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which is necessary with respect to such words only as are not declined, adverbs, for example, articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. In the English language there are few declensions; and therefore juxtaposition is our chief resource: adjećtives accompany their substantives *; an adverb accompanies the word it qualifies; and the verb occupies the middle place between the ac, tive and passive subjects to which it relates.
It must be obvious, that those terms which have nothing relative in their signification, cannot be connected in so easy a manner. When two substantives happen to be connected, as cause and effect, as principal and accessory, or in any other manner, such connection cannot be expressed by contiguity solely; for words must often in a period be placed together which are not thus related : the relation between substantives, therefore, cannot otherwise be expressed but by particles denoting the relation. Latin indeed and Greek, by their declensions, go a certain length to express such relations, without the aid of particles: the relation of property,
* Taking advantage of a declension to separate an adjective from its substantive, as is commonly practised in Latin, though it detra&t not from perspicuity, is certainly less neat than the English method of juxtapofition. Contiguity is more expressive of an intimate relation, than resemblance merely of the final syllables. Larin indeed has evidently the advantage when the adjective and sub. stantive happen to be connected by contiguity, as well as by resem. blance of the final syllablcs,
for for example, between Cæfar and his horse, is expressed by putting the latter in the nominative case, the former in the genitive; equus Cæfaris : the same is also expressed in English without the aid of a particle, César's horse. But in other instances, declensions not being used in the English language, relations of this kind are common
ly expreiled by prepositions. "I This form of connecting by prepositions, is
not confined to substantives. Qualities, attributes, manner of existing ôr acting, and all other circumstances, may in the fame manner be connected with the substantives to which they relate. This is done artificially by converting the circumstance into a substantive, in which condition it is qualified to be connected with the principal subject by a preposition, in the manner above described : for example, the adjective wise being converted into the substantive wisdom, gives oportunity for the expression “a man of
wisdom," instead of the more simple exprefsion, a wise man: this variety in the expression, enriches language. - I observe, beside, that the using a preposition in this case, is not always a matter of choice : it is indifpensable with respect to every circumstance that cannot be expressed by a single adjective or adverb.
To pave the way for the rules of arrangement, one other preliminary is necessary; which is, to explain the difference between a natural style, and that where transposition or inversion prevails. .
There are, it is true, no' precise boundaries be- : tween them; for they run into each other, like the shades of different colours. No person however is at a loss to distinguish them in their extremes : and it is necessary to make the distinction; because though fome of the rules I shall have occasion to mention are common to both, yet each has rules peculiar to itself. In a natural · style, relative words are by juxtaposition connect
ed with those to which they relate, going before or after, according to the peculiar genius of the language. Again, a circunıstance connected by a preposition, follows naturally the word with which it is connected. But this arrangement may be varied, when a different order is more beautiful : a circumstance may be placed before the word with which it is connected by a preposition; and may be interjected even between a relative word and that to which it relates. When such liberties are frequently taken, the style becomes inverted or transposed.
But as the liberty of inversion is a capital point in handling the present subject, it will be necefsary to examine it more narrowly, and in particular to trace the several degrees in which an inverted style recedes more and more from that, which is natural. And first, as to the placing a circumstance before the word with which it is connected, I observe, that it is the easiest of all inversion, even so easy as to be consistent with a Vol. II. D
style that is properly termed natural: witness the following examples.
In the fincerity of my heart, I profess, &c.
By our own ill management, we are brought to fo low an ebb of wealth and credit, that, &c.
On Thursday morning there was little or nothing tranfacted in Change-alley.
At St Bride's church in Fleetstreet, Mr Woolston, (who writ against the miracles of our Saviour), in the utmost terrors of conscience, made a public recantation.
The interjecting a circumstance between a relative word and that to which it relates, is inore properly termed inversion; because, by a difjunction of words intimately connected, it recedes farther from a natural style. But this licence has also degrees; for the disjunction is more violent in some cases than in others. This I must also explain : and to give a just notion of the difference, I must crave liberty of my reader to enter a little more into an abstract subject, than would otherwise be my choice.
In nature, though a subject cannot exist without its qualities, nor a quality without a subject; yet in our conception of these, a material difference may be remarket. I cannot conceive a quality but as belonging to some subject : it makes inced a part of the idea which is formed of tlie
subject. But the opposite holds not; for thouglı I cannot form a conception of a subject devoid of all qualities, a partial conception may however be forined of it, laying aside or abstracting from any. particular quality : I can, for example, form the idea of a fine Arabian horse without regard to his colour, or of a white horse without regard to his size. Such partial conception of a subject, is still more eafy with respect to action or motion; which is an occasional attribute only, and has not the same permanency with colour or figure : I cannot forin an idea of motion independent of a body; but there is nothing more easy than to form an idea of a body at rest. Hence it appears, that the degree of inversion depends greatly on the order in which the related words are placed : when a substantive occupies the first place, the idea suggested by this word must subsist in the mind at least for a moment, independent of the relative words afterward introduced; and that moment may without difficulty be prolonged by interjecting a circumstance between the substantive and its connections. Examples therefore of this kind, will scarce alone be sufficient to denominate a style inverted. The case is very different, where the word that occupies the first place, denotes a quality or an action; for as these cannot be conceived without a subject, they cannot without greater violence be separated from the subject that follows: and for that reason, every such fem