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Tot, by giving each ihees a bandful of Spanish falt for five or fix mornings leccessively. Common íalt, however powerful in expelling worms from the stomach and bowels, bas, I believe, little effect on those situated in the substance of the liver; therefore I cannot help hazarding an opinion, that falt doth not become a remedy for the rot in theep, because it is pernicious to insects, but because it purges the theep, and attenuates their blood and juices, and thereby prevents obstruction in the vessels of the liver, and difperfes that which may he there already formed. That the rot in Theep is an hepatic dil order, occasioned by obstructed, tenacious, acrid bile, I thirik farther appears from the observations which you have made on the liver of a rotten Theep; viz, that when boiled it diffolves and forms à fedi. ment at the bottom of the vessel, resembling mud; this, in my opiwion, clearly proves that the liver must be reduced, previous to the boiling, to a high degree of putrefaction. Therefore it seems highly probable, that any article, capable of opening bilious obftructions in the liver, and timely used, will prove effectual in curing the rot in theep. Whether a portion of foap, aloes, and pearl-ahes, may not he given to advantage in this disorder, I leave to the confideration of thote who have better opportunity of examining the nature of that disease, which is so very fatal to those animals, who, in a great degree supply us with food and raiment.

If you, Gentlemen, think these cursory remarks worthy of a place at the end of your Review. I fhall be glad to see them inserted.

I am, GENTLEMEN,

Your most obedient Servant, Grafton Street, Soho.

JOHN ROBERTS. * A privcipal objection to the theory of this diftemper, which this ingenious Writer lays down, is, that the rot will be contracted. in a night's cime.

That the rot is a putrid disease, is very probable, and the remedies Mr. R. proposes, might in the early itages of the disorder be artended with desirable effects,

The Reviewer, who has detained the foregoing important letter so long from the publick eye, offers only the truth by way of apology :-- He was on a tour into the northern parts of the kingo

, dom, where Mr. R.'s favour was transmitted to him; and lince then it has been for some time miflaid.

Hit A Correspondent, who sgos himself “ Nimrod,” informs us, that we were miitaken in our conjeciare respecting the Author of

y even have one *****.2g:" See Review for September last. Nimrod allurex is that the Public are indebied for that performance co Peter Bechtov, ki of Stapleton, Dorfeshire, son of the late Julinis Beck. ford, Kini ani!, he believes, the gentleman to whom Mr. Brydone addriftes his Lerrors.

* Two Lerte's have been received from " A Conftant Reader and General admirer of iho .. Rotimit," which will be further artended to in our next.

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ART. I. The History of England. from the Acceffion of James I. to the

Revolution. Vols. VI. and VII. By Catharine Macaulay Graham. 40. 11. 103. Dilly. 1781.

HILE the prejudices and partialities of mankind are

W

operation can never be restrained), it will be impossible for the historian, whose narrative is confined to events in which every one fancies himself interested, to give satisfaction to all.

The truth of this observation has been sufficiently experienced by the Authoress of the present volumes. Those, who differ from her in the complexion of their political tenets, fail not to charge her with principles, which are not only not to be found in. her writings, even by implication, but which she invariably difavows. This disingenuous procedure, at the same time that it is injurious to the individual, too frequently suppresses the spirit of liberal enquiry, and has an indirect tendency to fap the foundations of truth.

In the Preface to the present volumes, the Authoress not only explains the motives, but enters into a full vindication of her literary conduct. Her vindication is animated, and appears to be just. The candid Reader will not be displeased with an extract from this part of her performance.

• I well know what perfonal disadvantage I set out with, from that impartiality which I had determined to observe on the conduct of the different factions, which have harassed the internal peace of this empire; and when I gave up the emoluments of favour, the countenance of the great, and the gratification of popular applause, on a principle of public utility, I had some reason to expect esteem for my integrity and industry, and especially as I have never thrown any pero fonal abuse on any individual, in or out of power; nor have ever sullied my pen with those anonymous writings calculated to apguish VoL, LXV. Dd

the

the feeling heart, to fix an indelible flain on the manners of English: men, and to infli&t the poignancy of mental sufferings not only un the defamed persons, but on all those who are attached to them, either by the ties of blood, or the yet stronger ties of affection. I have endeavoured, with the most indefatigable pains, to make my History useful to men of all conditions ; and I am persuaded that no moderate churchman, or honeft lawyer, can, on cool reflection, be of. fended with the historian's free obfervations on the conduct of men who have been the authors of much public and private mischief, and whose violent counsels, and dishoneft practices, have frequently difturbed the peace, and endangered the liberties of the empire. If I have been severe on misguided princes, and bad ministers, it is with a view only to the interests of the people, and if all historians would preserve the fame honest rule, instead of varnishing, with false colours, the vices of the powerful, it would, from that general defire which all men have of preserving some degree of reputation after death, form a kind of literary tribunal

, productive of a very useful reformation in the conduct of those favoured sons of fortune, on whose good or bad qualities the happiness and welfare of societies depend. The candid and the generous will, undoubtedly, from these confiderations, bchold, without malice or resentment, the wicked or weak conduct of their ancestors represented in its proper light; and especially when they reflect that it would be very unbecoming the chajacter, and contrary to the duty of an bißorian, to spare even the memory of a parent, if he was found defective in those patriotic virtues which eminently affect the welfare of society.

• If the warmth of my temper has occasioned me to be guilty of any petulancies in my first productions, they arose from the inexperience of the hiftorian, and the early period of life in which the began to write history; but though I have been pursued with virulent invectives, I have never yet been made acquainted with my literary faults. Criticisms formed with judgment and temper command attention ; but when personal invective fupplies the place of argument, and the reputation of authors are attacked in order to decry their writings, it is a very strong symptom in favour of those productions againit which the battery of abuse is levelled ; and in this case an individual, in the full enjoyment of that internal satisfaction which a faithful exertion of mental abilities affords the rational mind, mult look down with contempo on the angry crowd, nor suffer their fierce and loud clamours, in any respect, to divert him from pursuing the grand object of his honelt ambition.'

Equally spirited is her vindication of the glorious Sidney. The invidious and illiberal attacks that have been levelled at the character of that exalted patriot are fresh in the memory of every one,

Speaking of the noble ideas * on which Mr. Sidney, after his

* Viz. “In the hopes either of regulating the English monarchy on more correct principles, or of re-eilablishing that mode of government, which, he conceived, wouid more naturally produce the security of the subje&t, and the honour of the nation.

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return to England, joined the popular party, our Hiftorian proteeds :

• Such sentiments carried into pra&tice, and sealed with the blood of this illustrious Englishman, it is to have been imagined, would have rendered his memory sacred to that country on which his writings and heroic virtues have reflected lustre; but there is a spirit of bitterness, of rancour, of envy, and the worst species of levelling gone forth among us, which even the crown of martyrdom cannot escape. We are told, that when the Romans once beheld their Cato in a fituation not quite agreeable to that consistent dignity which graced the public and the private virtues of this godlike man, they modestly stepped afide, and instead of triumphing over humanity, by proclaiming aloud this small blemish in an exalted character, they turned their eyes from the wounding fight. . This was the generofily of ancient manners; but what was the conduct of Englishmen on the assertion of the French minifter, Barillon, published near a hundred years after the martyrdom of their last eminent patriot, that he had received two several sums from the court of France ?, Why, instead of turning their eyes from the scandalous page, or even of examining into the nature of an assertion which, inaccurately considered, carries the form of an act somewhat derogatory to the honour of their hero, they exulted in the weakness of humanity, and consequently in their own Thame. In the fancied corruption of the most perfect pattern of human excellence they found an authority for enormous deviations from common honesty, and by inculcaling the doctrine of an irrefiftible depravity, and levelling every human character, they imagined they had, in some measure, conciliated reputation wiih the mammon of unrighteousness; for if every man is a villain in his heart, there can surely be no infamy. Thus whilst England has been considered and respected by foreigners as the mother of heroes, legirlators, patriots, and martyrs, her own sons take a satisfaction in convincing the admiring world, that they were under a gross mistake, and that England never produced any character considerably above the stamp of vulgar life ; but there is a glaring impolicy as well as meanness and wickedness in these attempts. · Let the man who fate tens on the spoils of corruption, who wantons in the parade of illgotten riches, who featts on the bread of the deluded, let him fuffer the honest man to reap that meagre harvest which he disdains; lec him be suffered to enjoy his poverty and his honeft fame ; let him at least rest secure in the sanctuary of martyrdom, left by persuading all mankind that virtue is a non-entity, the market fhould be overftocked with villains; that the price of his commodity Mould be lowered ; and that abler politicians should attain the object of his desires, for this he may be assured, that all those eminent talents which are necessary to constitute a truly great man, could never fail of meeting with an unlimited success in the ways of a corrupt advancement.

• There is, undoubtedly, much of malice and of falsehood in the pasty-writings of our ancefiors; but that general spirit of levelling which pervades modern society, is a new circumitance of corruption among us, and takes its rise from an excess of vanity, which is indeed common to the human character, but which owes its luxuriant Dd 2

growia

growth to circumstances which help to destroy that humility which must ever rationally attend on insignificance, and feduces every man into a false persuasion of self-importance. What with the opportunity of puffing in the public newspapers, a feather well adjusted, a title, a ribbon, unexpected riches acquired in the East, or a successful monopoly, every individual becomes of consequence; and when the mountains are levelled, the mole-hills will appear: but if with the breath of calumny and Nander, if with the poisonous ink of detraction, we fully the characters of the illustrious dead, what hope can we reasonably entertain, that the present degeneracy of manners should not increase with a rapid course through all succeeding ages! The contemplation of a great character never fails to warm the young and generous student into the noble attempt of imitative virtue, and helps to guard the mind against the impulse of selfith passions, and the contagion of example. It is indeed only by dwelling on the sublime beauties of heroic character, that we can difcover that amazing opposition of the hateful and the lovely in moral excellence and moral deformity, and that we can be animated into a passion for difinte. rested virtue; but what patterns shall we select for the model of youthful emulation, if we admit of modern scepticism in regard to the reality of that virtue which we have long adored in the sacred memories of our forefathers: besides, it must deaden all generous attempts to an exalted conduct, when one supposed error in the judgment, one failing of humanity brought to public view by accident, or private malice, shall obscure the luftre of a life of glory, and level a great character to the base standard of common humanity; for as no individual, whilft he continues in a state of frailty, can be certain that he shall always enjoy his understanding free from any alloy of error, or any cloud of insanity ; or that he shall every moment of his existence bear the sovereign rule over his temper, his passions, and his prejadices; he will never, with all the labour and the forbearance necef sary to build up an eminent virtue, be induced to purchase that tranfitory fame which may only serve to render him a more conspicuousobject of the contempt of the multitude.

• That a man of Sidney's rank, acknowledged abilities, and unfained character, would have been received with open arms by the English governmeni, had he been willing to render his talents subservient to his private intereft, and the giving ftrength and permanence to the prerogatives of the crown, or to forward the criminal designs of the court, is, I think, a matter of fo self-evident a nature, that all arguments teading to prove the position would be useless and ridiculous. That Sidney had rejected the importunities of his family, and the invitations of his friends; that he had refused to avail himself of the advantage which attends great parts and endowments, to establish an interest with the prefent government equal to what be had enjoyed with the latt, appears from the whole tenour of his condua, and from his letters of correspondence; and can the rankelt partywriter, who possesses any particle of common sense, or any degree of modesty, deny that the firm

imes of honour and integrity muft regulate the defires ani

that man who, from mo"ives of conscience and

t the opportunity of ac. uiring difinction and

untry, and fubmit to a

voluntary

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