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'T&da for a marriage. The East for a country situated east from us. Jovis vejiigiafervat, for imitating Jupiter in general.
8. A word signifying time or place, employ'd figviratively to denote what is connected with it.
Clime for a nation, or for a constitution of government: hence the expression, Merciful climck Fleecy winter for snow. Seculum felix.
9. A part for the whole.
The pole for the earth. The head for thb person:
Triginta minas pro capitc tuo dedi. Pkutus>
Tergum for the man:
Vultus for the man:
Jam fulgor armorum fugaces
Terrct equbs, equitumque vultus. Horati.
Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus
Tarn chari capitis? Hor at.
fiumque virent genua? HoraU
Thy growing virtues justify'd my cares;
• Forthwith from the pool he rears
His mighty stature. Paradise Lost.
The silent heart which grief assails. Parnell.
The peculiar beauty of this figure consists ire marking that part which makes the greatest figure.
10. The name of the container, employ'd figuratively to signify what is contained.
Crove for the birds in it, Vocal grove. Ships for the seamen, Agonizing (hips. Mountains for the sheep pasturing upon them, Bleating mountains. Zacynthus, Ithaca, ire. for the inhabitants. Ex mxfiis domibus. Livy.
11. The name of the fustainer, employ'd figuratively to signify what is sustained.
dltar for the sacrifice. Field for the battle fought upon it, Well-fought field.
12. The name of the materials, employ'd figuratively to signify the things made of them.
Ferrum for gladius.
13. The r.ames of the Heathen deities, employ'd figuratively to signify what they patronise.
Jorve for the air, Mars for war, Venus for beauty, Cupid for love, Ceres for corn, JSltptune for the sea, Vulcan for fire.
This figure bestows great elevation upon the subject; and therefore ought to be confined to the higher strains of poetry.
When two attributes are connected, the name of the one may be employ'd figuratively to express the other.
Purity and virginity are attributes of the fame person: hence the expression, Virgin snow, for pure snow.
2. A word signifying properly an attribute of one subject, employ'd figuratively to express a resembling attribute of another subject.
Tottering state. Imperious ocean. Angry flood. Raging tempest. Shallow fears.
My sure divinity shall bear the shield,
And edge thy sword to reap the glorious field.
Odyjsey, xx. 6t.
U 3 Black
Black wneity for an omen that portends bad fortune.
Ater odor. Virgil.
The peculiar beauty of this figure arises from suggesting a comparison.
3. A word proper to the subject, employ'd t« express one of its attributes.
Metis for intellettus. Mem for a resolution:
Istam, oro, exue mentem,
4. When two subjects have a resemblance by a common quality, the name of the one subject may be employ'd figuratively to denote that quality in the other.
Summer life for agreeable life,
5. The name of the instrument made tp signify the power of employing it.
<i Melpomene, cui liquidam pater
Vbcem cum cithara dedit,
The ample field of figurative expression display'd in these tables, affords great scope for reasoning. Several of the observations relating to metaphor, are applicable to figures of speech:
theft these I shall slightly retouch, with some additions peculiarly adapted to the present subject.
In the first place, as the figure under consideration is built upon relation, we find from experience, and it must be obvious from reason, that the beauty of the figure depends on the intimacy of the relation between the figurative and proper sense of the word. A slight resemblance, in particular, will never make this figure agreeable: the expression, for example, Drink down a secret, for listening to a secret with attention, is harsli and uncouth, because there is scarce any resemblance between listening and drinking. The expression fVeighty crack, used by Ben Johnson for loud crack, is worse if possible: a loud sound has not the slightest resemblance to a piece of matter that is weighty. The following expression of Lucretius is not less faulty, " Et lepido "quæ sunt fucata sonore." i. 645.
■ Sed magis
Pugnas et exactos tyrannos
Hor at. Carm. I. z. ode 13.
Phemius! let acts of gods, and heroes old,
Odyfey, i. 433.
Strepitumquc exterritus haustt. Æneid, vi. 559. U 4 Wri^