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of perception, it is communicated to the very sound of the words, so as in appearance to improve the music of the period. But as this curious subject comes in more properly afterward, it is sufficient at present to appeal to experience, that a period so arranged as to bring out the fense clear, seems always more musical than where the fense is left in any degree doubtful.

A rule deservedly occupying the second place, is, That words expressing things connected in the thought, ought to be placed as near together as possible. This rule is derived immediately from human nature, in which there is discovered a remarkable propensity to place together tilings that are in any manner connected *: where things are arranged according to their connections, we have a fense of order; otherwise we have a sense of disorder, as of things placed by chance: and we naturally place words in the fame order in which we would place the things they signify. The bad effect of a .violent separation of words or members thus intimately connected, will appear from the following examples.

For the English are naturally fanciful, and very often disposed, by that gloominess and melancholy of temper which is so frequent in our nation, to many wild notions and visions, to which others are not so liable.

Spectator, N° 419.

* Seedigp. r.


Here the verb or assertion is, by a pretty long circumstance, violently separated from the subject to which it refers: this makes a harih arrangement; the less excusable that the fault is easily prevented by placing the circumstance before the verb or assertion, after the following manner:

For the English are naturally fanciful, and, by that gloominess and melancholy of temper which is so frequent in our nation, are often disposed to many wild notions,

For as no mortal author, in the ordinary fate and viciffitude of things, knows to what use his works may, some time or other, be apply'd, <bc.

SpeSlator, N° 85.

Better thus:

For as, in the ordinary fate and vicissitude of thing?, no mortal author knows to what use, some time or other, his works may be apply'd.

From whence we may date likewise the rivalship of the house of France, for we may reckon that of the Valois and that of Bourbon as one upon this occasion, and the house of Austria, that continues at this day, and has oft cost so much blood and so much treasure in the course

of it.

Letters on history, vol. 1. letter 6. Bolingbroke.

It cannot be impertinent or ridiculous therefore in such a country, whatever it might be in the Abbot of St Real's,

which was Savoy I think; or in Peru, under the Incas, where Garcilasso de la Vega fays it was lawful for none but the nobility to study — for men of all degrees to instruct themselves, in those affairs wherein they may be actors, or judges of those that act, or controllers of those that judge.

Letters on history, vol. I. let. J. Bolingbroke.

If Scipio, who was naturally given to women, for which anecdote we have, if I mistake not, the authority of Polybius, as well as some verses of Nevius preserved by Aulus Gellius, had been educated by Olympias at the court of Philip, it is improbable that he would have restored the beautiful Spaniard.

Ibii. Utter 3.

If any one have a curiosity for more specimens of this kind, they will be found without number in the works of the fame author.

A pronoun, which saves the naming a person or thing a second time, ought to be placed as near as possible to the name of that person or thing. This is a branch of the foregoing rule; and with the reason there given, another concurs, viz. That if other ideas intervene, it is difficult to recal the person or thing by reference.'

If I had leave to" print the Latin letters transmitted f me from foreign parts, they would fill a volume, and be a full defence against all that Mr Patridge, or his accomplices of the Portugal inquisition, will be ever able to object; who, by the way, are the only enemies my predictions have ever met with at home or abroad.

Better Better thus:

1 and be a full defence against all that can be object.

ed by Mr Partridge,. or his accomplices of the Portugal inquisition; who, by the way, are, be,

There being a round million of creatures in human fi* gure, throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence, be.

A modest proposal, &c. .Swift.


There being, throughout this kingdom, a round million of creatures in human figure, whole whole subsistence, be.

Tom is a lively impudent clown, and has wit enough to have made him a pleasant companion, had it been polished and rectified by good manners.

Guardian, N° 162.

It is the custom of the Mahometans, if they fee any printed or written paper upon the ground, to take it up, and lay it aside carefully, as not knowing but it may contain some piece of their Alcoran.

Spetlator, N085.

The arrangement here lends to a wrong fense, as if the ground were taken up, not the paper. * > Better thus:

It is the custom of the Mahometans, if they fee upon the ground any printed or written paper, to take" it up,

be. ...

Vol. II. E The •

The following rule depends on the communication of emotions to related objects; a principle in human nature that hath an extensive operation: and we find this operation, even where the ob^ jects are not otherwise related than by juxtaposition of the words that express them. Hence, to elevate or depress an object, one method is, to join it in the expression with another that is naturally high or low: witness the following speech of Eumenes to the Roman senate.

Causam veniendisibi Romam suisse, præter cupiditatem visendi deos hominesque, quorum beneficio in ca fortuna esset, supra quam ne optarc quidem auderet, etiam ut coram moneret senatum ut Pcrsei conatus obviam iret.

Livy, 1.42. cap. tt.

To join the Romans with the gods in the fame enunciation, is an artful stroke of flattery, because it tacitly puts them on a level. On the other hand, when the purpose is to degrade or vilify an object, this is done successfully by ranking it with one that is reallj low:

I hope to have this entertainment in a readiness for the next winter; and doubt not but it will please more than the opera or puppet-sliow.

SpeRator, N6 28.

Manifold have been thejudgements which Heaven from time to time, for the chastisement of a sinful people, has inflicted upon whole nations. For when the degeneracy becomes common, 'tis but just the punishment should be


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