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related, and many shining and heroic characters appear on the fcene.

The second volume is divided into two books. In the first, we have an account of the religion of the Mexicans, of their gods, and of their worship, which, with all its absurdities, is still less fuperftitious than the religious inftitutions of the ancient Greeks and Romans. The Author treats also, in this book, of the chronology of the Mexicans, of their kalendar, festivals, and the ceremonies used at the birth of their children, their marriages, and funerals. The second book exhibits an account of the civil and military goverộment of the Mexicans, of their police, agriculture, hunting, fishing, and commerce ; of their sports, diet, and manner of living; of their language, poetry, music, and dances ; and of their knowlege in history, painting, sculpture, architecture, and other useful or pleafing arts. There is a great abundance and variety of matter in this volume, which opens some new sources of evidence, that may contribute to decide the long depending controversy concerning the state and progress of civilization and arts in Mexico. Dr. Robertson's estimate of this matter is beyond all praise. It is the most masterly discussion we remember to have met with in any history. It however leaves the mind in a state of scepticism and suspence: or rather by rules of criticism, as solid and philosophical as they are acute and ingenious, it inspires a diffidence in the splendid relations which the Spanish writers have given of the progress and perfection of the arts among the Mexicans. These relations are supported and augmented by new materials in the work now before us; the reader must judge of what moment these materials are in the decision of this nice controversy.

VIII. Atti, &c. i. e. Transactions of the Academy of Sciences at Sienna. Vol. VI.

Vol. VI. 410. 359 pag. with cuts. Sienna. 1781. This academical collection is worthy not only to claim, but to command the attention of the learned. It is sufficient to observe, that the celebrated names of Frisi, Ximenes, and Fontana, appear often prefixed to its Memoirs, and that a considerable number of other learned Italians enrich it with their valuable labours. Of the 13 pieces contained in this volume, three are written in Latin, and ten in Italian.

IX. Del Fondamento, &c. i. e. A Dissertation on the Foundation of the Right of Punishing. By J. B. G. Count D'Arco, Chamberlain to his Imperial Majesty, and Member of the Institute of Bologna, and of the Royal Academies of Mantua, Bourdeaux, &c. 8vo. Cremona. 1781. This production is worthy of its Author, whose nobility is dignified by eminent virtues, and a very high degree of literary merit. It was read, some years ago, at a public Meeting of the Royal


Academy of Sciences and Belles-Lettres of Mantua; and though it contains nothing that will appear new to those who are ac, quainted with the moral and political writers of our island, and particularly with the excellent Treatise of Sir WILLIAM EDEN on penal laws, it nevertheless does justice to the reputation of its Author. The principles, on which he treats this important subject, are just and philosophical; and his critical redexions on the famous treatise of the Marquis of BECCARIA are solid and judicious.

X. Lettere Capricciose di Francisco Albergati Capacelli, &e. i. e. Miscellaneous Letters (for they are too sensible and judicious to deserve the name of capricious or whimsical, which are annexed to them in this title) between FRANCISCO ALBERGATI CAPACELLI and FRANCISCO ZACCHIROLI, published by themselves. Svo. 276 pages. Venice. 1780. The Abbé ZACCHIROLI, and his Correspondent the Marquis, are two very agreeable, humane, and judicious managers of the epistolary pen; and we are very angry at the greyhound or mastiff, who was de. vouring a bundle of these letters in one room, while their Authors were deliberating about the publication in another. However, a remnant was saved from the jaws of the four-footed Vandal, and it contains 28 letters, which the lovers of Italian literature will read with pleasure. They come from two men of eminence in the republic of literature, and the subjects of the correspondence are treated with amenity, judgment, wit, facility, and sentiment. These subjects are, the theatre, tras velling, cicisbeism, inoculation, study, the contempt of calumny, criminal jurisprudence, imprudence, sentiment, morality, the various opinions concerning the souls of brutes, cynicism, edu. cation, ancient and modern authors, &c.

GERMAN Y and the NOR T H. XI. Uber die Reformation. Concerning the Reformation. Volume I. 8vo. Berlin. 1780. This very thick volume is folid and extensive in its materials, and contains an important part of the general history of the reformation in Europe. We find here judicious observations on the political system of Europe at the first dawn of the reformation, also an account of the state of learning, of ecclefiaftical government, and of religious tenets and rites before the reformation. The characters of Lite ther, Zuinglius, and Calvin, are examined and delineated ; and the commencement of the reformation in England, Switzerland, and Germany, is accurately related. The most authentic sources of information seem to have been carefully consulted by this learned Author, who also discovers an extensive knowledge of the best books that have been composed on the subject.

XII. Briefe enis reisenden ueber den gegenwaertigens zustand Von Gaffel, &c. Letters of a Traveller concerning the present State Rev. Dec, 1781.



of Cassel. 8vo. Francfort. 1781. This writer treats amply concerning the government, the inhabitants, the military, the manners, customs, and curiofities of Caffel. He observes, that notwithstanding the scarcity of money in currency among the inhabitants, 400,000 dollars are annually coined in that city. He computes the number of its inhabitants at 25,000, and makes the army of the Landgrave amount to 22,000 men.

XIII. Description de ce qu'il y a d'interessant et de curieux dans la Residence de Manheim, et les Villes Principales du Palatinate, i, e. A Description of the City of Manheim, and of the principal Towns of the Palatinate; containing a particular Account of whatever is curious or interesting in these Cities. 8vo. Manheim. 1781. This publication is worthy of attention. The objects it describes are interesting, and instruction may be often derived from the institutions and establishments of small states, which we are so apt to overlook. Manheim is a fine city, and has been greatly improved, since it became the residence of the elector, in 1720. The electoral palace is a vast and noble edifice, and its library, medals, pictures, engravings, collections of natural curiosities, rarities in gold, silver, and precious stones, form a vast and valuable treasure. The academy of Man • heim, the society for the improvement of the German language, the public library, which contains above 40,000 volumes, the botanic garden, the colleges of anatomy, surgery, and midwifery, the observatory, and gallery of paintings, the saloon of ftatues, and the collection of prints which fills above 400 great folio volumes, furnith ample matter of defcription to the anonymous author of this work. He gives also a circumitantial account of the manufactures of Heidelberg, in carpets, tapestry, silk stuffs ; and of those of Frankenthal, the third city of note in the palatinate. This latter city is in a flourishing state : the elector granted, in 1771, extensive privileges to its manufacturers, and has opened a communication between it and the Rhine by a navigable canal. Its manufactures of China, tobacco, filks, ribbons, &c. are considerable, and its metal founderies are remarkably successfuli

But the object that appears to us the most worthy of attention in this account of the Palatinate, and which deferves to be imitated by the legislature in every well-regulated ftate, is a particular kind of univerfity, that was founded at Lautern in 1774. This excellent establishment is entirely consecrated to the study of political oeconomy, the useful arts, finances, como merce, police, agriculture, and other branches relative to the science of government. The academical course for each student is three years, und none but those who have gone through this course, are qualified for holding an employment in the adminise wation, or cven the place of ecclefiaftical counsellor. Such is

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the tenor of an act issued out by the elector in the year 1778. There are belonging to this university a public library, composed of books on the sciences 'alone, that are taught there, a* cabinet of natural history, a collection of instruments for expen rimental philosophy, a chamber of models (such as the mad. der-mill, the English bee-hive, &c.), a chymical elaboratory, a botanical garden, several manufactures under the direction of the Oeconomal Society, and a farm, that is to be cultivated according to its orders. These, and many more objects of importance, are amply enumerated and enlarged upon in this interefting publication.

We need not observe how much an institution of this kind is wanting in our public and academical courses of education. Classical learning is, indeed, eminently cultivated in the British schools; and may the period never come, when the noble fountains of Grecian and Roman lore, which form true tafte, enlarge genius, and elevate the mind, thall be neglected by the Britilh youth ! But though these pure sources shed more or less of their happy influence on all the parts of the social and civil system, yet they are, alone, insufficient to form the useful citizen, and the able statesman. ---The various wanis of man in civil society (which this kind of society has so unhappily multiplied } require, in its rulers, other sources of knowledge and skill, than those which are opened in our schools and univerfities. - He that has an eye to fee, let him fee.

XIV. Fischer Uber die geschichte des Despotismus in Teutschland, &c. i. e. Concerning the History and Progress of Despotism in Germany. by M. FRED. CHRIST. JONATHAN FISCHER, Professor of Political and Feudal Law in the University of Halle, large octavo. Halle. 1980 ? his work, to which is lubjoined a great number of papers and records, as vouchers of the facts which the Author relates, is folid and instructive, and wants nothing but a little more method and order to render ir highly recommendable, to all who have a cafte for one of the most important branches of useful knowledge-Political History.

XV. Physikalisih - Metallurgische Abhandlungen, &c. i. e. Physico-Metallurgical Differtations on the Mountains and Quarries of Hungary. By M. ).). FERRER. To which is added a De. fcription of the Founderies and Manufactures of Steel in Stiria. By an anonymous hand, enriched with plates. 8vo. 328 pages.

Berlin and Stetin. 1780. The name of FERBER, whole distinguished merit in this line of publications we have had more than once or cation to celebrate, is a sufficient recommendation of this work, and will also procure a favourable reception for one of the fame nature, which he designs to publish, and of which the mountains, mines, and quarries of Transylvania will furnish the materials,





For DECEMBER, 1781.

POLITIC A L. Art. 15. Free Thoughts on the Continuance of the American War,

and the Necessity of its Termination, Addrefled to the Inhabitants of Great Britain. By a Gentleman of Lincoln's Inn. 8vo. I s. Payne. 1786, HE violent contenders for American coercion will do well to

attend to the dispaflionate, serious, and solid remarks of this able advocate for peace :- peace before it be too late !—peace before we lose the capacity of enjoying it.'

E AS T-IN DIE S. Art. 16. A Letter from Captain Joseph Price, to Philip Fran

cis, Esq; late a Member of the Supreme Council of Bengal. 8vo. - Is. Stockdale.

Captain Price accuses Mr. Francis of injurious reflections on his conduct in the East-India Company's naval service ; and retorts upon him in terms of strong resentment. But after making due allowance for the feelings of an individual, fmarting under harsh treatment from powerful bodies of men, bad Captain Price, in many inttances, expressed himself more temperately, his meaning need not have been weakened, nor might his complaint have appeared to less advantage.

PoE тіс А. Art. 17. The Brothers, an Eclogue, by the Honourable Charles

John Fielding. 4to. 1S. Walter, 1781. It is seldom that paftoral effusions, the overflowings of a youthful imgination not yet employed in reflecting images from real life, can afford much gratification : to this remark, however, the present eclogue is an exception. Whoever can be delighted in contemplating the operations of fraternal affection on an amiable and elegant mind, will read this poem with confiderable pleasure. The fpeakers in this dialogue are, Damon the thepherd, and Dorylas the foldier; each, as may be expected in a poetical contest of this kind, defends his own mode of life, and reproaches his opponent with chuling an opposite one.

Britannia calls! her foes are gather'd round;
All, all prepare her fated breast to wound.
Her virtuous maids the tears of anguish pour,
Her pious matrons kneel upon the there.
Heard'At thou chat shriek? perhaps the favage foe
Aims at thy moiher's heart the deadly blow.
Matron, in vain thou call’lt for Damon's aid,
He pipes, regardless, in the peaceful Made,
And, while foft echoes to his lays reply,

Heeds not a dying mother's piercing cry. In Damon's repły, the manner in which the real character of the speaker breaks out, is fingularly happy : it makes ample amends for


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