion to interweave them into the history of their friends and allies. Nor are we now at a loss to give the reason why Cornwall, in the same French romances, is made the scene and the subject of so many romantic adventures. In the mean time we may observe,
* See Camd. Brit. i. 44. edit. 1723, And from the same authority I am in. Lhuyd's Arch. p. 253. (It did not en- formed, that the fiction of the giant's tirely ccase to be spoken till of late years, coat composed of the beards of the kings as may be gathered from an account of whom he had conquered, is related in the the death of an old Cornish woman, in legends of the bards of both countries. the Gentleman's Magazine for 1785.- See Obs. Spens. ut supr. p. 24. seq. Park.]
But instances are innumerable. The story of LE COURT MANTEL, or • Hence in the Armorican tales just the BOY AND THE MANTLE, told by an quoted, mention is made of Totness and old French troubadour cited by M. de Exeter, anciently included in Cornwall, Sainte Palaye, is recorded in many ma- In Chaucer's RoMAUNT OF THE Rose we nuscript Welsh chronicles, as I learn from have “Hornpipis of Cornewaile,"among original letters of Lhuyd in the Ashmo- a great variety of musical instruments. lean Museum. See Mem. Anc. Chev. i. v. 4250. This is literally from the French 119. And Obs, Spenser, i. S. ii. p. 54.55. original, v. 3991. (The Cornwall mer..
(what indeed has been already) implied, that a strict intercourse was upheld between Cornwall and Wales. Their languages, customs, and alliances, as I have hinted, were the same; and they were separated only by a strait of inconsiderable breadth. Cornwall is frequently styled West-Wales by the British writers. At the invasion of the Saxons, both countries became indiscriminately the receptacle of the fugitive Britons*. We find the Welsh and Cornish, as one people, often uniting themselves as in a national cause against the Saxons. They were frequently subject to the same prince P, who sometimes resided in Wales, and sometimes in Cornwall; and the kings or dukes of Cornwall were perpetually sung by the Welsh bards. Llygad Gwr, a Welsh bard, in his sublime and spirited ode to Llwellyn, son of Grunfludd, the last prince of Wales of the British line, has a wish, “ May the prints of the hoofs of
my prince's steed be seen as far as CORNWALL.” Traditions about king Arthur, to mention no more instances, are as popular in Cornwall as in Wales : and most of the romantic castles, rocks, rivers, and caves, of both nations, are alike at this day distinguished by some noble atchievement, at least by the name, of that celebrated champion. But to return.
About the year 1100, Gualter, archdeacon of Oxford, a learned man, and a diligent collector of histories, travelling through France, procured in Armorica an antient chronicle written in the British or Armorican language, entitled, BRUT-YBRENHINED, or The History Of The Kings of Britain'.
tioned in the Romance of the Rose was ARMORICA. Borlase, ubi supr. p. 403. more probably the “ Pays de Cornuaille” See also p. 375. 377. 393. And Concil. in France, a name formerly given to a Spelman. tom. i. 9. 112. edit. 1639. fol. part of Bretagne.-Douce.
Stillingfleet's Orig. Brit. ch. 5. p. 344. [The chronicle of the Abbey of seq. edit. 1688. fol. From CORNUWALLIA, Mont St. Michael, gives the year 519 used by the Latin monkish historians, as the period of the flight into Bretagne: came the present name Cornwall. BorAnno 513 venerunt transmarini Britanni lase, ibid. p. 325. Evans, p. 43. in Armoricam, id est minorem Bri. * In the curious library of the family tanniam. The ancient Saxon poet of Davies at Llanerk in Denbighshire, (apud Duchesne Hist. Franc. Script. there is a copy of this chronicle in the 2. p. 148.) also peoples Bretagne after handwriting of Guttyn Owen, a celethe Saxon conquest. --TURNER.) brated Welsh bard and antiquarian about
? Who was sometimes chosen from the year 1470, who ascribes it to Tyssilio Wales and Cornwall, and sometimes from a bishop, and the son of Brockmael
This book he brought into England, and communicated it to Geoffrey of Monmouth, a Welsh Benedictine monk, an elegant writer of Latin, and admirably skilled in the British tongue. Geoffrey, at the request and recommendation of Gualter the archdeacon, translated this British chronicle into Latin', executing the translation with a tolerable degree of purity and great fidelity, yet not without some
Yscythroc prince of Powis. Tyssilio barde's BRUTUS JULIUs. Peramb. Kent, indeed wrote a HISTORY OF BRITAIN; p. 12. See also in the British bards. but that work, as we are assured by And hence Milton's objection is reLhuyd in the ARCHÆOLOGIA, was en moved. Hist. Engl. p. 12. There are tirely ecclesiastical, and has been long no FlAMINES or ARCHFLAMINES in the since lost.
British book. See Usher's Primord. (The Brut of Tyssilio was published p. 57. Dubl. edit. There are very few in the second volume of the Welsh speeches in the original, and those very Archæology. A translation by the Rev. short. Geoffrey's FULGENIUS is in the P. Roberts has since appeared under British copy Sulien, which by analogy the title of: A Chronicle of the British in Latin would be JULIANUS. See Milkings. The first book of Guttyn Owain's ton's Hist. Eng. p. 100.
There is no copy being much more ample in its de- LEIL in the British ; that king's name tails than the other MSS., was incorpo- was LLEON. Geoffrey's CAERLISLE is in rated by Mr. Roberts in his volume. the British CAER 1.Leon, or West-Chester. The remaining books appear to contain In the British, LLAW AP CYNFARCH, no material variations.-Edit.]
should have been translated LEO, which is . See Galfr. Mon. L. i. c. 1. xii. I. now rendered Loth. This has brought 20. ix. 2. Bale, ii. 65. Thompson's much confusion into the old Scotch Pref. to Geoffrey's Hist. Transl. edit. history. I find no Belinus in the British Lond. 1718. p. xxx. xvi.
copy; the name is Beli, which should Geoffrey confesses, that he took have been in Latin Belius, or Belgius. some part of his account of king Arthur's Geoffrey's Brennus in the original is atchievements from the mouth of his Bran, a common name among the Brifriend Gualter, the archdeacon; who tons; as BRAN AP DYFNWAL, &c. See probably related to the translator some Suidas's Bphy. It appears by the original, of the traditions on this subject which that the British name of CARAUSIUS was he had heard in Armorica, or which at CARAwn; hence TREGARAUN, i, e. Trethat time might have been popular in GARON, and the river CarAun, which Wales. Hist. Brit. Galfr. Mon. lib. xi. gives name to ABERCORN. In the Bric. i, He also owns that Merlin's pro- tish there is no division into books and phecies were not in the Armorican ori- chapters, a mark of antiquity. Those ginal. Ib. vii. 2. Compare Thompson's whoin the translator calls Consuls of Pref. ut supr. p. XXV. xxvii. The Rome, when Brennus took it, are in the speeches and letters were forged by original TwYSOGION, i. e. princes or Geoffrey; and in the description of bat- generals. The Gwalenses, Gwalo, or tles, our translator has not scrupled fre- Gwalas, are added by Geoffrey, B. xii. quent variations and additions. c. 19." To what is here observed about
I am obliged to an ingenious antiqua- Silius, I will add, that abbot Whethamrian in British literature, Mr. Morris of sted, in his MS. GRANARIUM, mentions Penbryn; for the following curious re- Siloius the father of Brutus. “Quomodo marks concerning Geoffrey's original Brutus Silou filius ad litora Angliæ and his translation. “ Geoffrey's Syl- venit,” &c. GRANAR. Part. i. Lit. A. vius, in the British original, is Silius, MSS. Cotton. Nero, C. vi. Brit. Mus. which in Latin would make Julius. This gentleman has in his possession a This illustrates and confirms Lam- very antient manuscript of the original,