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-Meritosque offensus in hostes
Arma patris, nunc ultor, habet: sed tanta recusant
Pondera crescentes humeri, majoraque cassis

Colla petit, breviorque manus vix colligit hastam. Afterwards a Grecian leader, whose character is invective, insults Penthesilea, and her troop of heroines, with these reproaches,

Tunc sic increpitans, Pudeat, Mars inclyte, dixit:,
En ! tua signa gerit, quin nostra effæminat arma
Staminibus vix apta manus.

Nunc stabitis hercle
Perjuræ turres; calathos et pensa puellæ
Plena rotant, sparguntque colos. Hoc milite Troja,
His fidit telis. At non patiemur Achivi:
Etsi turpe viris timidas calcare puellas,
Ibo tamen contraSic ille: At virgo loquacem
Tarda sequi sexum, velox ad prælia, solo

Respondet jaculou, &c.
I will add one of his comparisons. The poet is speaking of
the reluctant advances of the Trojans under their new leader
Memnon, after the fall of Hector:

Qualiter Hyblæi mellita pericula reges,
Și signis iniere datis, labente tyranno
Alterutro, viduos dant agmina stridula questus;
Et, subitum vix nacta ducem, metuentia vibrant

Spicula, et imbelli remeant in prælia rostro. V His AntiochEis was written in the same strain, and had equal merit. All that remains of it is the following fragment ", in which the poet celebrates the heroes of Britain, and particularly king Arthur. ' Lib. vi. p. 589.

he found a piece of it in the library of u Lib. vi. 609. " Lib. vi. 19. Abingdon abbey in Berkshire.

* Camd. Rem. p. 410. Poems. See excuterem pulverem et tineas Abbanalso Camd. Brit. Leland having learn- dunensis bibliothecæ." Ut supr. p. 238. ed from the Bellum Trojanum that Jo. Here he discovered that Josephus was a sephus had likewise written a poem on native of Exeter, which city was highly the Crusade, searched for it in many celebrated in that fragment. places, but without success. At length

“ Cum

Inclyta fulsit
Posteritas ducibus tantis, tot dives alumnis,
Tot fæcunda viris, premerent qui viribus orbem
Et fama veteres. Hinc Constantinus adeptus
Imperium, Romam tenuit, Byzantion auxit.
Hinc, Senonum ductor, captiva Brennius urbe
Romuleas domuit flammis victricibus arces.
Hinc et Scæva satus, pars non obscura tumultus
Civilis, Magnum solus qui mole soluta
Obsedit, meliorque stetit pro Cæsare murus.
Hinc, celebri fato, felici floruit ortu,
Flos regum Arthurus", cujus tamen acta stupori
Non micuere minus : totus quod in aure voluptas,
Et populo plaudente favors. Quæcunque' prioruin
Inspice: Pellæum commendat fama tyrannum,
Pagina Cæsareos loquitur Romana triumphos;
Alciden domitis attollit gloria monstris ;
Sed nec pinetum coryli, nec sydera solem
Æquant. Annales Graios Latiosque revolve,
Prisca parem nescit, æqualem postera nullum
Exhibitura dies. Reges supereminet omnes :

Solus præteritis melior, majorque futuris. Camden asserts, that Joseph accompanied king Richard the First to the holy land, and was an eye-witness of that heroic monarch's exploits among the Saracens, which afterwards he celebrated in the AntiochEIS. Leland mentions his loveverses and epigrams, which are long since perished“. Heb flourished in the year 1210°,

"f. ~ Captiva Brennus in." graphers mention Panegyricum in Hen

* From this circumstance, Pits ab- ricum. But the notion of this poem surdly recites the title of this poem thus, seems to have taken rise from the verses Antiocheis in Regem Arthurum. Jos. Isc. on Henry the Second, quoted by Le

* The text seems to be corrupt in this land from the Bellum Trojanum. He sentence. Or perhaps somewhat is want is likewise said to have written in Latin ing. I have changed favus, wbich is in verse De Institutione Cyri. Camden, into favor.

Italy had at that time produced no y f. quemcunque.

writer comparable to Iscanus. * Rein. ut supr. p. 407.

Bale, iii. 60. Compare Dresenius ad Leland, ut supr. p. 239. Our bio- Lectmem. Prefixed to the De

2

There seems to have been a rival spirit of writing Latin heroic poems about this period. In France, Guillaume le Breton, or William of Bretagny, about the year 1230, wrote a Latin heroic poem on Philip Augustus king of France about the commencement of the thirteenth century, in twelve books, entitled PhilipPIS. Barthius gives a prodigious character of this poem; and affirms that the author, a few gallicisms excepted, has expressed the facility of Ovid with singular happiness. The versification much resembles that of Joseph Iscanus. He appears to have drawn a great part of his materials from Roger Hoveden's annals. But I am of opinion, that the PHILIPPID is greatly exceeded by the ALEXANDREID of Philip Gualtier de Chatillon, who flourished likewise in France, and was provost of the canons of Tournay, about the year 1200'. This poem celebrates the actions of Alexander the Great, is founded on Quintus Curtius, consists of ten books, and is dedicated to Guillerm archbishop of Rheims. To give the reader an oportunity of comparing Gualtier's style and manner with those of our countryman Josephus, I will transcribe a few specimens froin a beautiful and antient manuscript of the ALEXANDREID in the Bodleian library”. This is the exordium:

Gesta ducis Macedum totum digesta per orbem,
Quam large dispersit opes, quo milite Porum
Vicit aut Darium; quo principe Græcia victrix
Risit, et a Persis rediere tributa Corinthum,
Musa, refer, i

TROJANO. Francof. 1620. 4to. Mr. Wise, Petri Carlotti sui, then not fifteen years the late Radcliffe librarian, told me that old. Philipp. lib. i. v. 10. This poem a manuscript of the ANTIOCH EIS was in was never printed, and is hardly known. the library of the duke of Chandois at • In Not. p. 7. See also Adversar. Canons.

xliii. 7. He prefers it to the Alexan. He wrote it at fifty-five years of age. DREJS mentioned below, in Not. p. 528. PallIrp. lib. iii. v. 381. It was first See Mem. Lit. viii. 536. edit. 4to. printed in Pithou's “ Eleven Historians " It was first printed, Argent. 1513. of France," Francof. 1536, fol. Next in 8vo. And two or three times since. Du Chesne, SCRIPT. Franc. tom, v. p. 93. & See infr. Sect. iii. p. 143. And Barth. Paris. 1694. fol. But the best edition Advers. lii. 16. is with Barthius's notes, Cygn. 1657. 4to. h MSS. Digb. 52. 4to. Brito says in the PHILIPPIS, that he wrote

i fol. 1. a. a poem called KARLOTTIs, in praise of

A beautiful rural scene is thus described :

Patulis ubi frondea ramis
Laurus odoriferas celabat crinibus herbas :
Sæpe sub hac memorant carmen sylvestre canentes
Nympharum vidisse choros, Satyrosque procaces.
Fons cadit a læva, quem cespite gramen obumbrat
Purpureo, verisque latens sub veste jocatur,
Rivulus et lento rigat inferiora meatu,
Garrylus, et strepitu facit obsurdescere montes.
Hic mater Cybele Zephyrum tibi, Flora, maritans,
Pullulat, et vallem fæcundat gratia fontis.
Qualiter Alpinis spumoso vortice saxis
Descendit Rhodanus, ubi Maximianus Eoos
Extinxit cuneos, cum sanguinis unda meatum

Fluminis adjuvit... He excells in similies. Alexander, when a stripling, is thus compared to a young lion:

Qualiter Hyrcanis cum forte leunculis arvis
Cornibus elatos videt ire ad pabula cervos,
Cui nondum totos descendit robur in artus,
Nec bene firmus adhuc, nec dentibus asper aduncis,
Palpitat, et vacuum ferit improba lingua palatum;

Effunditque prius animis quam dente cruorem. The ALEXANDREID soon became so popular, that Henry of Gaunt, archdeacon of Tournay, about the year 1330, complains that this poem was commonly taught in the rhetorical schools, instead of Lucan' and Virgilm. The learned Charpentier i fol. xiii. a.

* fol. xxi. a.

the year 1310. The Italians have also Here, among many other proofs Lucano in volgare, by cardinal Montiwhich might be given, and which will chelli, at Milan 1492. It is in the octave occur hereafter, is a proof of the estima- rime, and in ten books. But the transtion in which Lucan was held during the lator has so inuch departed from the iniddle ages. He is quoted by Geoffrey original, as to form a sort of romance of of Monmouth and John of Salisbury, liis own. He was translated into Spanish writers of the eleventh century. Hist. prose, Lucano pocta y historiador antiquo, Brit. iv. 9. and Policrat. p. 215. edit. by Martin Lassc de Orespe, at Antwerp, 1515. &c. &c. There is an anonymous 1585. Lucan was first printed in the Italian translation of Lucan, as early as year 1469. And before the year 1500,

cites a passage from the manuscript statutes of the university of Tholouse, dated 1328, in which the professors of grammar are directed to read to their pupils “De Historiis Alexandria.” Among which I include Gualtier's poem. It is quoted as a familiar classic by Thomas Rodburn, a monkish chronicler, who wrote about the year 1420P. An

An anonymous Latin poet, seemingly of the thirteenth century, who has left a poem on the life and miracles of Saint Oswald, mentions Homer, Gualtier, and Lucan, as the three capital heroic poets. Homer, he says, has celebrated Hercules, Gualtier the son of Philip, and Lucan has sung the praises of Cesar. But, adds he, these heroes much less deserve to be immortalised in verse, than the deeds of the holy confessor Oswald.

In nova fert animus antiquas vertere prosas
Carmina, &c.
Alciden hyperbolice commendat HOMERUS,
GUALTERUS pingit torvo Philippida vultu,
Cæsareas late laudes LUCANUS adauget:
TREs illi famam meruerunt, tresque poetas
Auctores habuere suos, multo magis autem

Oswaldi regis debent insignia dici. 9 I do not cite this writer as a proof of the elegant versification which had now become fashionable, but to shew the popularity of the ALEXANDREID, at least among scholars. About the year 1206, Gunther a German, and a Cistercian monk of the there were six other editions of this Mævius in cælis ardens os ponere muclassic, whose declamatory manner ren tum, dered him very popular. He was pub. Gesta Ducis MacedUM, tenebrosi carlished at Paris in French in 1500. Labb. minis umbra, Bibl. p. 339.

Dicere dum tentat.m See Hen. Gandav. Monasticon,

Suppl. Du Cang. Lat. Gloss. tom. ii. c. 20. and Fabric. Bibl. Gr. ii. 218.

p. 1255. V. METRIFICATURA. By which Alanus de Insulis, who died in 1202, in barbarous word they signified the Art of his poem called ANTI-CLAUDIANUS, a

poetry, or rather the Art of writing Latin poem of nine books, much in the Latin verses. manner of Claudian, and written in de

° Sée Sect. iii. p. 132. infr. fence of divine providence against a P Hist. Maj. Winton. apud Wharton, passage in that poet's RUFINUS, thus Angl. Sacr. i. 242. attacks the rising reputation of the 9 I will add some of the exordial lines ALEXANPREID:

almost immedi ely following, as they

n

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