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implored the aid of the “ shaggy god of Arcady.” Another feature in the national creed of the same mountainous district of Greece, is to be met with in the ballad of the Elfin-Gray47; and if the testimony of Ælfric, in his translation of Dryades by Wudu-Elfen, is to be received as any thing more than a learned exercise 49, the same notion must have prevailed in this country. But the collection from whence the ballad alluded to has been taken, the Danish Kiæmpe-Viser, contains more than this single example of such a belief; and the reader will find below “a local tradition, preserved in Germany, which will remind him of the conversation between Peræbius and an
ation (with the exception of the human on it; for from thence they have no power race), and patron of hunting, fishing, to remove us.” To this the boor replied &c. He frequently appears to the fisher with his wonted churlishness, • Pooh! men &c. of Luleå Lapmark, dressed pooh! of what use can it be? how can like a Norwegian nobleman in black, of the crosses help you? I shall do no such a tall and commanding figure, with the thing to please you, indeed.' Upon this feet of a bird, and with a gun on his the wyfie flew upon him, and squeezed shoulder. His appearance never fails to him so forcibly that he became ill after produce a successful fishery or chase. it, notwithstanding he was a stout felMone, 36.
low. Such wyfies, and even mannikins, 47 See the Notes to the Lady of the are said to dwell upon that heath, under Lake.
the ground, or in obscure parts of the " It may be questioned, whether this forest, and to have holes, in which they catalogue of Ælfric's (dun-elfen, berg- lie on green moss, as indeed they are elfen, munt-elfen, feld-elfen, wudu-elfen, said to be clothed all over with moss. sæ-elfen, water-elfen,) ever obtained a Prætorius says, he heard this story from circulation among the people. It is at an old dame, who knew the beforeleast rendered extremely suspicious by mentioned Hans Krepel, and adds, the its strict accordance with the import of time of day was a (little) after noon, an the Grecian names.
hour not usually devoted to labour, be10 « A peasant named Hans Krepel, cause at such a time “this sort of diabeing one day at work on a heath near blerie frequently occurs. AnthropoSalzburg, 'a little wild or moss-wyfie' demus Plutonicus, Magdeburg 1666. appeared to him, and begged that on vol. ii. p. 231. For this superstitious leaving his labour he would cut three attention to silence at noon, see Theocrosses on the last tree he hewed down, critus, Id. i. v, 15.; and for the persecuThis request the man neglected to com tion of the Nymphs by Pan, the romance ply with. On the following day she ap of Longus, p. 63. ed. Villoison, where peared again, saying, ' Ah! my man, why it is said of him, taustes de ouditori Apudid you not cut the three crosses yester- ασιν ενοχλών, και Βσιμηλίσι Νύμφαις πράγday? It would have been of service both pata ragizw. The passage relative to to ine and yourself. In the evening, and the Hamadryad, who threatened Pereespecially at night, we are constantly bius with the consequences of neglecting hunted by the wild huntsmen, and are to prop the falling oak, in which she lived, obliged to allow them to worry us, unless is to be found in the Schol. to Apollon. .wecan reach one of these trees with a cross Rhod. ii. v. 479.
Hamadryad. How far the Duergar of the Edda were originally distinct from a similar class of dwarfish agents, who are to be met with in the popular creed of every European nation, cannot now be precisely ascertained 50. The earliest memorials of them in the fictions of Germany and Scandinavia, present us with the same metallurgic divinities who in the mythology of Hellas were known by the various names of Cabiri, Hephæsti, Telchines, and Idæan Dactylis. In the other countries of Europe, the traces of their existence as a separate class,
50 The Northern traditions relative to youthful Curetes, Corybantes and Dio. the Duergar, are among the most ob- scuri, a confusion arose in the nomenscure points of Eddaic lore, and are too clature of them which wholly baffied the important to be discussed in a note. attempts of Strabo to reduce into a syTheir residence in stones seems to be a stem. See the tenth book of this geograportion of the same belief which gave pher, under the head of Theologoumena. rise to the aito pyuxa of antiquity. The Dwarf of ancient mythology is perThe author of the Orphic poem on stones haps best represented on the coins of Cos mentions one in the possession of He syra, where the figure closely accords with lenus, which not only uttered oracular the description of the mining dwarf given responses, but was perceived to breathe, by Prætorius, i. p. 243. Another reprever. 339 et seq. Photius (coll. 242. sentation, from the creed of Egypt, may p. 1062, from the life of Isidorus by Da- be seen among the terracottas of the mascius) mentions another in the pos- British Museum, No. 42. Mr. Coombe session of a certain Eusebius. This was calls “this short naked human figure a meteoric stone, which had fallen from Osiris; but there can be little doubt, heaven. On being asked to what deity that it exhibits the dwarfish god of Memit belonged, it replied, Gennæus- a phis, whose deformity excited the scorn god worshiped at the Syrian Heliopolis. and ridicule of Cambyses. This deity, Others were said to be subject to Saturn, whether we call him Phthas or He. Jupiter, the Sun, &c. (For this notion phæstus, resembled in his person the of the dæmons being the subordinate Patæci or tutelary divinities of Phenicia, followers of some superior god, whose to whom Herodotus has assigned the name they bore, see Plutarch de Defectu figure of a pygmy man. (Thalia, c. 37.) Orac. 21.) This will serve to illustrate The attributes on this and a similar mothe account given by Pausanias of the nument may be easily accounted for. thirty stones at Pharæ, each of which The reader who is desirous of learning was inscribed with the name of some the esteem in which these divinities were god. (vii. c. 22.) Damascius thought held in the ancient world, may consult a the stone in question to be under divine, treatise “On the Deities of Samothrace" Isidorus only demoniacal, influence, by Mr.von Schelling, a gentleman chiefly Photius treats the whole story as a mere known in Europe for his philosophical piece of jugglery. Plato, however, has works, but who is known to his friends said, that these lithic oracles were of the for his extensive erudition in every branch same antiquity as that of the oak at Do- of ancient and modern learning, and who, dona. Phædrus 276.
among the numerous virtues that adorn » The spirit of later times, with its cha- his private character, is particularly diracteristic tendency of studying beauty stinguished for his hospitality to the of form in all its imagery, having con- “stranger, who sojourns in a foreign verted these ancient deities into the land."
chiefly occupied in the labours of the forge, are not so clearly defined; and if a few scattered traditions 52 seem to favour a contrary opinion, it is equally certain that they have been more frequently confounded with a kindred race, the Brownies or Fairies. The former, as is well known, are the same diminutive beings with the Lares of Latium, an order of beneficent spirits, whom Ciceros has taught us to consider as nearly identical with the Grecian Dæmon. In Germany they have received a long catalogue of appellations, all descriptive of their form, their disposition, or their dress; but whether marked by the title of Gutichen, Brownie, Lar, or Dæmon, we observe in all the same points of general resemblance; all have been alike regarded as the guardians of the domestic hearth, the awarders of prosperity, and the averters of evil; and the author of the Orphic Hymn endows the particular Dæmon of his invocation with the same attributes that are given by Hildebrand to the whole tribe of Gutichens or “gude neighbours 54.” The English Puck, the Scottish Bogle, the French Esprit Follet, or Goblin-the Gobelinus of monkish Latinity --and the German Kobold, are only varied names for the Grecian Kobalus 55; whose sole delight consisted in perplexing the human race, and calling up those harmless terrors that con
53 Essay on the Faeries of popular Su- of Robin Goodfellow. In Iceland, Puki perstition, p. 169.
is regarded as an evil sprite ; and in the 53 “ Quanquam enim Dæmon latius language of that country “at pukra patere quodam modo videatur, non du- means both to make a murmuring noise, bito tamen quin melius sit, Larem, quam and to steal clandestinely. The names Dæmonem vertere, ut sit species pro of these spirits seem to have originated genere.” De Universitate.
in their boisterous temper. “Spuken," 54 Hymn 72. and Hildebrand vom Germ., to make a noise; “spog,” Dan., Hexenwerke, p. 310.
obstreperous mirth; "pukke,” Dan. 66 See the Scholiast to Aristoph. Plut. to boast, scold. The Germans use “pov. 279. The English and Scottish terms chen" in the same figurative sense, are the same as the German “Spuk," and though literally it means to strike, beat, the Danish “Spogelse,” without the sibi- and is the same with our poke. In Ditlant aspiration. These words are gene- marsh, the brownie, or domestic fairy, ral names for any kind of spirit, and cor is called Nitsche-Puk. The French respond to the “ Pouk” of Piers Plouh- “ gobelin” seems to spring either from a man. In Danish“ spog” means a joke, diminutive-Koboldein ? or a feminine trick or prank ; and hence the character termination, Koboldinn?
stantly hover round the minds of the timid. To excite the wrath, indeed, of this mischievous spirit, was attended with fatal consequences to the luckless objects who rashly courted it; and Prætorius (i. p. 140.) has preserved a notice of his cruelty to some miners of St. Anneberg, to whom he appeared under the guise of the Scottish Kelpie, with a horse's head, and whom he destroyed by his pestiferous breath. The midnight depredators mentioned by Gervase of Tilbury, who oppressed the sleeper, injured his person, despoiled his property, and bore off his children, are either confounded by that worthy chronicler with the separate characters of the Ephialtes and Lamia; or the local creed of some particular spot had concentrated in his day the propensities of both in one personage. The numerous tales gathered by Prætorius observe the classical distinctions of antiquity; with them it is the Incubus or Alp, who causes those painful sensations during sleep, which the ancient physicians have so aptly termed the nocturnal epilepsy; and it is the same race of mis-shapen old hags with the Lamiæ of Gervase 5s, who, like the ancient Lamia larvata, alternately terrify and carry away the infant from his cradle.
Sir Walter Scott, from whose Essay “on the Faeries of Popular Superstition” the preceding notice of the Lamiæ
With this class must also be reckon- has said ; “Nam erunt Lamiæ spectra in ed the Gyre-Carline, or mother-witch formosarum mulierum figuram conforof Scotland, whose name is so expres- mata, quæ adolescentes formosos volupsive of her character (gyr-falcon, ger- tatibus deliniebant, dum eos devorarent." hound, Trevisa).
Etymolog. S. Lat. in Lamia. Compare Thair dwelt ane grit Gyre-Carling, in also Diodorus's account of the queen awld Betokis bour,
of Libyssa, l. xx. p. 754. Vossius has That levit upoun Christiane menis likewise shown that the same notion was flesche, and rewheids unleipit.
current in Judæa. There is one cir. In this she becomes identified with the cumstance in the history of the Gyre“Raw-head-and-bloody-bones” of the Carline, which runs through all myEnglish nursery. In the fiction on
thology: which the beautiful ballad of Glenfinlas Lang or Betok was born is founded, we have the poetic version Scho (the G. Carline) bred of an acornea of her character; and of which Vossius
recorded by Gervase has been taken, has also extracted from the Physica Curiosa of Schott, a Frisian account of the same destructive tribe, where a similar confusion appears to prevail, though with a different class of spirits. “In the time of the Emperor Lotharius, in 830, says Schott, many spectres infested Friesland, particularly the white nymphs of the ancients, which the moderns denominate witte wiven, who inhabited a subterraneous cavern, formed in a wonderful manner, without human art, on the top of a lofty mountain. These were accustomed to surprize benighted travellers, shepherds watching their herds and flocks, and women newly delivered, with their children; and convey them into their caverns, from which subterraneous murmurs, the cries of children, the groans and lamentations of men, and sometimes imperfect words and all kinds of musical sounds were heard to proceed.” Divested of the colouring which seems to identify these spectres “ with the fairies of popular opinion," a parallel fiction is related by Antonius Liberalis (c. 8.) in his account of Sybaris, to whom others gave the more appropriate title of Lamia ; and, with a change of sex in the agent, the same idea is found in the curious narratives of Pausanias and Ælian, relative to the “dark dæmon” or hero of Temessa 57. The earliest memorial of
57 Vid. Ælian. Hist. viii. c. 18. Pau. rival of the dæmon, a struggle ensued, sanias, vi. 6. The people of Temessa from which the latter made his escape, having slain a companion of Ulysses, and for ever, by sinking into the sea. (who had violated the chastity of a vir- The ravages of Grendel appear to have gin,) his spirit sought revenge, by car- been prompted by the death of an uncle. rying slaughter and destruction into Hrothgar (in whose palace the spirit's every house and the whole country nightly incursions are made) and his round. The Pythian oracle recom council vainly implore the powers of mended the erection of a temple, the hell (it is a Christian who thus denoconsecration of a grove, and an annual minates the gods of the heathen king) sacrifice of the fairest virgin in Temessa, for the means of commuting the deadly as the only means of appeasing the feud. The intelligence reaches Beoangry spirit. This was done. On one wulf, a champion who had acquired an of these occasions, an Olympian victor extensive reputation by his victories named Euthymus, inspired by mingled over the nicors or nicers, a species of sea feelings of love and compassion for the monster of which many fables are curbeautiful victim, resolved on effecting rent at the present day in Iceland, and her rescue; and having awaited the are who, in the true spirit of a berserkr, un