« הקודםהמשך »
derived from real existences that have been objects of our senses; language is the cause of the second, or any other sign that has the fame power with language: and a man's imagination is to himself the cause of the third. It is scarce neces. lary to add, that an idea, originally of imagination, being convey'd to others by language, or any other vehicle, becomes in the mind of those to whom it is convey'd, an idea of the second kind ; and again, that an idea of this kind, being afterward recalled to the mind, becomes in that circumstance an idea of memory,
20. We are not so constituted, as to perceive objects with indifferency: these, with very few exceptions, appear agreeable or disagreeable; and at the same time raise in us pleasant or painful emotions. With respect to external objects in particular, we distinguish those which produce organic impressions, from those which affect us from a distance: when we touch a soft and smooth body, we have a pleasant feeling as at the place of contact; which feeling we distinguish not, at least not accurately, from the a: greeableness of the body itself; and the same holds in general with regard to all organic impressions: it is otherwise in hearing and seeing; a found is perceived as in itself agreeable, and raises in the hearer a pleasant emotion; an object of sight appears in itself agreeable, and raises in the spectator a pleasant emotion. These are accurately distinguished: the pleasant emotion is
felt as within the mind; the agreeableness of the * object is placed upon the object, and is perceived . as one of its qualities or properties. The agreeable appearance of an object of sight, is termed beauty ; and the disagreeable appearance of such
an object is termed ugliness. * 21. But though beauty and ugliness, in their
proper and genuine signification, are confined to * objects of fight; yet in a more lax and figurative signification, they are apply'd to objects of the on
es: they are sometimes apply'a abstract terms; for it is not unusual to say, a E, a beautiful theorem, a beautiful constitution of goE, F vernment. Gü 22. A line composed by a single rule, is per- polecam ceived and said to be regular : a straight line, a este parabola, a hyperbola, the circumference of a
circle, and of an ellipse, are all of them regular, those lines. A figure composed by a single rule, is be perceived and said to be regular: a circle; a
* fquare, a hexagon, an equilateral triangle, are eling regular figures, being composed by a single rule
that determines the form of each. When the ;22. form of a line or of a figure is ascertained by a
single rule that leaves nothing arbitrary, the line rings and the figure are said to be perfectly regular;
which is the case of the figures now mentioned, notis and the case of a straight line and of the circumbile e ference of a circle. A figure and a line that re22. quire more than one rule for their construction, door that liave any of their parts left arbitrary, are
not perfectly regular: a parallelogram and à rhomb are less regular than a square; the paralle. logram being subjected to no rule as to the length of sides, other than that the opposite sides be equal; the rhomb being subjected to no rule as to its angles, other than that the opposite angles be equal : for the same reason, the circumference of an ellipse, the form of which is susceptible of much variety, is less regular than that of a circle.
23. Regularity, properly speaking, belongs, like beauty, to objects of sight: and, like beauty, it is also apply'd figuratively to other objects: thus we say, a regular government, a regular composition of music, and, regular discipline.
24. When two figures are composed of similar parts, they are said to be uniform. Perfect uniformity is where the constituent parts of two figures are equal: thus two cubes of the same dimensions are perfectly uniform in all their parts. Uniformity less perfect is, where the parts mutually correspond, but without being equal: the uniformity is imperfect between two squares or cubes of unequal dimensions; and still more fo between a square and a parallelogram.
25. Uniformity is also applicable to the constituent parts of the same figure. The constituent parts of a square are perfectly uniform: its fides are equal and it's angles are equal. Wherein then differs regularity from uniformity? for a figure composed of uniform parts must undoubt
ely to the
515 edly be regular. · Regularity is predicated of a
figure considered as a whole composed of uniform w parts: uniformity is predicated of these parts as
related to each other by resemblance: we say, a square is a regular, not an uniform, figure; but with respect to the constituent parts of a square, we say not, that they are regular, but that they
are uniform. - 15 kot 26. In things destined for the same use, as
legs, arms, eyes, windows, spoons, we expect splendent uniformity. Proportion ought to govern parts ht: 24
intended for different uses : we require a certain
proportion between a leg and an arm; in the Fernment
base, the shaft, the capital of a pillar; and in the gule length, the breadth, the height of a room : compo: fome proportion is also required in different Form. A things intimately connected, as between a dwelzent perisi ling-house, the garden, and the stables: but we Libes dit require no proportion among things slightly cona im allt nected, as between the table a man writes on and mere tike in the dog that follows hin. Proportion and unia t being a formity never coincide : things equal are uniform; en twee but proportion is never applied to them: the and E four sides and angles of a square are equal and gran perfectly uniform; but we say not that they are Ecuble proportional. Thus, proportion always implies zure, inequality or difference; but then it implies it to Fedeli si a certain degree only: the most agreeable proe con portion resembles a maximum in mathematics;
unit a greater or less inequality or difference is less aerts mit greeable.
K k 2
27. Order regards various particulars. First, in tracing or surveying objects, we are directed by a sense of order : we conceive it to be more orderly, that we should pass from a principal to its accessories, and froin a whole to its parts, than in the contrary direction. Next, with respect to the position of things, a sense of order directs us to place together things intimately connected. Thirdly, in placing things that have no natural connection, that order appears the most perfect, where the particulars are made to bear the strongest relation to each other that position can give them. Thus parallelism is the strongest relation that position can bestow upon straight lines : if they be so placed as by production to intersect each other, the relation is less perfect. A large body in the middle, and two equal bodies of less size, one on each side, is an order that produces the strongest relation the bodies are fusceptible of by position: the relation between the two equal bodies would be stronger by juxtapofition; but they would not both have the same relation to the third. • 28. The beauty or agreeableness of a visible object, is perceived as one of its qualities; which holds, not only in the original perception, but also in the secondary perception or idea : and hence the pleasure that arises from the idea of a beautiful object. An idea of imagination is also pleasant, though in a lower degree than an idea of memory, where the objects are of the fame