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they call Jagiouge and Magiouge; and the Caucasian wall, said to be built by Alexander the Great from the Caspian to the Black Sea, in order to cover the frontiers of his dominion, and to prevent the incursions of the Scythians", is called by the orientals the WALL of Gog and MAGOG. One of the

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This pro

Compare M. Petit de la Croix, Hist. once in every week mounted on horseGenghizcan, 1. iv. c. 9.

back with ten others on horseback, comes • Herbelot. Bibl. Oriental. p. 157. to this gate, and striking it three times 291. 318. 438. 470. 528. 795.796. 811, with a hammer weighing five pounds, &c. They call Tartary the land of Ja- and then listening, hears a murmuring giouge and Magiouge. This wall, some noise from within. This noise is supfew fragments of which still remain, they posed to proceed from the Jagiouge and pretend to have been built with all sorts Magiouge confined there. Salam was of metals. See Abulfaraj Hist. Dynast. told that they often appeared on the batedit. Pococke, p. 62. A. D. 1673. It tlements of the bulwark. He returned was an old tradition among the Tartars, after passing twenty-eight months in this that the people of Jagiouge and Magiouge extraordinary expedition. See Mod. were perpetually endeavouring to make Univ. Hist. vol. iv. B. i. § 2. pag. 15, a passage through this fortress ; but that 16, 17. And Anc. vol. xx. pag. 23. they would not succeed in their attempt [It is by no means improbable that the till the day of judgment. See Hist. mention of Gog and Magog in the ApoGeneal. des Tartars, d'Abulgazi Baha- calypse gaverise to their general notoriety dut Khân, p. 43. About the year 808, both in the East and West. the caliph Al Amin having heard won- phecy must have been applied to the derful reports concerning this wall or Huns under Attila at a very early pebarrier, sent his interpreter Salam, with riod; for in the Anorymous Chronicle a guard of fifty men, to view it. After of Hungary, published by Schwandtner a dangerous journey of near two months, (Scriptor. Rer. Hungar. Tom. I.) we Salam and his party arrived in a deso- find it making a part of the national hisa lated country, where they beheld the tory. Attila is there said to be a deruins of many cities destroyed by the scendant of Magog, the son of Japhet, people of Jagiouge and Magiouge. In (Genesis ch. x. ver. 2.) from whom the six days more they reached the castles Hungarians are also called Moger. This near the mountain Kokaiya or Caucasus. is evidently not the production of the This mountain is inaccessibly steep, per- writer's own imagination, but the simple petually covered with snows and thick record of a tradition, which had obtained clouds, and encompasses the country of a currency among his countrymen, and Jagiouge and Magiouge, which is full of which, combined with the subsequent hiscultivated fields and cities. At an open- tory of Almus and Arpad, wears the ape ing of this mountain the fortress ap- pearance of being extracted from some popears : and travelling forwards, at the di- etic narrative of the events.-Edit.] Pliny, stance of two stages, they found another speaking of the Portæ CaucabiÆ, menmountain, with a ditch cut through it tions, “ingens naturæ opus, montibus one hundred and fifty cubits wide: and interruptis repente, ubi fores obditæ ferwithin the aperture an iron gate fifty ratis trabibus,” &c. Nat. Hist. lib. vi. cubits high, supported by vast buttresses, C. 2. Czar Peter the First, in his expehaving an iron bulwark crowned with dition into Persia, had the curiosity to iron turrets, reaching to the summit of survey the ruins of this wall: and some the mountain itself, which is too high to leagues within the mountain he found a be seen. The valves, lintels, threshold, skirt of it which seemed entire, and was bolts, lock and key, are all represented about fifteen feet high. In some other of proportionable magnitude. The go- parts it is still six or seven feet in height. vernor of the castle, above mentioned, It seems at first sight to be built of stone:

most formidable giants, according to our Armorican romance, which opposed the landing of Brutus in Britain, was Goemagot. He was twelve cubits high, and would unroot an oak as easily as an hazel wand: but after a most obstinate encounter with Corineus, he was tumbled into the sea from the summit of a steep cliff on the rocky shores of Cornwall, and dashed in pieces against the huge crags of the declivity. The place where he fell, adds our historian, taking its name from the giant's fall, is called Lam-GOEMAGOT, or GOEMAGOT'S LEAP, to this day. A no less monstrous giant, whom king Arthur slew on Saint Michael's Mount in Cornwall*, is said by this fabler to have come from Spain. Here the origin of these stories is evidently betrayed. The Arabians, or Saracens, as I have hinted above, had conquered Spain, and were settled there. Arthur having killed this redoubled giant, declares, that he had combated with none of equal strength and prowess, since he overcame the mighty giant Ritho, on the mountain

c. 9.

but it consists of petrified earth, sand, tury, reads Goermagog, Mr. Roberts and shells, which compose a substance of has “little doubt but that the original great solidity. It has been chiefly de. was Cawr-Madog, i. e. the giant or great stroyed by the neighbouring inhabitants, warrior." Beliagog is the name of a for the sake of its materials : and most giant in Sir Tristram.-Edit.] of the adjacent towns and villages are (But there is a Saint Michael's built outof its ruins. Bentinck's Notes Mount in Normandy, which is called on Abulgazi, p. 722. Engl. edit. See Tombelaine, and Geoffrey of Monmouth Chardin's Travels, p. 176. And Struys's says the place was called Tumba HeVoyage, B. iii. c. 20. p. 226. Olearius's lenæ, to which the combat is said to Travels of the Holstein Ambassad. B. have related. -- Douce. ] vii. p. 403. Geograph. Nubiens. vi.

& L. X. c. 3. And Act. Petropolit. vol. i. p. [It is very certain that the tales of 405. By the way, this work probably Arthur and his Knights, which have appreceded the time of Alexander: it does peared in so many forms, and under the not appear, from the course of his vic- various titles of the St. Graal, Tristam tories, that he ever came near the Cas- de Leonnois, Lancelot du Lac, &c., pian gates. The first and fabulous his- were not immediately borrowed from the tory of the eastern nations, will perhaps work of Geoffrey of Monmouth, but be found to begin with the exploits of from his Armoric originals. The Si. this Grecian hero.

Graal is a work of great antiquity, proi Lib. i. c. 16.

bably of the eighth century. There are (Mr. Roberts in his extreme zeal for Welsh MSS. of it still existing, which, stripping the British History of all its though not very old, were probably cofictions, and every romantic allusion, pied from earlier ones, and are, it is to conceives this name a fabrication from be presumed, more genuine copies of the the mint of Geoffrey. The Welsh copies ancient romance, than any other extant. read Gogmagog; yet as Ponticus Vi- - Douce.) runnius, who lived in the fifteenth cen

Arabius, who had made himself a robe of the beards of the kings whom he had killed. This tale is in Spenser's Faerie Queene. A magician brought from Spain is called to the assistance of Edwin, a prince of Northumberland", educated under Solomon king of the Armoricans'. In the prophecy of Merlin, delivered to Vortigern after the battle of the dragons, forged perhaps by the translator Geoffrey, yet apparently in the spirit and manner of the rest, we have the Arabians named, and their situations in Spain and Africa. “From Conau shall come forth a wild boar, whose tusks shall destroy the oaks of the forests of France. The ARABIANS and AFRICANS shall dread him; and he shall continue his rapid course into the most distant parts of Spaink.” This is king Arthur. In the same prophecy, mention is made of the “ Woods of Africa.” In another place Gormund king of the Africans occurs!. In a battle which Arthur fights against the Romans, some of the principal leaders in the Roman army are, Alifantinam king of Spain, Pandrasus king of Egypt, Boccus king of the Medes, Evander king of Syria, Micipsa king of Babylon, and a duke of Phrygiam. It is obvious to suppose how these countries became so familiar to the bard of our chronicle. The old fictions about Stonehenge were derived from the same inexhaustible source of extravagant imagination. We are told in this romance, that the giants conveyed the stones which compose this miraculous monument from the farthest coasts of Africa. Every one of these stones is supposed to be mystical, and to contain a medicinal virtue: an idea drawn from the medical skill of the Arabians", and more particularly from the Arabian doctrine of attributing healing qualities, and other occult properties, to stones, Merlin's transformation of Uther into Gorlois, and

- The Cumbrian and Northumbrian authentic history was a king of the Danes Britons, as powerful opponents of the who infested England in the ninth cenSaxons, were strongly allied to the Welsh tury, and was defeated and baptized by and Cornish.

Alfred.” Dissertation on Romance, &c. i Lib. xii. c. l. 4, 5, 6.

P. 23.-Park.] Lib. vii. c. 3.

m Lib. x. c. 5. 8. 10. ' Lib. xii. 2. xi. 8. 10.

* See infr. p. 11. And vol. ii. p. 214. [“ Gormund,” says Mr. Ritson, "in • 'This chronicle was evidently comVOL. I.

b

of Ulfin into Bricel, by the power of some medical preparation, is a species of Arabian magic, which professed to work the most wonderful deceptions of this kind, and is mentioned at large hereafter, in tracing the inventions of Chaucer's poetry. The attribution of prophetical language to birds was common among the orientals: and an eagle is supposed to speak at building the walls of the city of Paladur, now Shaftesbury P. The Arabians cultivated the study of philosophy, particularly astronomy, with amazing ardouro. Hence arose the tradition, reported by our historian, that in king Arthur's reign, there subsisted at Caer-leon in Glamorganshire a college of two hundred philosophers, who studied astronomy and other sciences; and who were particularly employed in watching the courses of the stars, and predicting events to the king from their observations". Edwin's Spanish magician above mentioned, by his knowledge of the flight of birds, and the courses of the stars, is said to foretell future disasters. In the same strain Merlin prognosticates Uther's success in battle by the appearance of a comets. The same enchanter's wonderfull skill in mechanical powers, by which he removes the giant's Dance, or Stonehenge, from Ireland into England, and the notion that this stupendous structure was raised by a PROFOUND PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE MECHANICAL ARTS, are founded on the Arabic literature. To which we may add king Bladud's magical operations 4. Dragons are a sure mark of orientalism". One of these in our romance is a “terrible dragon flying from the piled to do honour to the Britons and were common, engaged their attention their affairs, and especially in opposition or interested them so much, as this to the Saxons. Now the importance with NATIONAL memorial appears to have which these romancers seem to speak of done. Stonehenge, and the many beautiful fic P Lib. ii. c. 9. See vol, ii. p. 247. tions with which they have been so stu 9 See Diss. ii. And vol. ii. p. 237. dious to embellish its origin, and to ag ' Lib. viï. c. 15. grandise its history, appear to me strongly Lib. ix. c. 12. to favour the hypothesis, that Stonehenge t Lib. viii. c. 10. See vol. ij. SECT. XV. is a British monument; and indeed to passim. prove, that it was really erected in me u Lib. ii. c. 10. mory of the three hundred British nobles * [The stability of Mr. Warton's asmassacred by the Saxon Hengist. See sertion has been shaken by Sir Walter Sect. ii. infr. p. 57. No DRUIDICAL Scott, who states that the idea of this famonument, of which so many remains bulous animal was familiar to the Celtic

west, breathing fire, and illuminating all the country with the brightness of his eyes'.” In another place we have a giant mounted on a winged dragon: the dragon erects his scaly tail, and wafts his rider to the clouds with great rapidity W.

Arthur and Charlemagne are the first and original heroes of romance. And as Geoffrey's history is the grand repository of the acts of Arthur, so a fabulous history ascribed to Turpin is the ground-work of all the chimerical legends which have been related concerning the conquests of Charlemagne and his twelve peers *. Its subject is the expulsion of the Saracens from Spain: and it is filled with fictions evidently congenial with those which characterise Geoffrey's history *.

Some suppose, as I have hinted above, this romance to have been written by Turpin, a monk of the eighth century; who, for his knowledge of the Latin language, his sanctity, and galtribes at an early period, and was borne den “hoard” by day, and wandered on the banner of Pendragon, who from through the air by night. But as the that circumstance derived his name. A heroes of Northern adventure are usually dragon was also the standard of the re- engaged in extirpating this imaginary nowned Arthur. A description of this race, it is not improbable that some of banner, the magical work of Merlin, oc these narratives may have been founded curs in the romance of Arthur and on the conflicts between the Finnish and Merlin in the Auchinleck MS.

Scandinavian priesthoods. — Edit.]

' Lib. x. c. 2. Lib. vii. c. 4. Merlin bar her gonfanoun; Upon the top stode a dragoun,

*[“But this,” says Ritson,"requires it

to have been written before the year 1066, Swithe griseliche a litel croune, Fast him biheld al tho in the toune,

when the adventures and exploits of For the mouth he had grinninge

Charlemagne, Rowland and Oliver were

chaunted at the battle of Hastings ; And the tong out flatlinge

whereas there is strong internal proof That out kest sparkes of fer,

that this romance was written long after Into the skies that flowen cler; &c.

the time of Charlemagne.” Dissert. on In the Welsh triads (adds the same Rom. and Minst. p. 47.-Park.] authority) I find the dragon repeatedly * I will mention only one among many mentioned: and in a battle fought at others. The christians under CharleBedford, about 752, betwixt Ethelbald magne are said to have found in Spain a king of Mercia and Cuthred king of golden idol, or image of Mahomet, as Wessex, a golden dragon, the banner of high as a bird can fly. It was framed the latter, was borne in the front of the by Mahomet himself

of the purest metal, combat by Edelheim or Edelhun, a chief who by his knowledge in necromancy of the West Saxons. Notes on Sir Tris- had sealed up within it a legion of diatram, p. 290.--Park.]

bolical spirits. It held in its hand a pro[Among the Celtic tribes, as among the digious club; and the Saracens had a Finns and Sclavonians, the serpent ap- prophetic tradition, that this club should pears to have been held in sacred esti- fall from the hand of the image in that mation; and the early traditions of the year when a certain king should be born North abound in fables relative to dra- in France, &c. J. Turpini Hist. de Vit. gons who lay slumbering upon the gol- Carol. Magn. et Rolandi. cap. iv, f. 2. a.

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