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kind; for an evident reason, that the former is more distinct and lively than the latter. But this inferiority in the ideas of imagination, is more than compensated by their greatness andvariety, which are boundless; for the imagination acting without controul, can fabricate ideas o£ finer visible objects, of more noble and heroic actions, of greater wickedness, of more surprising events, than ever in fact existed: and in communicating such ideas by words, painting, sculpture, drc. the influence of the imagination is not less extensive than great.
29. In the nature of every man, there is somewhat original, that serves to distinguish him from others, that tends to form a character, and to make him meek or fiery, candid or deceitful, resolute or timorous, chearful or morose. This original bent, termed disposition, must be distinguished from a principle: the latter, signifying a law of human nature, makes part of the common nature of man; the former makes part of the nature of this or that man. Propensity is a name common to both; for it signifies a principle as well as a disposition.
30. AfieClion, signifying a settled bent of mind toward a particular being or thing, occupies a middle place between disposition on the one hand, and passion on the other. It is clearly distinguishable from disposition, which being a branch of our nature originally, must exist before there can be an opportunity to exert it upon any
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particular object; whereas affection can never be Original, because having a special relation to a particular object, it cannot exist till the object have once at least been presented. It is not less clearly distinguiihable from passion, which depending on the real or ideal presence of its object, vanishes with its object; whereas affection, once fettled on a person, is a lasting connection; and, like other connections, subsists even when we do not think of the person. A familiar example will clear the whole. There may be in my mind a disposition to gratitude, which through want of an object, happens never to be exerted; and which therefore is never discovered even by myself. Another who has the fame disposition meets with a kindly office that makes him grater ful to his benefactor: an intimate connection is formed between them, termed affettion; which, like other connections, has a permanent existence, though not always in view. The affection, for the most part, lies dormant, till an opportunity offer of exerting it\? in this circumstance, it is converted jnto the passign of gratitude; and the opportunity is greedily seized for testifying gratitude in the warmest manner.
31. Aversion, I think, must be opposed to affection, and not to desire, as it commonly is, We have an affection to one person; we have an aversion to another: the former disposes us to do good to its object, the latter to do ill.
a?. "What is a sentiment? It ;s not a perception; for a perception signifies the act by which: we become conscious of external objects. It is not consciousness of an internal action, such as thinking, suspending thought, inclining, resolving, willing, &c. Neither is it the conception of a relation amongst: objects; a conception of this kind being termed opinion. The term sentiment is appropriated to such thoughts as are. prompted by passion.
3 3. Attention is that state of mind which prepares one' to receive impressions. According to the degree of attention, objects make a strongeror weaker impression *. Attention is requisite even to the simple act of seeing. The eye can. take in a considerable field at one look; but no object in the field is seen distinctly, but that singly which fixes the attention. In a profound reverie that totally occupies the attention, we scarce see what is directly before us. In a train of perceptions, no particular object makes such a figure as it would do single and apart: for when the attention is divided among many ob- • jects, no particular object is intitled to a large
* Bacon, in his natural history, makes the following observations. Sounds arc meliorated by the intension of the fense, where the common sense is collected most to the particular fense of hearing, and the sight suspended. Therefore sounds are sweeter, as well as greater, in the night than in the day; and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than to others: and it is manifest, that between sleeping and waking, when all the fenses are bound and suspended, music is far sweeter than when one is fully waking.
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stare Hence, the stillness of night contributes to terror, there being nothing to divert the attention:
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Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silcntia terrent.
Zara. Silence and solitude are ev'ry where! Through all the gloomy ways and iron doors That hither lead, nor human face nor voice Is seen or heard. A dreadful din was wont To grate the fense, when enter'd here, from groans And howls of staves condemn'd, from clink of chains, And crash of rusty bars and creaking hinges: And ever and anon the sight was daflVd With frightful faces and the meagre looks. Of grim and ghastly executioners, Yet more this stillness terrifies my foul Than did that scene of complicated horrors.
Mourning Bride, ail $.sc. 8.
And hence it is, that an object seen at the termir nation of a confined view, is more agreeable than when seen in a group with the surrounding objects:
The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark
Merchant of Venice.
34. In matters of flight importance, attention
is mostly directed by will; and for that reason, it is our own fault if trifling objects make any deep impression. Had we power equally to with-hold our attention from matters of importance, we might be proof against any deep impression. But our power fails us here: an interesting object seizes and fixes the attention beyond the possibility of control; and while our attention is thus forcibly attached to one object, others may solicit for admittance; but in vain, for they will not be regarded. Thus a small misfortune is scarce felt in presence of a greater:
Lear. Thou think'st *tis much, that this contentious
storm Invades us to the skin; so 'tis to thee; But where the greater malady is fix'd, The lefler is scarce felt, Thou'dst shun a bear; But if thy flight lay tow'rd the roaring sea, Thou'dst meet the bear i'th' mouth. When the mind's
free, The body's delicate: the tempest in my mind Doth from my fenses take all feeling else, Save what beats there. King Lear, ail 3. sc. 5,
35-. Genus, species, modification, are terms invented to distinguish beings from each other. Individuals are distinguished by their qualities: a number of individuals considered with respect to qualities that distinguish them from others, is termed & species : a plurality ot species considered, w|th respect to their distinguishing qualities, is