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ART. X. Vindicie Flavianæ : Or, a Vindication of the Testimony

given by Jofephus concerning our Saviour Jesus Christ. By Jacob Bryant, Esq. 8vo. 15, 6 d. Cadell, &c. 1780. T must be owned,” says Dr. Jortin, with his usual plea

to have been a generous proceeding in Vorfius, to take the weaker sfde on several occasions, and to be an advocate for those who stood most in need of affistance; in which charitable behaviour he has been, and will be imitated.”. We with that Mr. Bryant, the very learned Writer now before us, may not have some concern in this remark and prediction, The authenticity of the paffage in Josephus concerning our Saviour Jelus Chrift, though it be found in all the copies of his Works now extant, has been, with great reason, called in question by some of the most learned men and able critics of this and the two preceding centuries. Mr. Bryant, in the present publication, has enumerated the following: Gifanius and Ojiander, Jacobus Salianus, Daniel Heinsius, Jacobus and Ludovicus Capellus, Boxhornus, Salmafius, Gronovius, Vorstius, Frenchemius, Tanaquil Faber, Sebaldus Snellius, Blondell, and Lardner. He might have added Le Clerc, Vitringa, Warburton, &c. On the contrary, it has been received as genuine, and defended by Cave, Huet, Fabricius, Whifton, Spanheim, Daubuz, and many others. The Reader will find a very just and impartial account of the argument on both sides, with many judicious remarks, in Dr. Lardner's Jewish and Heathen Testimonies to the Truth of the Christian Religion, Vol. I. p. 150, and Preface to Vol. II. The last „ writer in this country, profeffedly in vindication of the passage, was Dr. N. Forster, who, in a Differtation published at Oxford, 1749, attempted, by an arbitrary alteration of the text, to render it more consistent with the known character and sentiments of Josephus. Dr. Lardner, in the latter of the two places above referred to, has, in our opinion, given a satisfactory reply to his arguments.

Mr. Bryant has now ranked himself among the defenders of this celebrated paragraph ; endeavouring to prove it genuine, by taking into consideration the character and circumstances of the historian, together with the temper of the times, and the disposition of the Jews, both when our Saviour lived, and when Josuphus wrote;' and by giving such an interpretation of the pallage itself, as may render it consistent with his sentiments and situation. My purpose,' says he, is to search into the internal evidences with which this history is attended : to consider the situation of the Jews in general, and of Josephus in particular, and of their disposition towards our Saviour and his

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• Rem, on Eccl. Hift. Vol. I. p. 294.

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varing than they would have been, had he entrusted the fole execut:09 of them to either of the artists already mentioned.'... But, “ furels, of all the fraternity, whether ancient or modern, he bent the keecet eye on the follies and vices of mankind : and expressed obem with a degree of variety and force, which it would be vain to seek anorg the fatiric compositions of any other painters. In short, what is observed by Hamlet concerning a player's ofice, may, with some fem exceptions, be applied to the designs of Hogarth: “Their end, both at the first and now, was and is, to hold as 'were the mirror up to Nature, to thew Virtue her own feature, Scorn her own image, and the very Age and Body of the Time his form and pressure.”

In these · Biographical Anecdotes,” Mr. Nichols hath illustrated several striking circumstances alluded to in the prints of Hogarth, and corrected some errors of Mr. Trufler, who was employed, to the great prejudice of Mrs. Hogarth, to explain the several prints, as they were published in a small compass, in a ! work called “ Hogarth moralised.” See Review, Vol. xxxv. p. 239.

In the įst plate of the Harlot's Progress, is a portrait of the notorious Francis Chartres, Mother Needham, a procuress, called by Pope, “ Pious Needham ;" and a pimp, whom Chartres allo kept about his person. In Plate 6th, the woman seated next the clergyman was designed for Elizabeth Adams, who, at the age of 30, was executed for a robbery, Sept. 30, 1737.

In “ Midnight modern Conversation," the divine was meant for Parson Ford, and the Lawyer for Henley (Lord Chancellor Northington), when young.

The preacher in the "Sleeping Congregation," was designed to represent Dr. Defaguliers.

The Lady adoring the Italian Singer, in Plate IV. of “Marriage à la Mode," was designed for Mrs. Lane (afterwards Lady Bingley). The Gentleman asleep, in the same plate, was meant for her husband, Mr. Fox Lane.--So says our Author; but it is ä mistake. Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Lane, nor any other particular person, was meant.

We have thus given the curious Reader a taste, and only a taste, of what he may expect from the perusal of the narrative : itself, which, notwithstanding a few mistakes wherein the Writer must have been milled by wrong information, may be regarded as a proof of the united diligence, good sense, and ingenuity of the Author.

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ART. XIII. An Examination of Thelyphthora, on the Subjea of Mar. riage. By John Palmer, late of Macclesfield.

8vo. Johnson. 1781. NE grand ohject of Thelyphthora is to vacate the necessity

of marriage ceremonies We observed in the very origin of the controversy, that Mr. Madan's reasonings on this subject were fallacious, even on the ground on which he pretended to rest his argument. Mr. Palmer hath gone over the ground which we first chose in our attack on Thelyphthora: and hath adduced fresh proofs in support of our position---s that something, besides the bare act of union, was ever esteemed neceilary, under every divine dispensation of religion, as well as among all civilized nations of every age, to constitute a legal and an honourable marriage.” To the proofs already advanced, Mr. Palmer hath added the following, which he scruples not to call decisive.' - My authority (says he) is no other, than the testimony of the holy Jesus, who spake the words of truth. See Mat:h. xxiv. 38. " For as in the days that were before the Flood, they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the Ark, &c.” See also, Luke xvii. 26, 27. “ And as it was in the days of Noe, so fhali it be also in the days of the Son of Man. They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage until the day that Noe entered into the Ark."

• Here is no room for evasion. Marrying, giving or being given in marriage, are words absolutely descriptive of some ceremony previous to personal union, though most probably not of the whole matrimonial form. And as the above texts do fully fhew some form to have been observed “ until the day that Noe entered into the Ark," so they also shew, that some ceremony was used even to the very end of the Jewish State : “ So shall it also be in the days of the Son of Man." And as our Author would do well to notice, if these words refer also, as they most probably do, to the day of the dissolution of this world, they may teach him some modesty, and give him to understand, that he is not only fighting against God, but that his defeat is certain ; for in the days of the Son of Man they shall marry, give and be given in marriage. The form still continues among the Jews in their dispersion. From the Jews the Christians received their forms, in several respects the same. But he that would teach the sexes to copulate like brutes, may be affured that the pious and virtuous, the friends of man and lovers of God, will ever hold his doctrine in deteftation ; and either pity him as a weak man, or abhor him as a bad citizen!

Mr.

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Mr. Palmer observes, from the learned Grotius's Annotations Matth. xxy. I. that.“

“ amongst the laudable customs which the Jews received from the Fathers, this was one ; to celebrate marriage not in a private but in a public manner; in an assembly of the pious: and that it was accompanied uit' Eurolizi with a prayer of blefling, the form of which still remains in their rituals, which the ancient Christians imitated, as well as several other Jewith practices.” In a note, Mr. Palmer says

If any gentleman, Jew or Christian, will oblige me with a copy of the Eurogie, it will be esteemed a favour, and thall be presented to the public, if I have occasion to write again on this subject. The Eurogie is too long for us to tranTcribe ; but if Mr. Palmer will turn to Book II. Chapter 12th of Selden's ! Uxor Ebraica, he will find it in the original Hebrew, as it stands in the Talmud, together with a Latin translation. Mr. Selden entitles the chapter BenEDICTIO deductioni in Thalamum atque ipsis Nuptiis PRÆVIA. These benedictions were common with the Jews on solemn and even convivial occafions. A curious one respecting the latter is extracted from the Targum of Onkelos, and published by Paul Fagius in his Annotations on Deut. yili. ; and also by Zepper, in a work entitled Legum Mosaicarum ferensiam Explanatio. [Edit. Herborn. Nafov. 1614.] Vid. Lib. iv. Cap. 21.

This latter Author hath a passage exactly corresponding with the above from Grotius. Qui conjugium legitimum inituri sunt angelorum et hominum ecclesiâ tefte, non tam ex parentum, quam Dei ipfius, patris noftri cæleflis, per miniftri fui os loquentis, manu conjuges, tanquam preciosum Dei donum, accipiant Hinc orationes illæ, benedictiones et apprecationes fausta piorum Veteris Teftaménti, in nuptiarum suarum festivitatibus ; que quocunque tandem habitæ fuerint loco, publica tamen semper et ecclefiasticæ fuerunt Esque confecrationum harum et benedictionum matrimonialium publicar um frequens apud patres et scriptores ecclefiafticos mentio. It is evident, beyond all dispute, that the ear. lieft Fathers of the Christian Church confidered marriage as fomething more than Mr. Madan's “ fimple act:" and their concurrent testimony to a plain fact must weigh with every considerate and unprejudiced mind. But there is no reasoning on 'this ground to any good purpose with Ochinus, Lyferus, John of Leyden, or Mr. Madan, who, boldly rejecting all authorities however yenerable, and all testimonies however numerous, and however correspondent, that square not with their figments, vainly and infolently' exclaim-- We are the men, and wisdom will die with us."

FOREIGN

FOREIGN LITERATURE.

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F R A N C E..

ART. I.
VOYAGE dans les Mers de l'Inde, fait par ordre du Roi, &c.

i. é. An Account of a Voyage in the Indian Seas, by the King's Order, on Occasion of the Passage of Venus over the Sun's Disk, June 6, 1761, and June 3, 1769: By M. LE GENTIL, Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Vol. II. 4t0, 844 Pages, with 27 Plates. Price 14 Livres.--13 S. Paris. 1781.

In our appendix to the LXII volume of the Review, we gave an account of the first volume of this learned and entertaining work.' This second volume, the publication of which was retarded by some incident, contains several new and interesting details, relative to the Philippine Islands, and to the illes of France, Bourbon, and Madagascar. The Author's long refidence at Manilla, and his connexions with the principal inhabitants of that city, furnished him with ample information concerning the natural, moral, and political history of the Phil. lippines, which the Spaniards have taken the utmost pains to conceal from the knowledge of the other European nations. As these islands were a gracious present made by the Pope to the King of Spain, the monastic orders swarm in the country, and exercise over ine inhabitants the most despotic authority. They have learned the languages of the different nations which people that vast Archipelago, at the same time keeping them in an entire ignorance of the Spanish tongue; a circumstance which does not a little contribute to maintain their influence and dominion.

Our Author's account of the volcános of these islands is curious, and his description of their fertility, riches, and temperacure, is most inviting. The heat of this country is tempered by a high degree of moisture, which is not unhealthy; the soil is refreshed by rivers and streams, which crown it with a perpetual verdure, and no season, but the spring, is known in these happy iflands. The air is embalmed with the most exquisite perfumes; the trees bend with the most delicious fruits, their fcas, lakes, and rivers, abound with excellent fish; their woods and mountains are full of game; capons, venison, and pullets, are the common and abundant food of the multitude, and the diseases, and physicians that afflict humanity, in the greatest part of Europe, are unknown to these islanders. They have, however, the monks among them, about them, and over them. Nihil eft ab omni parte beatum. There muft be compensations every where in this globe.

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