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The reason I take to be what follows. A conti.
Æneid. iv. 593.
Æneid. ix. 36. In this view Longinus * justly compares copula* Treatise of the Sublime, cap. 16.
tives in a period to strait tying, which in a race obstructs the freedom of motion.
It follows, that to multiply copulatives in the fame period ought to be avoided : for if the laying aside copulatives give force and liveliness, a redundancy of them must render the period languid. I appeal to the following instance, though there are not more than two copulatives.
Upon looking over the letters of my female correfpondents, I find several from women complaining of jealous husbands; and at the same time protesting their own innocence, and defiring my advice upon this occa. fion.
Spectator, No 170.
· I except the case where the words are intended to express the coldness of the speaker; for there the redundancy of copulatives is a beauty:
Dining one day at an alderman's in the city, Peter ob. ferved him expatiating after the manner of his brethren, in the praises of his firloin of beef. “ Beef,” said the sage magistrate, “ is the king of meat: Beef compre“ hends in it the quintessence of partridge, and quail, “ and venison, and pheasant, and plum pudding, and “ cuftard.”
Tale of a Tub, \ 4.
And the author shows great taste in varying the expression in the mouth of Peter, who is reprefented more animated :
« Bread,” says he, « dear brothers, is the staff of “ life, in which bread is contained, inclufivè, the quin
“ tescence of beef, mutton, veal, venifon, partridge, .“ plum-pudding, and custard.”
Another case must also be excepted: copulatives have a good effect where the intention is to give an impression of a great multitude consisting of many divisions ; for example: “ The army 66 was composed of Grecians, and Carians, and “ Lycians, and Pamphylians, and Phrygians.” The reason is, that a leisurely survey, which is expressed by the copulatives, makes the parts appear more numerous than they would do by running then over with celerity : in the latter case the army an: gars like one whole, and as in one group: in the former, we take as it were an accurate survey of each nation, and of each division *.
We proceed to the second kind of beauty; which consists in a due arrangement of the words or materials. This branch of the subject is not less nice than extensive; and I despair tò put it in a clear light, except to those who are well acquainted with the general principles that govern the structure or composition of language.
In a thought, generally speaking, there is at least one capital object considered as acting or as suffering. This object is expressed by a substantive noun: its action is expressed by an active verb; and the thing affected by the action is expressed by another substantive noun: its suffering
* See Demetrius Phalereus of Elocution, sect. 63.
or passive state is expressed by a passive verb; and the thing that acts upon it, by a substantive noun. Beside these, which are the capital parts of a sentence or period, there are generally under-parts: each of the substantives as well as the verb, may be qualified : time, place, purpose, inotive, means, instrument, and a thousand other circumstances, may be necessary to complete the thought. And in what manner these several parts are connected in the expression, will appear from what follows.
In a complete thought or mental proposition, all the members and parts are mutually related, some slightly, some more intimately. To put such a thought in words, it is not fufficient that the component ideas be clearly expressed : it is also necessary, that all the relations contained in. the thought be expressed according to their different degrees of intimacy. To annex a certain meaning to a certain sound or word, requires no art: the great nicety in all languages is, to express the various relations that connecttogether the parts of the thought. Could we suppose this branch of language to be still a secret, it would puzzle, I am apt to think, the greatest grammarian ever existed, to invent an expeditious method : and yet, by the guidance merely of nature, the rude and illiterate have been led to a method so perfect, that it appears not susceptible of any improvement; and the next step in our progress shall be to explain this method.
Words that import a relation, must be distinguished from those that do not. Substantives commonly imply no relation, such as animal, man, tree, river. Adjectives, verbs, and adyerbs, imply a relation : the adjective good must relate to some being posseised of that quality: '. the verb write must be applied to some person who writes; and the adverbs, moderately, diligently, have plainly a reference to some action which they modify. When a relative word is introduced, it must be signified by the expression to what word it relates, without which the sense cannot be complete. For answering this purpose, I observe in Greek and Latin two different methods : adjectives are declined as well as subftantives; and declension serves to ascertain the connection that is between them: if the word that expresses the subject be, for example, in the nominative case, so also must the word be that expresses its quality; example, vir bonus : again, verbs are related, on the one hand, to the agent, and, on the other, to the subject upon which the action is exerted; and a contrivance similar to that now mentioned, serves to express this double relation; the nominative case is appropriated to the agent, the accusative to the pasfive subject; and the verb is put in the first, fecond, or third person, to correspond the more intimately with both; examples, Ego amo Tulsiam; tu amas Semproniam ; Brutus amat Portiam. The other method is by juxtaposition,