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It is very rare that the traveller gets a proper day to ascend the hill; for it often appears clear; but by, the evident attraction of the clouds by this lofty mountain, it becomes suddenly and unexpectedly enveloped in mitt, when the clouds have jul before appeared very remote, and at great heights. At times, I have observed them lower to half their height; and, notwithAtanding they had been dispersed to the right and to the left; yec they have met from both sides, and united to involve the fummit in one great obscurity.
• The quantity of water which flows from the lakes of Snowdonia is very confiderable ; lo much, that I doubt not but cola lectively they would exceed the waters of the Thames, before it meets the fiux of the ocean.
? The reports of the heights of this noted hill have been very differently given. A Mr. Cafwell, who was employed in a survey of Wales, measured it by instruments made by the directions of Mr. Flamitead, and be afferts its height to have been 1240 yards ;, but for the honour of our mountain
1 sorry to say, that I must give greater credit to the experiments made of late years, which have funk it to 1189 yards and one foot, reckoning from the quay at Caernarvon to the higheft peak.
Mr. Pennant concludes his description of Snowdonia, with a brief mention of the strata of stone which compose these moune tains; of the course cryftals and cubic pyritæ found in the filfures, and of the birds, filh, quadrupeds, and plants, inhabitanes of these regions.
This detail of Mr. Pennant's journey into Wales, is enlivened (as this ingenious gentleman's writings, of a similar kind usually are) by entertaining remarks, historical anecdotes, and critical investigations of the antiquities, and other matters of curiosity, which successively engage his attention,
ART. VIII. An Esay on the Right of Property in Land with respect to
its Foundation in the Law of Nature, its prefene Eitablishment by the Municipal Laws of Europe, and the Regulations by which it might be rendered more beneficial to the lower Ranks of Mankind. 8vo. 35. 6d. Boards. Walter. . 1781.
E have perused the Ellay before us with singular plea
fure : and (though we consider speculations of this kind rather as amusing dreams than as of any probable utility) we Thall venture to pronounce it to be the production of a cultitivated, elegant, and philosophic mind.
If it be demanded by what regulations property in land might be rendered more beneficial to the lower ranks of mankind?' it seems to require no great stretch of political wisdom
to answer ; by correcting the present unequal distribution of landed property, by imparting to the poor fome portion of what the rich enjoy (or rather poffess than enjoy), and by increafing the number of independent cultivators of the soil, who are in general the most virtuous and most healthy part of the community, increase the quantum of public happiness.
We shall content ourselves with a thort enumeration of the principal objects of this Essay; in the discussion of which the writer thews, that he wants neither solidity of judgment nor boldness of imagination. After investigating the right of property in land, firft as derived from the law of nature, and next as founded in public utility, he delineates, in a masterly manner, the abuses and pernicious effects of the monopoly allowed and established by the municipal laws of Europe. He then proceeds to treat of the circumstances and occafions favourable to a com plete, or, if that cannot be attained, a partial reformation the present system, and likewise of the means calculated to promote a gradual and falutary change in this respect, either under the direction of public boards, or by the generous efforts of individuals : and he concludes with exhibiting the scheme of what he calls a progressive Agrarian law (in opposition to those sudden and violent changes that were incident to the Agrarian laws of antiquity), as the basis of fo defirable a reform
These objects are, it must be confeffed, great and dazzling: and the Author owns, with a becoming modesty, that the opinions he has advanced may appear at first fight visionary, and perhaps erroneous. It is natural to the mind, says he, when new ideas arise on important subjects, to open itself with fondness to the pleasing impreffion which they make. Yielding to this feducing enthufiasm, the Author has been led to speak with freedom of great changes suddenly to be accomplished, as practicable in fome cases, and to be defired in many
Yet he is well aware that great changes, suddenly accomplished, are always pregnant with danger and with evil; and ought, on almost no occasion whatever, to be desired or brought forward by the friends of mankind. Partial reformation, gradual progressive innovation, may produce every advantage which the most important and sudden changes can promise, yet without incurring those dreadful hazards, and those inevitable evils with which great and sudden changes are till attended. The paffage that follows conveys a handsome and manly tribute of respect to the landa holders of England ; and as it will give our readers a favourable impreffion of this Writer's style and spirit, we fhall insert it, by way of conclufion to the prescot Article.
• With the greaieit fatisfaction of mind the Writer of these pages ayows his perluation, that were great and important innovations, re
spoeting property in land, as practicable and safe as they are difficult and full of 'danger, there is no country under the sun which Hands lefs in need of such reformation than England. Although, indeed, the principles of jurisprudence respecting property in land which the laws of England recognize, are derived from the same foarce, and partake of the same absurd and pernicious nature, with those maxims which prevail almost every where on the contiä pent of Europe ; yet such has been the generosity of English land. holders, such their equitable conduct towards their tenants and de pendents, and such the manly spirit of the lower classes, fostered by a sense of political rights, that, in England, the comfortable inde pendence of the farmer, and actual cultivator of the soil, is established on as fecure a footing as the most refined system of property in land, deduced from the genuine principles of public good, and natural right, can propose to render effectual and permanent. It is to be regrected only, that this comfortable independence which the farmers enjoy cannot be extended to a till greater proportion of the commo: nity. English langholders, and English farmers, are superior in all respects to the same class of men in other couniries : in their manly vigour, their plain good sense, their humane virtues, confits the true basis of our nationa! pre-eminence. Their blood circulates in every rank of society, their domestic manners have given the tone to the English character, as displayed in all the various departments of business and enterprize ; nor can any with 'be formed more favour: able to the prosperity of the publie, than that the numbers of this clafs, of men may be increased. To increase the number of lando holders, by advancing farmers to that more independent situation, can never be made the object of legislative care in this country, as it might in the absolute monarchies of the continent; but to increale the number of farmers, by favouring the advancement of day labourers and manufacturers, to the more animating and manly occupations of cultivating a small farm for their own aecount, is an object very fimilar to many branches of enlightened policy, which the British legillature (more than any other) has pursued with attention and fuccefs,
• To the wo thy and humane English landholders, and more par. ticularly to those who of late years have voluntarily granted to their tenants an abatement of rent, this thort Efay is inferibed by the Author, as to men whom he regards with high eiteem, and from whom he may hope that his speculations, should they ever come to their knowledge, would meet with no unfavourable reception, , Why thould he not flatter himself with this hope, however seemingly vain, fincé uninformed by theoretical reafoning, and prompted only by the innate candoor and humanity of their own minds, these refpectable landholders, truly worthy of their ftation and of their truit, have habitually acted in conformity to those principles of public good and Natural sight, which he is desirous to elucidaie and establish.'
368) ÁRT. VIII. An Account of a Metbod of preserving Water, ar Sea, from
Putrefaction, &c. by à cheap and easy Process; to which is added, a Mode of impregnating Water, in large Quantities, with fixed Air, for Medicinal Uses, on board Ships, and in Hospitals, &c.QC. By Thomas Henry, F. R. S. and Member of the Medical Society of London. Svo. 2 $. Johnson. 1781.
T fion, to the Lords of the Admiralty, deferves particular no
tice, as it contains matters that greatly concern the health and the well-being of a numerous and deserving class of men-the sea-faring part of the community-who; from their situation, are too frequently exposed, not only to the inconveniences, but to the very great evils that attend the drinking of putrid water.
The Author's scheme to avoid these inconveniences and evils is founded on the modern discoveries relative to fixed air : it is now well known that calcareous earths or stones, which are naturally insoluble in water, are, in consequence of having their fixed air expelled from them by calcination, converted into lime; that is, into a salt--for it has all the characters of a falt-totally, though sparingly soluble in that fluid. The water saturated with this falt is called lime-water.
The Author, having found great inconveniences, in diftillation, from the putridity and fætor which were foon contracted by the water in the tub, through which the worm of the still passed, thought that the addition of lime to it might preserve it from putrefaction; and the event greatly exceeded his expectations : so that he was not obliged to renew the water in the worm-tub, till after it had been used above 18 months; when he thought proper to change it, merely because it was become foul from dust.
Though the water, however, in which the lime is diffolved is thereby enabled to resist putrefaction, it cannot be considered as a proper beverage for a ship's company: but the lime-stone, which had, by the expulfion of its fixed air, been rendered soluble in water, will greedily attract fixed air, and will again become infoluble in that fluid, if fixed air be introduced to it: accordingly the salt, now become an insoluble earth, will be precipitated from it. In fhort, while it remained diffolved in the water, it prevented its putrefaction ; and when precipitated from it, it leaves the water in the same state of purity as when it was first diffolved in it.
Though no doubt can be entertained with respect to the ran tionale of this process, or of its practicability when small quan tities are to be operated upon; it may nevertheless be apprehended, that it cannot conveniently be executed on board of a fhip, and on a large scale. The method, however, here mi
nutely described by the Author, does not appear to us to be clogged with such difficulties, as juftly to deter those, under whose cognizance this matter naturally falls from ordering a public trial of it. The following is a lhort sketch of the Author's process.
To preserve the water from putrefaction, two pounds of good quick-limę are directed to be added to each cask contains ing 120 gallons. To free the water afterwards from the lime with which it has been impregnated, it is to be drawn off into a strong caik containing about 60 gallons, with an aperture at one end large enough to admit a vessel which is to be let down into it by means of strings, and which contains a proper quantity of effervescent materials, that is, of marble or chalk, and vitriolic acid. The mouth of this last vefsel is to be stopped with a tubulated stopper, through which the fixed air, let loose from the marble, passes up through the body of the water. The Jime is thus rendered infoluble, and is foon precipitated in the form of an impalpable powder of chalk: the water being thus restored to the same state of purity as when it was firft shipped on board ; or, as the Author has reason to believe, to a state of still greater purity; several hard waters having, in consequence of this process, been rendered as foft as rain water, and freed from different impregnations.
The Author's method of effecting these purposes is illustrated in three plates; in one of which is delineated an apparatus, formed on a fimilar large scale, for impregnating water with fixed air ; To as to impart to it the properties of mineral and other medicated waters, for the use of the sick on board of ships, and in hospitals. This is an extension of Dr. Priestley's original plan, communicated some years ago to the Lords of the Admiralty. We scarce need to add, that the execution of it cannot fail, on numerous occasions, of being attended with the most salutary effects, particularly in putrid fevers, dysenteries, scurvy, and other diseases of the putrid class, to which seamen are peculiarly liable ; especially if the efficacy of the waters, and its power of absorbing fixed air be increased, by previously dissolving in it a proper quantity of alcaline falt, particularly of the mineral alcali.
We lould not omit mentioning a less material, indeed, but ftill desirable application of fixed air, to the making of fresh fermented bread at sea. This is to be effected by impregnating four and water with fixed air, so as to form an artificial yeast, with which the Author affirms, that he has made very: good bread without the assistance of any other ferment. The Aour and water are firft boiled together till the mixture acquires the consistence of treacle, and is then to be faturated with fixed air. Being placed in a warm situation for about two days, such a degree of fermentation will have taken place, as to give