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guages; and this Thews, that all the sparks of humanity were not
. Casirio's Catalogue of the Arabic Library of the Efcurid 529 claro-obscuro.-A fine Magdalene in the palace of St. Ildephon so. A Madona, wich-she child Jesus-, and Joseph, which bez longs to the Prince of Asturias, and is greatly esteemed by that Prince, who is known to be a connoiffeur, particularly on beaddrapery: The principal picture in the church of St. Ifidore, at Madrid, representing the Holy Trinity, with the Virgin and time Spanish Saints.--An Ecce Homo.-A Mater Dolorofa, probably in the ftile of Pergolesi.-A Portrait of Charles 111. , and a Portrait of Catherine II., Empress of Ruffia, which is an allegorical composition, enriched with a variety of figures. These are the principal pieces of Mr. MeNGS that are mentioned in the litt of the Chevalier D'AZARA; but, many other fit-tate performances have immorralized his pencil; The Saloon of the Mufæum Clementinum at Rome, which be painted in Fresco. The Perfeus, and Andromeda, which he painted for an English nobleman, and which, captured in its poluge by a French privateer, became the property of M. de Sartine. The Greek female Dancer, large as life, painted in crayons, on wood, for the Marquis Çroimare at Paris; and the Apollo, in the midlt of the Muses, in the villa Albano, in comparison with which (lays an excellent judge) the Apollo in the Aurora of Guido is but a mortal. All chese are capital pictures, and will preterve the name of this admirable artiit from oblivion,
This valuable" publication of the WORK's and Life of the Chevalier Mengs, in 2 Vols. 4to. may be nad of the Importer, Mr. Molini, in Woodstock-ftreet, at One Guinea in Sheets. w010
ART. VII. Bibliotbeca Arabico Hispana Ejcurialenfis, &c. 1. e. The Arabic
Library of the Escurial; or' a Defcripti-ve Catalogue of all the
Manuscript Works composed in Arabic, by Arabico-padith w.Authorsy which are contained in the Monastery of the Escurial. Diawn up by Don MICHEL CASIRIO, a Syrian-Maronite Priest, Librarian to his Majesty Charles III. King of Spain, and Interpreter of Oriental Languages. Published by the King's order, at Madrid, in 2 vols., Folio.
to prý ng E learn from the instructive preface, which is prefixed this great
work, that Philip II., when he founded "the monaitery of the Escurial, was defi:ous of entiching it with the most valuable manuscripts of all kinds, and in all lanextinguified in this hideous monarch Several learned men, more especially Arias Montanus, and Hurtado de Mendoza, were charged with the execution of the King's design. While they collected manuscripts for the King, they reserved several for themAPF, Rev; Vol. xlv.
selves, which, after their deceafe, were added to the royal colc* fection.
Under the reign of Philip III., Pietrô de Lafa, being 19 on a cruize near Salé, took twoʻvesfels, where, among other ef
fedts belonging to Zeidan King of Morocco, he found 3000 manưfcripts, on political, philolophical, and medical subje&s, as also on the true sense and interpretation of the Koran.. This
was a new and valuable acquifition for the library of the Escu2 - riab; but, on the 7th of June 1671, a fire, unhappily broke ouf, .! which consumed a great part of thefe manuscripts, so that there I remained only about 1805, which escaped the frames. The.ca. *! talogues of the contents of this famous collection, that had been s drawn up by Arias Montanus, the first librarian, by F, Joseph --"de Siguenza, his fucceffor, and by David Colvil, a learned Scotide man, were consumed by this fire. The accounts we have had,
fince that fatal event, of this famous collection, are very imper1* fect; they are contained in two catalogues ; one of which is in or: Arabic and Latin, and gives the titles of the manuscripts; the
Dother, which is only in Latin, mentions 419 only. Don CASI9) Rto undertook the learned catalogue, now under confideration, 1: so long ago as the year 1753 * 20 He divides all these manuscripts into thirteen claffes : Rheto
ric, Poetry, Philology, Miscellanies, Lexicons, Philosophy, PoliEtics, Medicine, Natural History, Jurisprudence, Theology, * Geography, and History: He places at the side of the Arabian 10 titles a Latin translation of them : He copies the beginning and
Jual the conclusion of each work: He informs us of the birth, coun7) trygt morals, profession, employments, and rank of the respective püb authors, of the time when they wrote, the date of their death, ictrand the degree of esteem in which their writings are held by the
Mahometans. me Under the reigns of Almanzor and Almaimon, the Arabians nic applied themselves, with great success, to the study of philosophy,
il mathematics, medicine, and natural history, They translated, w into their language, the most valuable writings of the Greeks,
Syrians, Perfians, Egyptians, and Indians, of which the origi*** nals are, for the most part, loft: Such are, the fifth, fixth, and
feventh books of the Conic Sections of Apollonius of Pergæa,
that were preserved in the library of the Medicis, and translated 78. from Arabic.into Latin, with a commentary by. Abraham Echel. 913 lenfis. Such also are the 2d, 3d, 4th, sth, 6th, 7th, and 8th
books of the Commentary of Galen, on the 2d and 6th books of the Epidemics of Hippocrates, which is only to be found in the library of the Escurial.
PART. VIII.17E In
1991 Anecdota Greca, e Regia Parifienfi et Veneta S Marci, Biblioteche quideprompta, edidit Johannis Bap. Cap d'Anse de Villoifon, i. e. L', Grecian Anecdotes for rasher Miscellanjes) taken from the Libraries
of the King of France at Paris, and that of St. Mark at Venice, and
published by M. John BAPTIST CASPAR D'ANSE DE VILLOISON, 218 Member of the Academy of Inscriptions at Paris. 2 vols, 400. X: 9; Venice. 1781. TTTE mentioned, in one of the preceding Articles of this
Appendix, the ardor and affiduity with which this learned man has been searching after the hidden treasures of Grecian literature, in the library of St. Mark, these three or four years past. Here we have the first fruits of his labours, which Thew that he is as ready to communicate as he is ardent to acquire. The firft volume of this collection contains a work of EUDOCIA, Empress of Constantinople, in the eleventh century, now published, for the first time, entitled, 'Iwna, or Violarium, and containing, in an alphabetical order, an account of all the Gods, Goddesses, Heroes, Heroines, Philosophers, Artists, &c. As this work is partly drawn from the same sources from whence Suidas derived his materials, it will no doubt contribute to the emendation of that author; and as it contains several things either new, or, at least, hitherto too little known, it will certainly excite the curiosity of the philologists. It contains 442 pages, and is published without either a tranflation or notes. The second volume is miscellaneous. It consists, among others, of the following pieces : An accurate Description of the 'Podavia, or Anthology of Macarius Chrysocephalus, from the library of St. Mark, in which we find sentences and fragments of Synesius, D. Chryfoftom, Plutarch, Aristides, Herodian, the 'Orator Æfchines, Lucian, Demofthenes, Libanius, and Choricius. An Oration of Procopius of Gaza, from the library of St. Mark.-A Notice of Extracts that are found in Macarius, from Xenophon, Stohæus, Josephus, Eusebius, Nicephorus, Chummus, Germanus, Conit. Manaffes, Pindar, Homer, Theocritus, Lucian, Hefiod, Aristophanes, &c.-A Treatise de Atticismis. — Helie Monachi, Tepi Twv v Tois sizeous mabwv.--Herodiani Varii libelli Grammatici.-- Dionysii Thracis Grammatica, cum codice Scripta 'collata.- Scholia Inedita in Dionyfii Grammaticam; and Extracts from the Commentary of Diomede the Scholastic on that Work. But the two most valuable pieces in this volume are, The Third Book of lamblichus concerning the Doctrine of Pythagoras; and Two Differtations of Plotinus.
ART. IX. Affronomie
. i. e. A Treatise of Afronomy. Bi M. DE LA LANDE, Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris. Vol. IV. "Paris." 1731.
HE three preceding volumes of this work were published
about ten years ago, and it has been generally esteemed one of the most complete and learned syften s of aftronomy that háth appeared. The volume before us contains an arnple Treatise on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea- A Memoir concerning the Origin of the Conlellations and the lilustration of Mythology, by the Means of Astronomy. By M. Dupuis, Professor in the Universicy of l'aris. And Supplements to the preceding Volumes by M. DE DA LANDE. There Additions to this valuable Work deserve more than a simple enumeration.
The Tides have been long an object of furprise and inveftigation; and M. DE LA LANDE begins his Treatise with a 'bif. tory of the opinions of the Ancient Philofophers concerning this phenomenon. We do not think the passage of Quintus Curtius, relative to the astonishment which filled the foldiers of Alexander, in their paslage to India, when they saw the fea overflowing the coafts, and afterwards leaving their vefleis in the mud,-a sufficient reason for affirming that the people of Greece were ignorant of the phenomenon of the tides. The paffage, which he himself quotes from the Timeus of Plato, may be ale lcged as a proof of the contrary. In that paffage an attenipt is made to explain this phenomenon by the impreffion which the waters of the Atlantic receive from the rivers that fall into the ocean from the Celtic mountains, and the re-action that is the consequence of this impression. However unsatisfactory this explication may be, it thews that the phenomenon of the tides was known in Greece, and was moreover an object of investigation and research. The notion of the Stoics' on this subject, is recorded by Solinus and Apollonius, is too childish and absurd to de.. ferve mention. Others, among the ancients, confidered the tides as ebullitions, occafioned by subterraneous fires, or as effects of winds and exhalations, or as the confequence of a rarefaction produced by the teams of the moon, or as proceeding from the interruption of the feas by the continents ; in fhort, the hypotheses were various on this head, and they were all in- !! fufficient to account for the appearances. Neverthelefs, as ourl. Author obferves, several of the ancients, and, among others, Pliny, Ptolemy, and Macrobius, were acquainted with the influit, ence of the sun and moon upon the tides ; and Pliny fays ex- 1; pressly, that the cause of the ebb and flow is in the fun, which 1: attracts the waters of the ocean; and adds, that the waters rile in proportion to the proximity of the moon to the earth, flm.
From the ancients our Author proeeeds to the moderns who preceded Sir Isaac Newton in this investigation. He mentions, and confures, in a few words, the hypotheses of Galileo and Des Cartes, and fixes his attention on lunar attraction, as the only explication that accounts for the phenomenon in question. The great English philosopher now mentioned, proved that the ebb and flow was the eff. Et of universal attraction, and Halley was. the first who drew from this principle an ample theory of the tides.
But as the problem of the tides was susceptible of a profound analytis, and the researches of Sir Isaac Newton admitted of, and even required a farther developement, the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris proposed this problem as the subject of a prize, for which the three greatest geometricians in Europe contended. These were Meffis. Euler, D. Bernoulli, and Colin M Laurin, who were all crowned and divided the prize. Aster giving an analysis of their differtations, our Author takes notice of the new light which M. d'Alembert calt upon this subject by his excellent reflections on the ebb and low of the fea, in his Memoir con. cerning the general cause of the Winds, which was crowned by the Academy of Berlin in the year 1746; and in which that celebrated philofopher considers the attractive influence of the moon and of the sun on the mass of the air, and exposes Bernoulli's mistake in fuppofing, in the equation he gave for the elevation of the waters, the earth composed of layers of different denfitics.
M. DE LA LANDE supposes, with Newton and D. Bernoulli, that the sea affumes an elliptical figure, answers the objections that the Cartesians have made to this figure, estimates the elevation of the tides under the equator, on the supposition that the earth is a homogeneous fpheroid, explains the reasons of the high tides at St, Malo, and considers largely the principal phenomena of the ebb and fow of the ocean. After having moreover pointed out the effect of the perigee of the moon, her forces in the different points of her orbit, M. Bouger's rule for finding the tides, relatively to the distances of the moon, the effects of the distances of the fun, the differences of the solstices at different beights and hours, our Author examines this question, Whether the sides of the equinoxes are always the higheft? and proves, that the affirmative takes place only in certain cases. He afterwards treats of the tides in narrow seas, and particularly in the Mediterranean, of the extraordinary motion of the sea, of the tides in the rivers, &c. This is followed by an account of the observations that have been made relative to the tides in different parts of the globe, and by tables of the hours and heights of the cides in these parts.
The aftronomical reader must consult the Treatise itself, to form a just notion of its contents, which are highly instructive,