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sweordes ecgum,
thæs the us secgath béc,
ealde uthwitan,
sith-than eastan hider,
Engle and Seaxe,
úp becomon,
ofer brade brimu 32
Brytene sohton,
wlançe wig-smithas,
Wealas 33 ofer-comon,

by (the) sword's edges,
of that that say to us (in) books,
old historians,
since eastward hither,
Angles and Saxons,
up came,
over (the) broad seas,
Britain sought,
splendid war-smiths,
overcame (the) Welsh,

p. 27.

translation these words are susceptible and the wan raven,
of. The ornithologist will perceive in slaughter-desiring fowl,
it a description of the Haliætus albicilla, westward both,
or white-tailed sea-eagle. The phrase is that to them the people,
not without a parallel in Beowulf, where thought to prepare,
the bard is describing the ashen lances a falling among the fated.
with their steel-clad points:

But on their footsteps flew,
Garás stodon,

eagle of food desirous,

dewy (?) of feathers, sæmanna searo, samod æt gædere,

sallowy æsc holt ufan græg.

sang the war song,

horned nibbed one. The spears stood, weapons of the seamen,

* Mr. Ingram reads “brimum brade," collected together,

which is a false concord. All the Cotash-wood gray above,

ton MSS. agree in the reading of the

present text. There is so close a resemblance be

33 As this name is foreign to the Celtic tween the present text and a passage in dialects, it probably was conferred upon the fragment of Judith, that it will not

the inhabitants by their Teutonic neighbe too much to assume that they have bours. In old German poetry every been drawn from some common source, thing translated from a foreign language or that the one has had its influence in

was said to be taken from the Wälsche producing the other :

(Welsh), and the Pays de Vaud is still Thæš se hlanca gefeah,

called the Walliser-land. The followwulf in walde,

ing singular passage is taken from Hartand se wanna hrefni,

mann von Awe's romance of Iwain (and wæl-gifre fugel,

Gawain,) where Welsch indisputably westan begen,

means English. thet him tha theod-guman,

Er was Hartman genant, thohton tilian,

and was ain Awere, fylle on fægum.

der bracht dise mere, Achim Acah on laste,

zü Tisch als ich han vernommen, earn ætes georn,

do er usz Engellandt was commen, urig fethera,

da er vil zit was gewessen, salowig pada,

hat ers an den Welschen buchen sang hilde leoth,

gelesen. hyrned nebba.

He was named Hartman,
Of this rejoiced the lank,

and was an Auwer, wolf in the wold;

who brought this tale,

eorlas árhwáte 34, eard begeaton.

earls exceeding bold [keen),
obtained (the) earth.

into German as I have heard,

to Abrahame; after he came out of England,

him wæs ara thearf.
where he had been a long time,

Then spoke the war-king,
(and where) he had read it in the
Welsh books.

prince of Sodom,

whose warriors were felled, 34 The earls excelling in honour, T.

to Abraham; most valiant earls, I. In Anglo-Saxon

to him was need of kindnesses. « hwate” and “cene are synonymous,

Cædmon 46, 2. meaning both keen and bold.

It is It is impossible to translate "secgum usual to consider “arhwate” and many afylled " literally, without causing obother similar expressions as compounded scurity. of “are,” honour; an error which has arisen from not sufficiently attending to

Ela frea beorhte, the distinction between the substantive

folces scyppend, and the preposition “ar.” In such com

gemilse thin mod, binations as “ar-wurthe,” “ar-fæst,"

me to gode, “ar-hwate," "ær-god,” the preposition

sile thyne are, is prefixed in the sense of excess, as in the

thyne earminge. comparative degree of adjectives it is sub O bright Lord joined. “Ar-wurthe,” venerable, is from creator of (the) folk “ar-wurthian,” to esteem greatly: and soften thy mind, the following passage from Beowulf ex me to good, hibits one of the combinations above grant thy favour, cited, in a sense which cannot be mis thy commiseration. taken.

Cotton Prayers, Jul. A. 2. Swylc scolde eorl,

Fægre acende wesan ær-god,

beornum to frofre, swylc Æschere wæs.

eallum to are, So should earl

ylda bearnum. be exceeding good,

Fair brought forthso as Æscher was.

for bairns consolation

for the benefit of all The most simple and perhaps origi

sons of men.

Jul. A. 2. nal idea attached to this preposition (of such extensive use in all the dialects of Here too the dative cases plural cannot the North) was priority, from whence by be translated. This term is of frequent an easy transition it came to mean pri- occurrence in old English poetry, where ority in point of magnitude, and thence the context having supplied the meanin point of excellence (honour.) The ing, the glossographers had only to conanalogous expressions prime good, prime tend about the etymon. strong, prime ripe, &c., may be heard in

Lybeaus thurstede sore every province. The compounds “ar And sayde Maugys thyn ore. full," propitious, "ar-leas," impious, are

Lyb. Dis. v. 1337. formed from the substantive“ ár," a word of very extensive signification, and The maister fel adoun on kne, and criede which may be rendered goodness, kind

mercy and ore.

R. of Gloucester p. 9. ness, benefit, care, favour, &c. Thá spræc guth-cyning,

Y aske mercy for Goddys ore.

Erl of Tholous. v. 583. Sodoma aldor, secgum gefylled,

The meaning of "ore" when contrast

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ed with the preceding extracts, will be too hote (hot,) bote (boat,) woe, one, bone, obvious to require any comment. The stone, some of which have been retained. substitution of o for á was evidently the The same principle of elongation was ex. work of the Normans. The Anglo- tended to all the Anglo-Saxon vowels Saxon á was pronounced like the Da- that were accentuated; such as réc, reke nish as, the Swedish å, or our modern o (reek,) líf, life, gód, gode (good), scúr, in more, fore, &c. The strong intona- shure (shower); and hence the majority tion given to the words in which it oc of those e's mute upon which Mr. Tyrcurred, would strike a Norman ear as whitt has expended so much unfounded indicating the same orthography that speculation.—This subject will be remarked the long syllables of his native sumed in a supplementary volume, in tongue, and he would accordingly write an examination of that ingenious critic's them with an e final. It is from this cause “Essay upon the Language and Versithat we find hár, sár, hát, bát, wá, án, fication of Chaucer." bán, stán &c. written hore (hoar,) sore,

In the former part of this Noti p. xe, in the translation of the extract from Beowulf, line 21 of note, col, Ist, for But him of iron,

But him iron, edges seized,

read edges seized, the hard high-shearer, the hard high-sherch And in the passage from the Edda, p. xciv, line 22 of note, cul. 2d, for

storinar-blatha, read starrur-blada





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THE irruption of the northern nations into the western empire, about the beginning of the fourth century, forms one of the most interesting and important periods of modern history. Europe, on this great event, suffered the most memorable revolutions in its government and manners; and, from the most flourishing state of peace and civility, became on a sudden, and for the space of two centuries, the theatre of the most deplorable devastation and disorder. But among the disasters introduced by these irresistible barbarians, the most calamitous seems to have been the destruction of those arts which the Romans still continued so successfully to cultivate in their capital, and which they had universally communicated to their conquered provinces. Towards the close of the fifth century, very

few traces of the Roman policy, jurisprudence, sciences, and literature, remained. Some faint sparks of knowledge were kept alive in the monasteries; and letters and the liberal arts were happily preserved from a total extinction during the confusions of the Gothic invaders, by that slender degree of culture and protection which they received from the prelates of the church, and the religious communities.

But notwithstanding the famous academy of Romea with * Theodosius the younger, in the year nople, which he furnished with able pro425, founded an academy at Constanti- fessors of every science, intending it as

other literary seminaries had been destroyed by Alaric in the fourth century; yet Theodoric the second, king of the Ostrogoths, a pious and humane prince, restored in some degree the study of letters in that city, and encouraged the pursuits of those scholars who survived this great and general desolation of learning. He adopted into his service Boethius, the most learned and almost only Latin philosopher of that period. Cassiodorus, another eminent Roman scholar, was Theodoric's grand secretary: who retiring into a monastery in Calabria, passed his old age in collecting books, and practising mechanical experiments. He was the author of many valuable pieces which still remaind. He wrote with little elegance, but he was the first that ever digested a series of royal charts or instruments; a monument of singular utility to the historian, and which has served to throw the most authentic illustration on the public transactions and legal constitutions of those times. Theodoric's patronage of learning is applauded by Claudian, and Sidonius Apollinaris. Many other Gothic kings were equally attached to the works of peace; and are not less conspicuous for their justice, prudence, and temperance, than for their fortitude and magnanimity. Some of them were diligent in collecting the scattered remains of the Roman institutes, and constructing a regular code of jurisprudence. It is highly probable, that those Goths who became masters of Rome,

a rival institution to that at Rome. Gia- Goths; and for many centuries afternon. Hist. Napl. ii. ch. vi. sect. 1. Awards. The Turks destroyed one hunnoble library had been established at dred and twenty thousand volumes, I Constantinople by Constantius and Va- suppose in the imperial library, when lens before the year 380, the custody of they sacked Constantinople in the year which was committed to four Greek and 1454. HOD. DE GRÆC. ILLUSTR. ii. 1. three Latin antiquaries or curators. It p. 192. contained sixty thousand volumes. Zo • He died A. D. 526. See Cassiodor. naras relates, that among other treasures Epist. lib. i. 39. See also Func. de in this library, there was a roll one hun- inerti et decrep. Latin. Linguæ Senecdred feet long, made of a dragon's gut tut. cap. ii. p. 81. or intestine, on which Homer's Iliad and Func, ut supr. xiii. p. 471. xi. p. Odyssey were written in golden letters. 595. See Bibl. Histor. Literar. Select. &c. Cave, Sżecul. Eutych. Hist. Lit. Ienæ, 1754. p. 164. seq. Literature p. 391. flourished in the eastern empire, while e Gianon. Hist. Nap. ii. c. 1. the western was depopulated by the

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