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which is necessary with respect to such words only as are not declined, adverbs, for example, articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. In the English language there are few declensions; and therefore juxtaposition is our chief resource: adjectives accompany their substantives *; an adverb accompanies the word it qualifies; and the verb occupies the middle place between the active and passive subjects to which it relates.
It must be obvious, that those terms which have nothing relative in their signification, cannot be connected in so easy a manner. When two substantives happen to be connected, as cause and effect, as principal and accessory, or in any other manner, such connection cannot be expressed by contiguity solely; for words must often in a period be placed together which are not thus related: the relation between substantives, therefore, cannot otherwise be expressed but by particles denoting the relation. Latin indeed and Greek, by their declensions, go a certain length to express such relations, without the aid of particles; the relation of property,
• Taking advantage of a declension to separate an adjective from its substantive, as is commonly practised in Latin, though it detract not from perspicuity, is certainly less neat than the English method of juxtaposition. Contiguity is more expressive of an intimate relation, than resemblance merely of the final syllables. Latin indeed has evidently the advantage when the adjective and substantive happen to be connected by contiguity, as well as by resemblance of the final syllables.
for for example, between Cæsar and his horse, is expressed by putting the latter in the nominative case, the former in the genitive; equits Qæsaris .the fame is also expressed in English without the aid of a particle, Char's horse. But in other instances, declensions not being used in the English language, relations of this kind are commonly expressed by prepositions. 'This form of connecting by prepositions, is not "confined to substantives. Qualities^ attributes, manner of existing or acting, and all other circumstances, may in the fame manner be connected with the substantives to which they relate. This is done artificially by converting the circumstance into a substantive, in which condition it is qualified to be cqnnected with the principal subject by a preposition, in the manner above described: for example, the adjective iviss being converted into the substantive -wisdom, gives oportunity for the expression "a man os *' wisdom," instead of the more simple expression, a wise man: this variety in the expression, enriches language. I observe, beside, that the u- , sing a preposition in this case, is not always a matter of choice: it is indispensable with respect to every circumstance that,cannot be expressed by a single adjective or adverb.
To pave the way for the rules of arrangement, one other preliminary is neceslary; which is, to explain the difference between a natural style, and that where transposition or inversion prevails.
There are, it is true, no precise boundaries between them; for they run into each other, like the sliades of different colours. No person however is at a loss to distinguish them ill their extremes: and it is necessary to make the distinction; because though some1 of the ruies I shall have occasion to mention are common to both, yet each has rules peculiar to itself. In a natural style, relative words are by juxtaposition connected with those to which they relate, going before or after, according to the peculiar genius of the language. Again, a circumstance connected by a preposition, follows naturally the word with which it is connected. But this arrangement may be varied, when a different order is more beautiful: a circumstance may be placed before the word with which it is connected by a preposition; and may be interjected even between a relative word and that to which it relates. When such liberties are frequently taken, the style becomes inverted or transposed.
But as the liberty of inversion is a capital point in handling the present subject, it will be necessary to examine it more narrowly, and in particular to trace the several degrees in which an inverted style recedes more and more from that which is natural. And first, as to the placing a circumstance before the word with which it is connected, I observe, that it is the easiest of all inversion, even so easy as to be consistent with a
Vol. II. D style style that is properly termed natural i witness the following examples.
In the sincerity of my heart, I profess, <bc.
By our own ill management, we arc brought to so low an ebb of wealth and credit, that, <bc.
On Thursday morning there was little or nothing transacted in Change-alley.
At St Bride's church in Fleetstreet, Mr Woolston, (who writ against the miracles of our Saviour), in the utmost terrors of conscience, made a public recantation.
The interjecting a circumstance between a relative word and that to which it relates, is more properly termed inversion; because, by a disjunction of words intimately connected, it recedes farther from a natural style. But this licence has also degrees; for the disjunction is more violent in some cafes than in others. This I must also explain: and to give a just notion of the difference, I must crave liberty of my reader to enter a little more into an abstract subject, than would otherwise be my choice.
In nature, though a subject cannot exist without its qualities, nor a quality without a subject; yet in our conception of these, a material difference may be'remarked. 1 cannot conceive a quality but as belonging to some subject: it makes indeed a part of the idea which is formed of the
subject. But the opposite holds not; for though I cannot form a conception of a subject devoid of all qualities, a partial conception may however be formed of it, laying aside or abstracting from arty particular quality: I can, for example, form the idea of a fine Arabian horse without regard to his colour, orofa white horse without regard to his size* Such partial conception of a subject, is still more easy with respect to action or motion; which is an occasional attribute only, and has not the fame permanency with colour or figure: I cannot form an idea of motion independent of a body; but there is nothing more easy than to form an idea of a body at rest. Hence it appears, that the degree of inversion depends greatly on the order in which the related words are placed: when a substantive occupies the first place, the idea suggested by this word must subsist in the mind at least for a moment, independent of the relative words afterward introduced; and that moment may without difficulty be prolonged by interjecting a circumstance between the substantive and its connections. Examples therefore of this kind, will scarce alone be sufficient to denominate a style inverted. The case is very different, where the word that occupies the first place, denotes a quality or an action; for as these cannot be conceived without a subject, they cannot without greater violence be separated from the subject that follows: and for that reason, every such feD 2 paration