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The reason I take to be what follows. A continued found, if not loud, tends to lay us asleep J an interrupted sound rouses and animates by its repeated impulses: thus feet composed of syllables, being pronounced with a sensible interval between each, make more lively impressions than can be made by a continued sound. A period of which the members are connected by copulatives, produceth an effect upon the mind approaching to that of a continued sound; and therefore to suppress the copulatives must animate a description. To suppress the copulatives hath another good effect: the members of a period connected by proper copulatives, glide smoothly and gently along; and are a proof of sedateness and leisure in the speaker: on the other hand, one in the hurry of passion, neglecting copulatives and other particles, expresses the principal image only; and for that reason, hurry or quick action is best expressed without copulatives:

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Ferte cite flammas, date vela, impellite remos.

Æneid. iv. 593.

Quis globus, O Cive9, caligine volvitur atra?
Ferte cite ferrum, date tela, scandite muros.
Hostis adest, eja. Æneid. ix. 36.

In this view Longinus * justly compares copula

* Treatise of the Sublime, cap. 16.

tives in a period to strait tying, which in a race obstructs the freedom of motion. \It follows, that to multiply copulatives in the fame period ought to be avoided: for if the laying aside copulatives give force and liveliness, a redundancy of them must render the period languid. I appeal to the following instance, though there are not more than two copulatives.

Upon looking over the letters of my female correspondents, I find several from women complaining of jealous husbands; and at the fame time protesting their own innocence, and desiring my advice upon this occasion. Spetlater, N° 170.

I except the cafe where the words are intended to express the coldness of the speaker; lor there the redundancy of copulatives is a beauty:

Dining one day at an alderman's in the city, Peter observed him expatiating after the manner of his brethren, in the praises of his sirloin of beef. '' Beef," said the sage magistrate, " is the king of meat: Beef compre"hends in it the quintessence of partridge, and quail, "and venison, and pheasant, and plum pudding, and "custard." Tale of a Tub, § 4.

And the author shows great taste in varying the expression in the mouth of Peter, who is represented more animated:

"Bread," says he, "dear brothers, is the staff of "life, in which bread is contained, inclusive, the quin

"tescencc «' tcscence of beef, mutton, veal, venison, partridge, "plum-pudding, and custard."

Another case must also be excepted: copulatives have a good effect where the intention is to give an impression of a great multitude consisting of many divisions; for example: "The army "was composed of Grecians, and Carians, and "Lycians, and Pamphyliahs, and Phrygians." The reason is, that a leisurely survey, which is expressed by the copulatives, makes the parts appear more numerous than they would do by running them over with celerity : in the latter cafe the army appears like one whole, and as in one group: in the former, we take as it were an accurate survey of each nation, and of each division*.

We proceed to the second kind of beauty; which consists in a due arrangement of the words or materials. This branch of the subject is not less nice than extensive; and I despair to put it in a clear light, except to those who are well acquainted with the general principles that govern the structure or composition of language.

In a thought, generally speaking, there is at least one capital object considered as acting or as suffering. This 'object is expressed by a substantive noun: its action is expressed by an active verb; and the thing affected by the action is expressed by another substantive noun: its suffering

* See Demetrius Phalereus of Elocution, sect. 63.

or or passive state is expressed by a passive verb; and the thing that acts upon it, by a substantive noun. Beside these, which are the capital parts of a sentence or period, there are generally under-parts: each of the substantives as well as the verb, may be qualified: time, place, purpose, motive, means, instrument, and a thousand other circumjstances, may be necessary to complete the thought. And in what manner these several parts are connected in the expression, will appear from what follows.

In a complete thought or mental proposition) all the members and parts are mutually related, some slightly, some more intimately. To put such a thought in words, it is not sufficient that the component ideas be clearly expressed: it is also necessary, that all the relations contained in. the thought be expressed according to their different degrees of intimacy. To annex a certain meaning to a certain found or word, requires no art: the great nicety in all languages is, to express the various relations that connect together the parts of the thought. Could we suppose this branch of language to be still a secret, it would puzzle, I am apt to think, the greatest grammarian ever existed, to invent an expeditious method: and yet, by the guidance merely of nature, the rude and illiterate have been led to a method so perfect, that it appears not susceptible of any improvement; and the next step in our progress shall be

to explain this method.

Words

Words that import a relation, must be distinguilhed from those that do not. Substantives commonly imply no relation, such as animal, man, tree, river. Adjectives, verbs, and adverbs, imply a relation: the adjective good must relate to some being possessed of that quality: the verb write must be applied to some person who writes; and the adverbs, moderately, diligently, have plainly a reference to some action which they modify. When a relative word is introduced, it must be signified by the expression to what word it relates, without which the fense cannot be complete. For answering this purpose, I observe in Greek and Latin two different methods: adjectives are declined as well as substantives; and declension serves to ascertain the connection that is between them: if the word that expresses the subject be, for example, in the nominative case, so also must the word be that expresses its quality; example, vir bonus: again, verbs are related, on the one hand, to the agent, and, on the other, to the subject upon which the action is exerted; and a contrivance similar to that now mentioned, serves to express this double relation; the nominative cafe is appro-! priated to the agent, the accusative to the passive subject; and the verb is put in the first, second, or third person, to correspond the more intimately with both; examples, Ego amo Tul~ liam; tu amas Semproniam; Brutus amat Portiam. The other method is by juxtaposition,

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