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of a loss, finds his account better than if the vessel had not been loft
, or taken ; nay, it is agreed to pay such a sum insured, whether on board the ship or not; it is evident that such agreements have a bad tendency, as they give so much room for frauds :--that no person ever had proved to a certainty, whether by insurance on foreign trade, more, on the whole, had been gained than loft:—that it was contrary to found and good policy, to grant asistance to undertakings which were contrary to the general interest, and diametrically opposite to the intention of prohibiting the trade with France; the natural consequence of which hould have been the prohibition of insuring their ships and goods :- this is to be understood only in times of war, for in those of peace, such insurances hould be considered as a business that is to be left to the free will of the merchant.
5. It has been further observed, that although our insurers may be gainers, upon the whole, by the credit side of their premiums exceeding the debit fide of their losses; yet the question is, out of whose pockets do such premiums arise in time of wari-If they wholly arose from our enemies who insured, then our enemies would pay more for the price of insurance than they loft; which cannot be the cafe :- from whom then does this surplusage of premiums arise, which make our insurers gainers, but from our own British mer. chants ? and, if so, when an enemy's ship is taken that has been in. sured by our insurers, the loss does not fall either upon the insurers (if they are gainers on the whole) or upon the enemy, but it falls upon our own British merchants, whose premiums must pay it: besides, as our enemies do not feel the loss, are they not enabled the better to fit out more ships of war" and privateers to annoy our own merchants ? does not this necessarily tend to raise the price of insusance fill higher and higher upon them and does noć this fill the better enable our insurers to insure the ships of our enemies, and to be instrumental to the prolongation of the war ? do not these high insurances clog our whole trade at such times, leffen the public revenue, and add to the evil of war? --Finally, it is added, that our principal merchants, being the greatest underwriters, become disinclined to fit out privateers to cruize on, and distress the enemy, rather contenting themselves with the expectation of gaining the premiums from them; and therefore wishing to contribute to the Safety and arrival of their property, and the success of their com
• 6. REMARKS._ It is the opinion of some civllians that "the insuring the property of enemies is in itself illegal, and a species of treason against our country; therefore it is evidently null and void :" -no British subject can have a right to insure the enemy's losses, more than he has to aslift him by main force, as both ultimately tend to the same point, the support of the power intended to be overthrown :all ftates, at the commencement of hoftilities, commence them in bopes of victory ; but underwriters, of the class in question, reverse this order, and insure in hopes of defeat:-hence many of them are the best of spies for our enemies, giving every intelligence by which their ships may be enabled to escape, and by false lights decoying those of their country into the hands of its foes. In every policy, therefore, the case of war lhould be expressly excepted, in order io Rev. Sept. 1981,
prevent cavil; but this précaution is not abfolutely necessary, as the law of nations, which must be founded on good senfe, abfolutely pro. hibits such a commerce :-every contract, by which a public enemy is upheld, must be illegal; and in the present instance, where the contest is about commerce, no method mote effe&tual for upholding the enemy can be devised. -As the intention of insurance is to render navigation and commerce more safely, easily, and conveniently carried on, it is plain that the reason of war altogether requires that the infuring of the enemy's property, be not allowed. When the States General were at war with Spain in 1622, they proclaimed all insurances void, which were made before or after the ediat, by the in habitants of the United Netherlands, upon effects belonging to the fubje&ts of the king of Spain, laying a penalty upon those who should do so; which seems very just, because in all declarations of war, or commissions of hostilities, every one is commanded to do as much domage to the enemy as he can, fo that he is also forbid to consult the convenience of the enemy: the general law of war requires it.-It appears a matter of much uncertainty whether the insuring of the ships and property of enemies be profitable even to the insurers, notwithstanding the opinion of Sir John Barnard was in the affirmative; but it is pretty certain that, if the expence of armaments, viêłualling, manning, wages, wear and tear, damage, &c. &c. &c. of men of war, privateers, letters of marque, with various other detriments and disadvantages, be taken into the account, not to mention the temptation it is to give intelligence to the enemy, and to the commission of frauds by them, the balance on the whole cannot be well in favour of the nation. —The Dutch, who have seldom 'overlooked any advantage to themselves in trade, have always thought it necessary to prohibit this kind of insurance, - Upon the whole, therefore, the act of the British parliament 21 Geo. 2. '
made to prohibit insuring the enemy's ships and merchandises, during the continuation of the then war with France, appears to have been highly politic and worthy of much approbation.
7. Les Anglois sont encore dans la maxime, que l'assurance des vaisseaux ennemis doit être permise & favorisée : si on leur objecte, que le vaisseau étant pris, il ne revient à la nation qu'une partie de la chose qu'elle devoit avoir toute entiere ; ils répondent, que cette perte elt couverte pour l'état qui rassemble toutes les assurances, par la valeur de la prise qu' il gagne. Son gain seroit-il plus grand s'il abandonnoit le profit des primes ? Non, fans doute, puisque ce profit el reglé sur l'etendue des risques. L'assureur, ou la nation, "étant toujours la maîtresse d'affurer, ou de na pas assurer, a foin que la proportion entre la prime & les risques soit en fa faveur; d'où il résulte que la somme des primes réunies excede nécessairement la valeur des vaisseaux qui tombent dans le cas d'être pris.-Dict du Citoyen.
8. Nothing belonging to a declared enemy of the kingdom Thall be insured, under penalty of the insurance being void, and the delinquent to forfeit the amount of the sum to which he had subscribed, one half to go to the informer, and the other to the chest of the infur. ance court established by us.-Ordin. of Stockh.
9. See Capture, Confifcation, Contraband, Flota, France, Freedom of Navigation, Interest, Law of Nations, Prize, Property, Treaty, War.
The detached articles are well connected by cross references; but as the heads and cases under each, are numbered, it would have been an improvement to have referred to the number under each head where the collateral matter is to be found.
ART. VI. Thoughts on Hunting, in a Series of familiar Letters to a
Friend. 410. 7s.6d. in Boards. Salisbury, printed, for Elmily,
tween hunting and literature, upon a general comparison of the professors of each, that a didactic treatise on the art of hunting, was rather an unexpected acquisition; and still more so to find the precepts delivered in an easy agreeable style! The work before us, however, does not only come from a keen sportsman, but from a man of letters; a coincidence the less to be wondered at, if we are justified in conjecturing his profession from some casual hints that have escaped his pen *.
The Author very justly observes, that there is not any one of those branches of knowledge, commonly dignified with the title of arts, which has not its rudiments or principles, through which a competent knowledge, if not perfection, may be obtained : whereas hunting, the sole business of fome, and the amusement of the greatest part of the youth of this kingdom, seems left alone to chance. Its pursuit puts us both to greater expence, and greater inconvenience, than any thing beades, and yet we trust our diversion in it to che sole guidance of a huntsman: we follow just as he chuses to lead us; and we suffer the success, or disappointment, of the chase to depend solely on the judgment of a fellow, who is frequently a greater brute than the creature on which he rides.' I would not be understood to mean by this, that an huntsman should be a scholar, or that every gentleman should hunt his own hounds: a huntsman need not be a man of letters ; but give me leave to say, that, had he the best understanding, he would frequently find opportunities of exercising it, and intricacies which might put it to the teft. You will say, perhaps, there is something too laborious in the occupation of a huntsman for a gentleman to take it upon himself; you may also think that it is beneath him; I agree
* “ Before you have been long a fox-hunter, I expect to hear you talk of the ill luck which fo frequently attends it.- I assure you it has provoked me often, and has made a parson swear." p. 288. Relating soon after a fox chace, where, after the hounds had killed (wo, a third was dug out and killed, that might have been reserved for another day's sport; he adds." However, it answered one purpose you would little expect: it put a clergyman present in mind that he had a corpfe to bury, which otherwise had been forgotten," p. 293. This was a fortunate recollection ; but, had the worst happened, he might at least have had the consolation to be reminded over the evening bowl, in full chorus;-"A corpse, Moses, can't run away, Toll de roll."
with you in both,-yet I hope, he may have leave to understand it.. If he follows the diversion, it is a sign of his liking it; and if he likes it, furely it is fome disgrace to him to be ignorant of it."
The task of laying down some principles of hunting has thus devolved on the Writer under confideration ; and perhaps the business could not have been left in better hands. He gives his correspondent the following account of his intentions : * • I am glad to find you approve of the plan I propose to observe in the course of these letters, in which it shall be my endeavour to omit nothing, that may be necessary for you to know; at least, as far as my own observation and experience will give me leave. The experience I have had may be of use to you at present; others perhaps hereafter may write more judiciously and more fully on the subject : you know it is my interest to wish they would. The few who have written on hunting, refer you to their predecessors for great part of the information you might expect from them: and who their predecessors were, I have yet to arn. Even Somervile is less copious than I could wish, and has purposely omitted what is not to be found elsewhere;- I mean receipts for the cure of such diseases as hounds are subject to. He holds such information cheap, and beneath his löfty muse. Profe bas no excuse, and you may depend on every information I can give - The familiar manner in which my thoughts will be conveyed to you in these Letters, will sufficiently evince the intention of the Author.They are written with no other design than to be of use to fportsmen.- Were my aim to amuse, I would not endeavour to instruct. A song might suit the purpose better than an essay. To improve health by promoting exercise ;-to excite gentlemen who are fond of hunting to obtain the knowledge necessary to enjoy it in perfection ;-- and to leffen the punishments which are too often inflicted on an apimal so friendly to man, are the chief ends intended by the following Letters.'
In these Letters the Author treats of the best construction of kennels, giving a neat plan and elevation to illustrate his description, of the choice of hounds, their management in the kennel, rules for breeding hounds, with a vocabulary of names for them ; of their education, their diseases and remedies ; of the huntsman and whippers-in, hare hunting, description of a fox chase, and copious instructions for fox-hunting in all its parts. These principal subjects, with many subordinate articles of information, enlivened with a number of field anecdotes and little itories, fill twenty-four very entertaining Letters. As a specimen we shall present our Readers with the thirteenth letter containing the description of a fox chace :
• A fox chace is not easy to be described-yet as even a faint description of it may serve, to a certain degree, as an answer to the various questions you are pleased to make concerping that diverfion, I shall prosecute my attempt in such a manner, as I think may suit your purpose belt. As I fear it may read ill, it mall not be long: A gentleman, to whose understanding nature had most evidently been sparing of her gifts, as often as he took up a book, and
met with a passage which he could not comprehend, was used to write in the margin opposite matiere embrouillée, and gave himself no fur. ther concern about it. As different causes have been known to produce the same effects, should you treat me in like manner, I shall think it the feverest censure that can be passed upon mé. Our friend So mervile, I apprehend, was no great fox-hunter; yet all he says on the subject of hunting is so sensible and just, that I Mall turn to his account of fox-hunting, and quote it where I can.-The hour in the morning, most favourable to the diversion, is certainly an early one; nor do I think I can fix it better than to say," the bounds Mould be ac the cover at sun-rising. Let us suppose we are arrived at the cover fide,
Frelh blooming health, and universal joy." SOMERVILE. Now let your huntsman throw in his hounds as quietly as he can, and let the two whippers-in keep wide of him on either hand, so that a fingle hound may not escape them ; let them be attentive to his halloo, and be ready to encourage, or rate, as that directs ; he will, of course, draw up the wind, for reasons which I shall give in another place.--Now, if you can keep your Brother sportsmen in order, and put any discretion into them, you are in luck; they more frequently do harm than good: if it be possible, persuade those, who wish to halloo the fox off, to stand quiet under the cover side, and on no account to halloo him too soon : if they do, he most certainly will turn back again : could you entice them all into the cover, your sport, in all probability, would not be the worse for it.
How well the hounds spread the cover! the huntsman you see is quite deserted, and his horse, which fo lately had a crowd at his heels, has not now one attendant left. How steadily they draw! you hear not a single hound; yet none are idle, Is not this better than to be subject to continual disappointment, from the eternal babbling of unfteady hounds ?
See! how they range
More nobly full, and swell’d with every mouth," SOMERV. How musical their tongues ! - Now as they get nearer to him, bow the chorus fills ! Hark! be is found.- Now, where are all your forrows and your cares, ye gloomy fouls ! Qr where your pains, and aches, ye complaining ones! one halloo has dispelled them all.-What a crash they make! and echo seemingly takes pleasure to repeat the found. The afonished traveller forsakes his road, lured by its melody; the liftening ploughman now ftops his plough; and every diftant shepherd neglects his flock, and runs to see him break, What joy! what eagerness in every face !
6. How happy art thou, man, when thou'rt no more