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its present (late, an epii.net that may belong to it in some future Hate:

Submcrsasque obrue puppes. Æneid, i. 73.

And mighty ruins fall. , Iliad, ▼. 411.

Impious sons their mangled fathers wound.

Another rule regards this figure, That the property of one subject ought not to be bellowed upon another with which that property is incongruous:

K. Rich. How dare thy joints forget

To pay their awful duty to our presence?

Richard 11. aft 3. fe. 6.

The connection between an awful superior and his submissive dependent is so intimate, that an attribute may readily be transferred from the one to the other: but awfulness cannot be so transferred, because it is inconsistent with submission.

SECT. VI.

Metaphor and Allegory.

A Metaphor differs from a simile, in form on. ly, not in substance: in a simile the two subjects are kept distinct in the expression, as

well

-well as in the thought; in a metaphor, the two
subjects are kept distinct in thought only, not in
the expression. A hero resembles a lion, and
upon that resemblance many similes have been
made by Homer and other poets. But instead of
resembling a lion, let us take the aid of the ima-
gination, and feign or figure the hero to be a
lion: by this variation the simile is converted in-
to a metaphor; which is carried on by describing
all the qualities of a lion that resemble those of
the hero. The fundamental pleasure here, that
of resemblance, belongs to the thought as distin-
guished' from the expression. An additional
pleasure arises from the expression: the poet, by
figuring his hero to be a lion, goes on to describe
the lion in appearance, but in reality the hero; and
his description is peculiarly beautiful, by expressing
the virtues and qualities of the hero in new
terms, which, properly speaking, belong not to
him, but to the lion. This will better be un-
derstood by examples. A family connected with
a common parent, resembles a tree, the trunk
and branches of which are connected with a com-
mon root: but let us suppose, that a family is
figured, not barely to be like a tree, but to be a
tree; and then the simile will be converted into
a metaphor, in the following manner.

Edward's sev'n sons, whereof thyself art one,
Were sev'n fair branches, springing from one root:
Some os these branches by the dest'nies cut:
Vol. II, § But

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But Thomas, my dear Lord, my life, my Glo'stcr,
One flourishing branch of his most royal root,
Is hack'd down, and his summer-leaves all faded,
By Envy's hand and Murder's bloody axe.

Richard II. stj I. sc. 3.

Figuring human life to be a voyage at sea:

There is a tide in the affairs of men,

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;

Omitted, all the voyage of their life

Is bound in shallows and in miseries.

On such a full sea are we now afloat;

And we must take the current when it serves,

Or lose our ventures.

Julius Cæsar, at! 4. sc. 5.

Figuring glory and honour to be a garland of flowers:

Hots) ur. Wou'd to heav'n,

Thy name in arms were now as great as mine!

Pr. Henry. I'll make it greater, ere I part from thee >
And all the budding honours on thy crest
I'll crop, to make a garland for my head.

First Part Henry IV. ail 5. sc. 9.

Figuring a man who hath acquired great reputation and honour to be a tree full of fruit:

Oh, boys, this story

The world may read in me: my body's mark'd
With Roman swords; and my report was once'
First with the best of note. Cymbeline lov'd me;

And And when a soldier was the theme, my name

Was not far off:. then was I as a tree,

"Whose boughs did bend with fruit. But in one night,

A storm or robbery, call it what you will,

Shook down my mellow hangings, nay my leaves;

And left me bare to weather.

Cymbeline, aft 3. sc. 3.

Blest be thy foul, thou king of sliells, said Swaran of the dark-brown shield. In peace thou art the gale qf spring: in war the mountain-storm. Take now my hand in friendship, thou noble king os Morven. Fingal.

Thou dwellest in the soul of Malvina, son of mighty Oman. My sighs arise with the beam of the east: my tears descend with the drops of night. I was a lovely tree hi thy presence, Oscar, with all my branches round me: but thy death came like a blast from the desert, and laid my green head low; the spring returned with its showers, but no leaf of mine arose. Fingah

I am aware that the term metaphor has been vised in a more extensive fense than I give it; but I thought it of consequence, in a disquisition of some intricacy, to separate things that differ from each other, and to confine words within their most proper fense. An allegory differs from a metaphor;' and what I would chuse to call a figure of speech, differs from both. I proceed to explain these differences. A metaphor is defined above to be an operation of the imagination, figuring one thing to be another. An allegory requires no operation of the imagination, nor is one thing S z . figured

figured to be another: it consists in chusing a subject having properties or circumstances resembling those of the principal subject; and the former is dei'cribed in such a manner as to represent the sitter: the subject thus represented is kept out of view; we are left to discover it by reflection; and we are pleased with the discovery, because it is our own work. Quintilian * gives the following instance of an allegory:

O navis, referent in mare te novi

Fluctus. O quid agis? fortiter occupa porrum.

Hor at. lib. 1. ode 14,

and explains it elegantly in the following words: "Totusque ille Horatii locus, quo navim pro re<{ publica, fluituum tempestates pio bellis civilifC bus, portum pro pace atque concordia, dicit."

There cannot be a finer or more correct allegory than the following, in which a vineyard is made to represent God's own people the Jews:

Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it. Thou didst cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land. The hills were covered with its shadow, and the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars. Why hist thou then broken down her hedges, so that all which pass do pluck her? The boar out of the wood doth waste it, and the wild beast doth devour it. Return, we beseech thee, O God of

• L. 8. cap. 6. sect. 2.

JwstS!

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