« הקודםהמשך »
B. C. cir. 2304.
B. C. cir. 2344.
Territories of the Canaanites.
The posterity of Shem. A. M. cir. 1700. whom Philistim,) and 21 Unto Shem also, the father A. M. unknown.
B. C. unknown. Caphtorim.
of all the children of Eber, the 15 And Canaan begat Sidon his first-born, brother of Japheth the elder, even to him and Heth,
were children born. 16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and 22 The children of Shem; A. M. cir. 1660. the Girgasite,
Elam, and Asshur, and · Ar-
23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and 18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. the Hamathite : and afterward were the 24 And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah families of the Canaanites spread abroad.
begat Eber. 19 ° And the border of the Canaanites was 25 u And unto Eber were born A. M. 1757.
B. C. 2247. from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto two sons: the name of one was p Gaza ; as thou goest unto Sodom, and Gomor- Peleg, for in his days was the earth divided ; rah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. and his brother's name was Joktan.
20 These are the sons of Ham, after their 26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, families, after their tongues, in their countries, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, and in their nations.
27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah,
? Heb. Tzidon. Chap. xii. 12, 14, 15, 17; xv. 18-21 ; 21 Chron. i. 17, &c. Heb. Arpachshad. Heb. Shelak. Num. xxxiv. 2-12 ; Josh. xii. 7, 8. pHeb. Azzah.
"Chap. xi. 12.-Chron. i. 19. -"That is, division.
stant plagues and frequent oppressors of the Israelites, Lud) The founder of the Lydians, in Asia Minor ; whose history may be seen at large in the books of or of the Ludim, who dwelt at the confluence of the Samuel, Kings, &c.
Euphrates and Tigris, according to Arias Montanus, Caphtorim.) Inhabitants of Cyprus according to Aram.] The father of the Arameans, afterwards Calmet.
called Syrians. Verse 15. Sidon] Who probably built the city of Verse 23. Uz] Who peopled Cælosyria, and is this name, and was the father of the Sidonians.
supposed to have been the founder of Damascus. Heth] From whom came the Hittites, so remark- Hul] Who peopled a part of Armenia. able among the Canaanitish nations.
Gether] Supposed by Calmet to have been the Verse 16. The Jebusite-- Amorile, &c.] Are well founder of the Itureans, who dwelt beyond the Jordan, known as being the ancient inhabitants of Canaan, having Arabia Deserta on the east, and the Jordan on expelled by the children of Israel.
the west. Verse 20. These are the sons of Ham after their Mash.] Who inhabited mount Masius in Mesopofamilies] No doubt all these were well known in the tamia, and from whom the river Mazeca, which has its days of Moses, and for a long time after ; but at this source in that mountain, takes its name. distance, when it is considered that the political state Verse 24. Salah] The founder of the people of of the world has been undergoing almost incessant Susiana. revolutions through all the intermediate portions of Eber.) See ver. 21. The Septuagint add Cainan time, the impossibility of fixing their residences or here, with one hundred and thirty to the chronology. marking their descendants must be evident, as both the Verse 25. Peleg] From sho palag, to divide, benames of the people and the places of their residences cause in his days, which is supposed to be about one have been changed beyond the possibility of being hundred years after the flood, the earth was divided recognized.
among the sons of Noah. Though some are of opinion Verse 21. Shem also, the father of all the children that a physical division, and not a political one, is what of Eber] It is generally supposed that the Hebrews is intended here, viz., a separation of continents and derived their name from Eber or Heber, son of Shem; islands from the main land; the earthy parts having but it appears much more likely that they had it from been united into one great continent previously to the the circumstance of Abraham passing over (for so the days of Peleg. This opinion appears to me the most word way abar signifies) the river Euphrates to come likely, for what is said, ver. 5, is spoken by way of into the land of Canaan. See the history of Abraham, anticipation. chap. xiv. 13.
Verses 26–30. Joktan] He had thirteen sons who Verse 22. Elam] From whom came the Elamites, had their dwelling from Mesha unto Sephar, a mount near to the Medes, and whose chief city was Elymais. of the east, which places Calmet supposes to be mount
Asshur] Who gave his name to a vast province Masius, on the west in Mesopotamia, and the moun(afterwards a mighty empire) called Assyria. tains of the Saphirs on the east in Armenia, or of the
Arpharad] From whom Arrapachitis in Assyria Tapyrs farther on in Media. was named, according to some; or Artasata in Arme- In confirmation that all men have been derived from nia, on the frontiers of Media, according to others. one family, let it be observed that there are many
B: C. cir. 2207.
All the descendants of Noah
spoke the same language. A. M. cir. 1797.
28 And Obal, and Abimael, and 31 These are the sons of Shem, A. M. ch. 1797. B. C. cir. 2207. Sheba,
after their families, after their 29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all tongues, in their lands, after their nations. these were the sons of Joktan.
32 w These are the families of the sons of 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, Noah, after their generations, in their nations, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of * and by these were the nations divided in the the east.
earth, after the flood.
customs and usagés, both sacred and civil, which have deluge. 13. The universal opinion that the rainbow prevailed in all parts of the world ; and that these was a Divine sign, or portent, &c., &c. See Dodd. could owe their origin to nothing but a general institu- The wisdom and goodness of God are particularly tion, which could never have existed, had not mankind manifested in repeopling the earth by means of three been originally of the same blood, and instructed in persons, all of the same family, and who had witnessed the same common notions before they were dispersed. that awful display of Divine justice in the destruction Among these usages may be reckoned, 1. The num- of the world by the flood, while themselves were prebering by tens. 2. Their computing time by a cycle served in the ark. By this very means the true reliof seven days. 3. Their setting apart the seventh day gion was propagated over the earth; for the sons of for religious purposes.
4. Their use of sacrifices, Noah would certainly teach their children, not only the propitiatory and eucharistical. 5. The consecration precepts delivered to their father by God himself, but of temples and altars. 6. The institution of sanctua- also how in his justice he had brought the flood on the ries or places of refuge, and their privileges. 7. Their world of the ungodly, and by his merciful providence giving a tenth part of the produce of their fields, &c., preserved them from the general ruin. It is on this for the use of the altar. 8. The custom of worship- ground alone that we can account for the uniformity ping the Deity bare-footed. 9. Abstinence of the men and universality of the above traditions, and for the from all sensual gratifications previously to their offer- grand outlines of religious truth which are found in ing sacrifice. 10. The order of priesthood and its every quarter of the world. God has so done his support. 11. The notion of legal pollutions, defile- marvellous works that they may be had in everlasting ments, &c.
12. The universal tradition of a general remembrance.
All the inhabitants of the earth, speaking one language and dwelling in one place, 1, 2, purpose to build a
city and a tower to prevent their dispersion, 3, 4. God confounds their language, and scatters them over the whole earth, 5–9. Account of the lives and farnilies of the postdiluvian patriarchs. Shem, 10, 11. Arpharad, 12, 13. Salah, 14, 15. Eber, 16, 17. Peleg, 18, 19. Ragau or Reu, 20, 21. Serug, 22, 23. Nahor, 24, 25. Terah and his three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abram, 26, 27. The death of Haran, 28. Abram marries Sarai, and Nahor marries Milcah, 29. Sarai is barren, 30. Terah, Abram, Sarai, and Lot, leave Ur of the Chaldees, and go to Haran, 31. Terah dies in Haran, aged two hundred
and five years, 32. A. M. cir. 1757. ND the whole earth was of
A. M. cir. 1757. AND B. C. cir. 2247.
' from the east, that they found a
B. C. cir. 2247. one a language, and of one plain in the land of Shinar; and
they dwelt there. 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed 3. And they said one to another, Go to, let
Heb. lip.-. Heb. words. Or, eastward, as ch. xiii. 11; 2 Sam. vi. 2, with 1 Chron. xiii. 6.
d Heb. a man said to his neighbour.
NOTES ON CHAP. XI.
language of the earth—the language in which God Verse 1. The whole earth was of one language) spake to man, and in which he gave the revelation of The whole earth—all mankind was of one language, his will to Moses and the prophets. “ It was used," in all likelihood the Hebrew; and of one speech— says Mr. Ainsworth, " in all the world for one thousand articulating the same words in the same way. It is seven hundred and fifty-seven years, till Phaleg, the generally supposed, that after the confusion mentioned son of Heber, was born, and the tower of Babel was in this chapter, the Hebrew language remained in the in building one hundred years after the flood, Gen. x. family of Heber. The proper names, and their signifi- 25; xi. 9. After this, it was used among the Hebrews cations given in the Scripture, seem incontestable or Jews, called therefore the Jews' language, Isa. evidences that the Hebrew language was the original | xxxvi. 11, until they were carried captive into Baby
inguage, S seems herefore ile plains is there, Countries ; and in
another !, to pre
be scat, th :" but rustrated ent with nd, partly ing their ed state; of sepaand thus he earth. nd of Je:ous wor
ge on the
obably to Whatever that this idolatrous beautified
sun. .fusion of
SERUG 30 200 230 2049
TERAH 1849 1849
ARPHAXAD 29 119 | 148 1997
ISAAC 1878 1878
SELAH 130 75 205 2083
SHEM 2008 2008
JACOB 100 75 175 2183
ABRAHAM 2108 2108 60 120 180 2288) EBER
born 2168 1836
died 2183 1821
died 2187 1817
died 2288 1716
died 2315 1689
A. M. .
A. M. cir. 1757.
They propose to build
a city and a tower. us make brick, and e burn them and a tower whose top may B. C. cir. 2247.
throughly. And they had brick reach unto heaven; and let us for stone, and slime had they for mortar. make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad 4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, upon the face of the whole earth.
e Heb. burn them to a burning.
Deut. i. 28.
lon, where the holy tongue ceased from being com- scarcity of stones in that district ; and on the same acmonly used, and the mixed Hebrew (or Chaldee) came count they were obliged to use slime, that is, bitumen, in its place.”
(Vulg.) ao altos, (Septuagint,) for mortar : so it apIt cannot be reasonably imagined that the Jews lost pears they had neither common stone nor lime-stone ; the Hebrew tongue entirely in the seventy years of hence they had brick for stone, and asphaltus or bitutheir captivity in Babylon; yet, as they were mixed men instead of mortar. with the Chaldeans, their children would of course Verse 4. Lel us build us a city and a tower) On learn that dialect, and to them the pure Hebrew would this subject there have been various conjectures. Mr. be unintelligible; and this probably gave rise to the Hutchinson supposed that the design of the builders necessity of explaining the Hebrew Scriptures in the was to erect a temple to the host of heaven—the sun, Chaldee tongue, that the children might understand as moon, planets, &c.; and, to support this interpretation, well as their fathers. As we may safely presume the he says D'AVI 10x7 verosho bashshamayim should be parents could not have forgotten the Hebrew, so we translated, not, whose top may reach unto heaven, for may conclude the children in general could not have there is nothing for may reach in the Hebrew, but ils learned it, as they did not live in an insulated state, but head or summit to the heavens, i. e. to the heavenly were mixed with the Babylonians. This conjecture bodies : and, to make this interpretation the more proremoves the difficulty with which many have been bable, he says that previously to this time the descendembarrassed ; one party supposing that the knowledge ants of Noah were all agreed in one form of religious of the Hebrew language was lost during the Babylonish worship, (for so he understands nnx novi vesaphah captivity, and hence the necessity of the Chaldee Tar- achath, and of one lip,) i. e. according to him, they had gums to explain the Scriptures ; another party insist- one litany ; and as God confounded their litany, they ing that this was impossible in so short a period as began to disagree in their religious opinions, and seventy years.
branched out into sects and parties, each associating Verse 2. As they journeyed from the east) Assyria, with those of his own sentiment; and thus their tower Mesopotamia, and the country on the borders and be- or temple was left unfinished. yond the Euphrates, are called the east in the sacred It is probable that their being of one language and writings. Balaam said that the king of Moab had of one speech implies, not only a sameness of language, brought him from the mountains of the east, Num. but also a unity of sentiment and design, as seems xxiii. 7. Now it appears, from chap. xxii. 5, that Ba- pretty clearly intimated in ver. 6. Being therefore laam dwelt at Pethor, on the river Euphrates. And it strictly united in all things, coming to the fertile plains is very probable that it was from this country that the of Shinar they proposed to settle themselves there, wise men came to adore Christ; for it is said they instead of spreading themselves over all the countries came from the east to Jerusalem, Matt. ii. 1. Abraham of the earth, according to the design of God; and in is said to have come from the east to Canaan, Isa. xli. reference to this purpose they encouraged one another 2; but it is well known that he came from Mesopotamia to build a city and a tower, probably a temple, to preand Chaldea. Isaiah, xlvi. 11, represents Cyrus as vent their separation, “ lest,” say they, “ we be scatcoming from the east against Babylon. And the same tered abroad upon the face of the whole earth :" but prophet represents the Syrians as dwelling eastward God, miraculously interposing, confounded or frustrated of Jerusalem, chap. ix. 12: The Syrians before, opp» their rebellious design, which was inconsistent with mikkedem, from the east, the same word which Moses his will; see Deut. xxxii. 8; Acts xvii. 26; and, partly uses here. Daniel ix. 44, represents Antiochus as by confounding their language, and disturbing their troubled at news received from the east; i. e. of a re- counsels, they could no longer keep in a united state ; volt in the eastern provinces, beyond the Euphrates. so that agreeing in nothing but the necessity of sepa
Noah and his family, landing after the flood on one rating, they went off in different directions, and thus of the mountains of Armenia, would doubtless descend became scattered abroad upon the face of the earth. and cultivate the valleys : as they increased, they ap- The Targums, both of Jonathan ben Uzziel and of Jepear to have passed along the banks of the Euphrates, rusalem, assert that the tower was for idolatrous wortill, at the time specified here, they came to the plains ship; and that they intended to place an image on the of Shinar, allowed to be the most fertile country in the top of the tower with a sword in its hand, probably to
See Calmet. That Babel was built in the land act as a talis nan against their enemies. Whatever of Shinar we have the authority of the sacred text to their design might have been, it is certain that this prove; and that Babylon was built in the same country temple or tower was afterwards devoted to idolatrous we have the testimony of Eusebius, Præp. Evang. lib. purposes. Nebuchadnezzar repaired and beautified ix., c. 15; and Josephus, Antiq., lib. i., c. 5. this tower, and it was dedicated to Bel, or the sun.
Verse 3. Let us make brick] It appears they were An account of this tower, and of the confusion of obliged to make use of brick, as there was an utter tongues, is given by several ancient authors. Herodo.