תמונות בעמוד

Moses called into the mount DEUTERONOMY.

that he may see the land. A. M. 2553. 48 And the LORD spake unto and was gathered unto his peo- A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. Moses that selfsame day, saying, ple :

An. Bi. Isı. 40, Adar.

Adar. 49 Get thee up into this moun- 51 Because •ye trespassed tain Abarim, unto Mount Nebo, which is in against me among the children of Israel at the land of Moab, that is over against Jericho; the waters of Meribah-kadesh, in the wilderand behold the land of Canaan, which I giveness of Zin; because ye 5 sanctified me not unto the children of Israel for a possession : in the midst of the children of Israel.

50 And die in the mount whither thou goest 52 h Yet thou shalt see the land before thee; up, and be gathered unto thy people ; às but thou shalt not go thither unto the land

Aaron thy brother died in Mount Hor, which I give the children of Israel. • Num. xxvij. 12, 13. — Num. xxxiii. 47, 48; chap. xxxiv. 1. e Num. xx. 11, 12, 13; xxvii. 14.- Or, strife at Kedest. Num. xx. 25, 28; xxxii. 38.

6 See Lev. x. 3. - Num. xxvii. 12; chap. xxiv. 4. Verse 49. Get thee up into this mountain Abarim) 3. To warn them against irreligion and apostesy; The mount of the passages, i. e., of the Israelites when to show the possibility of departing from God, and the they entered into the promised land. See the notes miseries that would overwhelm them and their posteon Num. xxvii. 12.

rity should they be found walking in opposition to the Verse 50. And die in the mount—as Aaron] Some laws of their Creator. have supposed that Moses was translated; but if so, 4. To give a proper and impressive view of the then Aaron was translated, for what is said of the death providence of God, by referring to the history of his of the one is said of the death of the other.

gracious dealings with them and their ancestors; the Verse 51. Ye trespassed against me at the waters minute attention he paid to all their wants, the wonderof Meribah) See the note on Num. xx. 8.

ful manner in which he led, fed, clothed, protected, and Verse 52. Thou shalt see the land before thee) See saved them, in all their travels and in all perils. Num. xxvii. 12, &c. How glorious to depart out of 5. To leave on - record an everlasting testimony this life with God in his heart and heaven in his eye! against them, should they ever cast off his fear and his work, his great, unparalleled usefulness, ending pollûte his worship, which should serve at once as a only with his life. The serious reader will surely warning to the world, and a vindication of his justice, join in the following pious ejaculation of the late Rev. when the judgments he had threatened were found to Charles Wesley, one of the best Christian poets of the be poured out upon them; for he who loved them so last century :

long and so intensely could not become their enemy “O that without a lingering groan

but in consequence of the greatest and most enprinI may the welcome word receive;

cipled provocations. My body with my charge lay down,

6. To show the shocking and unprecedented ingraAnd cease at once to work and live !!"

titude which induced a people so highly favoured, and

so wondrously protected and loved, to sin against their It would require a dissertation expressly formed God; and how reasonable and just it was, for the vinfor the purpose to point out the general merit and ex- dication of his holiness, that God should pour out upon traordinary beauties of this very sublime ode. To them such judgments as he had never inflicted on enter into such particulars can scarcely comport with any other people, and so mark their disobedience and the nature of the present work. Drs. Lowth, Kenni- ingratitude with fresh marks of his displeasure, that cott, and Durell, have done much in this way; and the punishment should bear some proportion to the to their respective works the critical reader is re- guilt, and that their preservation as a distinct people ferred A very considerable extract from what might afford a feeling proof both of the providence they have written on this chapter may be found in and justice of God. Dr. Dodd's notes. In writing this ode the design of 7. To show the glory of the latter days in the re

election of the long reprobated Jewish nation, and the 1. To set forth the Majesty of God; to give that final diffusion of his grace and goodness over the earth generation and all successive ones a proper view of by means of the Gospel of Christ. the glorious perfections of the object of their worship. And all this is done with such strength and eleHe therefore shows that from his holiness and purity gance of diction, with such appropriate, energetic, and he must be displeased with sin ; from his justice and impressive figures and metaphors, and in such a powerrighteousness he must punish it; and from the good- ful torrent of that soul-penetrating, pure poetic spirit ness and infinite benevolence of his nature, he is ever that comes glowing from the bosom of God, that the disposed to help the weak, instruct the ignorant, and reader is alternately elated or depressed, filled with show mercy to the wretched, sinful sons and daughters compunction or confidence, with despair or hope; acof men.

cording to the quick transitions of the inimitable writer 2. To show the duty and interest of his people. To to the different topics which form the subject of this have such a Being for their friend is to have all possi- incomparable and wondrously varied ode. May that ble happiness, both spiritual and temporal, secured ; to. Spirit by which it was dictated give it its fullest, most have him for their enemy is to be exposed to inevi- durable, and most effectual impression upon the mind table destruction and ruin.

of every reader !

Moses was,

Moses blesses


the twelve tribes

CHAPTER XXXIII. Moses delivers a prophetical blessing to the children of Israel, 1. The introduction, 2-5. Prophetic declaorations concerning Reuben, 6; concerning Judah; 7 ; concerning. Levi, 8-11; concerning Benjamin, 12 ; concerning Joseph, 13–17; concerning Zebulun, 18, 19; concerning Gad, 20, 21 ; concerning Dan, 22 ; concerning Naphtali, 23; concerning Asher, 24, 25. The glory of the God of Jeshurun, and the glorious privileges of his true followers, 26-29.

ND this is the blessing 3 Yeà, f he loved the people ; A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr,

wherewith Moses,” the man : all his saints are in thy hand : An. Ex. Isr. 40.

of God, blessed the children of and they sat down at thy feet ; Israel before his death.

every one shall i receive of thy words. 2 And he said, « The LORD came from Sinai, 4 k Moses commanded us a law, even the and rose up from Seir unto them; he shined inheritance of the congregation of Jacob. forth from Mount Paran, and he came with 5 And he was m king in Jeshurun, when the

ten thousands of saints : from his right hand heads of the people and the tribes of Israel went a fiery law for them.

were gathered together.

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40. Adar.

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a Gen. xlix. 28.- ob Psa. XC. title- - Exod. xix. 18, 20; 4; Hos. xi. I ; Mal. i. 2. Chap. vii. 6; 1 Sam. ii. 9; Psa. Judg. v. 4,5; Hab. iii. 3.-_ See Psa. lxviii. 17; Dan. vii. 10; 1. 5. h Luke x. 39; Acts xxii. 3.- Li Prov. ii. 1.- John i. Acts vii. 53 ; Gal. ii. 19; Heb. ii. 2; Rev. v. 11; ix. 16. 17; vii. 19. 1 Psa. cxix. 111. -m See Gen. xxxvi. 31; Judg. • Heb. a fire of law. Exod. xix. 5; chap. vii. 7,8; Psa. xlvii. ix. 2 ; xvii. 6. — Chap. xxxii. 15. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXIII.

humblest adoration, sincerely promising the most afVerse 1. And this is the blessing wherewith Moses | fectionate obedience ; and that God had there com-blessed, fc.) The general nature of this solemn manded them a law which was to be the possession introduction, says Dr. Kennicott, is to show the foun- and inheritance of the children of Jacob, ver. 4. And dation which Moses had for blessing his brethren, vizi, to crown the whole, he had not only blessed them as because God had frequently manifested his glory in their lawgiver, but had also vouchsafed' to be their their behalf; and the several parts of this introduction king, ver. 5. are disposed in the following order :

Dr. Kennicolt proposes to translate the whole five 1. The manifestation of the Divine glory on Sinai, verses thus :as it was prior in time and more magnificent in splen- Verse 1. And this is the blessing wherewith Moses, dour, is mentioned first.

the man of God, blessed the children of Israel before 2. That God manifested his glory at Seir is evident his death. And he said, from Judg. v, 4: Lord, when thou wentest out of Seir,

2. Jehovah came from Sinai, when thou marchedst out of the fields of Edom, the earth trembled and the heavens dropped, &c.

And he arose upon them from Seir; 3. . The next place is Paran, where the glory of the

He shone forth from Mount Paran, Lord appeared before all the children of Israel, Num.

And he came from MERIBAH-KADESH : xiv., 10.

From his right hand a fire shone forth upon them., Instead of he came with ten thousand saints, by 3. Truly, he loved the people,

And he blessed all his saints :. which our translators have rendered vyp nang meribeboth kodesh, Dr. Kennicott reads Meribah-Kadesh,

For they fell down at his feet, the name of a place: for we find that, towards the end

And they received of his words.

4. He commanded us a law, of forty years, the Israelites came to Kadesh, Num. xx. 1, which was also called Meribah, on account of

The inheritance of the congregation of Jacob. their contentious opposition to thė, determinations of

5. And he became king in Jeshurun; God in their favour, ver. 13; and there the glory of

When the heads of the people were assembled, the Lord again appeared, as we are informed ver. 6.

Together with the tribes of Israel. These four places, Sinai, Seir, Paran, and Meribah- We have already seen that Dr. Kennicott reads Kadesh, mentioned by Moses in the text, are the iden- vopna'ng Meribah-Kadesh, the name of a place, intical places where God manifested his glory in a fiery stead of op.ngan meribeboth kodesh, which, by a appearance, the more illustriously to proclaim his spe- most unnatural and forced construction, our version cial providence over and care of Israel.

renders ten thousands of saints, a translation which no Verse 3. Yea, he loved the people) This is the in- circumstance of the history justifies. ferènce which Moses makes from those glorious ap- Instead of a fiery law, n7 vk esh dath, he reads, pearances, that God truly loved the people ; and that following the Samaritan version, vi vi esh ur, a fire all his saints, j'vip kedoshaiv, the people whom he shining out upon them. In vindication of this change had consecrated to himself, were under his especial in the original, it may be observed, 1. That, though benediction; and that in order to make them a holy ng dath signifies a law, yet it is a Chaldee term, and nation, God had displayed his glory on Mount Sinai, appears nowhere in any part of the sacred writings where they had fallen prostrate at his feet with the previously to the Babylonish captivity; in torah

The blessings of

Reuben and Judah.
A. M. 2553. 6 Let Reuben live, and not die; of Judah, and bring hím unto his
An. Ex. Isr. 40. and let not his men be few. people : • let his hands be suffi- An. Ex Isr. 40.

7 And this is the blessing of cient for him; and be thou pa Judah : and he said, Hear, Lord, the voice help to him from his enemies.

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being the term constantly used to express the Law, at 17: I shall not die, but live ; Gen. xliii. 8: That we all times prior to the corruption of the Hebrew, by the may lives and not die ; Jer. xx. 14: Cursed be the Chaldee. 2. That the word itself is obscure in its day-let not that day be blessed ; 1 John ii. 4: He present situation, as the Hebrew Bibles write it and is a liar, and the truth is not in him; ib. ver. 37: Is esh in one word, noux eshdath, which hås no mean- truth, and no lie ; John i. 20: He confessed, and deing; and which, in order to give it one, the Massorah nied not ;, 1 Sam. i. 11: Remember me, and not fordirects should be read separate, though written con-1 get thy handmaid ; Deut. ix. 7: Remember, forget nected. 3. That the word is not acknowledged by the not ; Deut. xxxii. 6: O foolish people, and unwise. two most ancient versions, the Septuagint and Syriac. In all these places it is evident that there is a peculiar 4. That in the parallel place, Hab. iii. 3, 4, a word is emphasis in this form of expression, as if he had said, used which expresses the rays of light, d'ap kar- Let him not only not die, but let him live in great and nayim, horns, that is, splendours, rays, or effulgence increasing peace and prosperity, Do not only not forof light. 5. That on all these accounts, together with get me, but keep me continually in remembrance. He the almost impossibility of giving a rational meaning denied nol, but confessed FULLY and PARTICULARLY. to the text as it now satnds, the translation contended foolish people—silly and stupid, and unwise-destifor should be adopted.

tute of all true wisdom." Instead of All his saints are in his hand, Dr. Ken- And let not his men be few.] It is possible that nicott reads, He blessed all his-saints-changing 77') this elause belongs to Simeon. In the Alexandrian beyadecha, into ya barach, he blessed, which word, copy of the Septuagint the clause stands thus : Kat all who understand the Hebrew letters will see, might Evjewv EOTW TOłuç ev apiðuw, and let SIMEON be very be easily mistaken for the other; the 7 daleth and the numerous, but none of the other versions insert the rresh being, not only in MSS., but also in prinled word. “As the negative particle is not in the Hebrew, books, often so much-alike, that analogy alone can but is supplied'in our translation, and the word Simeon determine which is the true letter ; and except in the is found in one of the most ancient and most authentic insertion of the yod, which might have been easily copies of the Septuagint version; and as Simeon is mistaken for the apex at the top of the 3 beth very nowhere else mentioned here, if not implied in this frequent in MSS., both words have the nearest resem- place, probably the clause anciently stood : Let Reise blance. To this may be added, that the Syriac autho- ben live, and not die ; but let the men of Simeon be rizes this rendering.

few. That this tribe was small when compared with Instead of g5275 leraglecha, and 707277 middabbe- the rest, and with what it-once was, is evident enough rotheycha, thy feet, and thy words, Dr. Kennicott from the first census, taken after they came out of reads the pronouns in the third person singular, 15275 Egypt, and that in the plains of Moab nearly forty leraglaiv and in1979 middabberothaiv, his feet, his years after. In the first, Simeon was 59,300 ; in the words, in which he is supported both by the Septua- last, 22,200, a decrease of 37,100 men! gint and Vulgate. He also changes Xw' yissa, HE Verse 7. And this is the blessing of Judah] Though shall receive, into 180'yisseu, THEY shall receive. the word blessing is not in the text, yet it may be im

He contends also that nuo Mosheh, Moses, in the plied from ver. 1 ; but probably the words, he spake, fourth verse, was written by mistake for the following are those which should be supplied: And this he spake word nunn morashah, inheritance ; and when the of Judah, Lord, hear the voice of Judah ; that is, says scribe found he had inserted a wrong word, he added the Targum, receive his prayer when he goes out to the proper one, and did not erase the first. The word battle, and let him be brought back in safety to his own Moses, he thinks, should therefore be left out of the people. Let his hands be sufficient for him-let him text, as it is improbable that he should here introduce have a sufficiency of warriors always to support the his own name'; and that if the word be allowed to be tribe, and vindicate its rights; and let his enemies never legitimate, then the word king must apply to him, and be able to prevail against him! Three things are ex. not to God, which would be most absurd. See Ken- pressed here : 1. That the tribe of Judah, conscious nicott's first Dissertation, p. 422, &c.'

of its weakness, shall depend on the Most High, and Verse 6. Let Reuben live, and not die] Though make prayer and supplication to him ; 2. That God his life and his blessings have been forfeited by his will hear such prayer; and, 3. That his hands shall be transgression with his father's concubine, Gen. xlix. 3, increased, and that he shall prevail over his enemies. 4; and in his rebellion with Korah, Num. xvi. 1, &c., This blessing has a striking affinity with that which let him not become extinct as a tribe in Israel. " It this tribe received from Jacob, Gen. xlix. 9; and both is very usual,” says Mr. Ainsworth, " in the Scripture, may refer to our blessed Lord,, who sprang from to set down things of importance and earnestness, by this tribe, as is noticed on the above passage, who affirmation of the one part, and denial of the other; has conquered our deadly foes by his death, and Isa. xxxviii. 1: Thou shall die, and not live ; Num: whose praying posterity ever prevail through his iv. 19: That they may live, and not die ; Psa. cavü. I might.

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The blessings of


Levi and Benjamin. 8 And of Levi he said, Let 10 They # shall teach Jacob B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. thy Thummim and thy Urim be thy judgments, and Israel thy An. Ex. Isr. 40.

with thy holy one, 'whom thou law : * they y shall put incense didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou 2 before thee, * and whole burnt-sacrifice upon didst strive at the waters of Meribah;

thine altar. 9 Who said unto his father and to his 11 Bless, Lord, his substance, and baccept mother, I have not seen him ; neither did the work of his hands : smite through the he acknowledge his brethren, por knew his loins of them that rise against him, and of own children : for u they have observed thy them that hate him, that they rise not again. word, and kept thy covenant.

12 And of Benjamin he said, The beloved

. Exod. xxviii. 30.- - Exod. xvii. 7; Num. xx. 13; chap. viii. 2, 3, 16; Psa. Ixxxi. 7. - Gen. xxix. 32; I Chron. xvii. 17;

* Or, let them put incense.- -y Exod. xxx. 7, 8; Num. xvi. 40; Job xxxvii. 24. —Exod. xxxii. 26, 27, 28. u See Jer. 1 Sam. ii. 28. -2 Heb, at thy nose. - Lev. i. 9, 13, 17;

Psa. 111 18; Mal. i. 5, 6. - Or, Let them teach, &c.- Lev. x. 11;

li. 19; Ezek. xliii. 27.- b2 Sam. xxiv. 23; Psa. xx. 3; Ezek. chap. xvii. 9, 10, 11; xxiv. 8; Ezek. xliv. 23, 24; Mal. ii. 7. xx. 40, 41 ; xliii. 27.


Verse 8. Of Levi he said] Concerning the Urim said: “Who is my mother, and who are my brethren? and Thummim see Exod. xxviii. 30.

whosoever shall do the will of my father who is in Thy holy one) Aaron primarily, who was anointed heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother;" the high priest of God, and whose office was the most Matt. xii. 46-50. It is likely also that Moses may holy that man could be invested with. Therefore refer here to the fact of the Levites, according to the Aaron was called God's holy one, and the more espe- command of Moses, killing every man his brother, cially so as he was the type of the mosT HOLY and friend, neighbour, and even son, who had sinned in worblessed Jesus, from whom the Urim--all light and wis-shipping the golden calf, Exod. xxxii. 26 ; and in this dom, and Thurrmim-all excellence, completion, and way the Chaldee paraphrast understands the words. perfection, are derived.

Verse 10. They shall teach Jacob, $c.) This was Whom thou didst prove, gc.] God contended with the office of the Levites, to teach, by their significant Aaron as well as with Moses at the waters of Meri- service and typical ceremonies, the way of righteousbah, and excluded him from the promised land because ness and truth to the children of Israel. And of their he did not sanctify the Lord before the people. faithfulness in this respect God bears testimony by the

From the words of St. Paul, 1 Cor. x. 8-12, it is prophet, “ My covenant was with him of life and peace," evident that these words, at least in a secondary sense, Mal. ii. 5; and, “ The law of truth was in his mouth, belong to Christ. He is the Holy One who was tempted and iniquity was not found in his lips : he walked with by them at Massah, who suffered their manners in the me in peace and equity, and did turn many away from wilderness, who slew 23,000 of the most incorrigible iniquity;" ver. 6. These words are a sufficient com. transgressors, and who brought them into the promised ment on the words of the text. land by his deputy, Joshua, whose name and that of Verse 11. Bless, Lord, his substance] The blessJesus have the same signification.

ing of God to the tribe of Levi was peculiarly necesVerse 9. Who said unto his father, &c.] There are sary, because they had no inheritance among the chilseveral difficulties in this and the following verses. dren of Israel, and lived more immediately than others Some think they are spoken of the tribe of Levi; others, upon the providence of God. Yet, as they lived by of all the tribes; others, of the Messiah, &c.; but the offerings of the people and the tithes, the increase several of the interpretations founded on these suppo- of their substance necessarily implied the increase of sitions are too recondite, and should not be resorted to the people at large : the more fruitful the land was, till a plain literal sense is made out. I suppose the the more abundant would the tithes of the Levites be ; whole to be primarily spoken of Aaron and the tribe and thus in the increased fertility of the land the subof Levi. Let us examine the words in this way, Who stance of Levi would be blessed. said unto his father, &c. The law had strictly enjoined Verse 12. Of Benjaminthe beloved of the Lord] that if the father, mother, brother, or child of the high Alluding to his being particularly beloved of his father priest should die, he must not mourn for them, but act Jacob, Gen. xlix. 27, &c. as if they were not his kindred; see Lev. xxi. 11, 12. Shall dwell in safety by him] That is, by the Lord, Neither must Aaron mourn for his sons Nadab and whose temple, which is considered as his dwellingAbihu, &c., though not only their death, but the cir- place, was in the tribe of Benjamin, for a part of Jecumstances of it, were the most afflicting that could rusalem belonged to this tribe. possibly affect a parent's heart. Besides, the high Shall cover him all the day] Be his continual propriest was forbidden, on pain of death, to go out from tector; and he shall dwell between his shoulders the door of the tabernacle, Lev. x. 2-7, for God would within his coasts, or in his chief city, viz., Jerusalem, have them more to regard their function (as good Mr. where the temple of God was built, on his mountains Ainsworth observes) and duty in his service, than any Zion and Moriah, here poetically termed his shoulders, natural affection whatever. And herein Christ was Some object to our translation of the Hebrew gegn figured, who, when he was told that his mother and yedid by the term beloved, and think the original should brethren stood without, and wished to speak with him, be divided as it is in the Samaritan, q' q yad yad, the Vol. I. ( 54 )


The blessing

of Joseph. A. M. 2553. of the LORD shall dwell in safety mountains, and for the precious

A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. by him; and the LORD shall things hof the lasting hills, An. Ex. Isr. 40. Adar.

Adar. cover him all the day long, and 16 And for the precious things he shall dwell between his shoulders. of the earth and fulness thereof; and for the

13 And of Joseph he said, Blessed of the good will of him that dwelt in the bush: let Lord be his land, for the precious things of the blessing "come upon the head of Joseph, heaven, for the dew, and for the deep that and upon the top of the head of him that was coucheth beneath ;

separated from his brethren. 14 And for the precious fruits brought forth 17 His glory is like the firstling of his bulby the sun, and for the precious things put lock, and his horns are like m the horns of forth by the 'moon,

n unicorns : with them he shall push the 15 And for the chief things of 8 the ancient people together to the ends of the earth : and

c Gen. xlix: 25. -d Gen. xxvii. 28.- Heb. thrust forth. Genesis xlix. 26.- Chron. v. 1.- Num, xxii. Heb. moons. Gen. xlix. 26.- Hab. iii. 6.-i Exod. ii. 22; Psa. xcii. 10.- -n Heb. a unicorn. - 1 Kings xxii. 11; 2, 4; Acts vii. 30, 35.

Psa. xliv. 5. hand, even the hand of the Lord shall dwell for safety and who has preserved and will preserve, in tribulation or protection, rhy alaiv, upon him. This makes a good and distress, all those who trust in him, so that they sense, and the reader may choose.

shall as surely escape unhurt, as the bush, though enVerse 13. Blessedbe his land] The whole of veloped with fire, was unburnt. this passage certainly relates to the peculiar fertility The top of the head, &c.] The same words are used of the soil in the portion that fell to this tribe which, by Jacob in blessing this tribe, Gen. xlix. 26. The the Jews say, yielded a greater abundance of all good meaning appears to be that God should distinguish this things than any other part of the promised land. tribe in a particular way, as Joseph himself was sepa

The precious things of heaven] The peculiar mild- rated, 713 nazir, a Nazarite, a consecrated prince to ness and salubrity of its atmosphere.

God, from among and in preference to all his brethren. For the dew] A plentiful supply of which was a See the notes on Gen. xlix. 25, &c. great blessing in the dry soil of a hot climate.

Verse 17. His glory is like the firstling of his bulThe deep that coucheth beneath] Probably referring lock] This similitude is very obscure. A bullock was to the plentiful supply of water which should be found the most excellent of animals among the Jews, not only in digging wells : hence the Septuagint have a fuoow because of its acceptableness in sacrifice to God, but anywv, fountains of the deeps. Some suppose there because of its great usefulness in agriculture. There has been a slight change made in the word hon mit- is something peculiarly noble and dignified in the aptal, for the dew, which was probably at first Syos meal, pearance of the ox, and his greatest ornament are his FROM ABOVE, and then the passage would read thus : fine horns; these the inspired penman has particularly For the precious things of heaven FROM ABOVE, and in view, as the following clause proves; and it is well for the deep that coucheth BENEATH. This reading is known that in Scriptural language horns are the emconfirmed by several of Kennicott's and De Rossi's blem of strength, glory, and sovereignty; Psa. lxxv. 5, MSS. The Syriac and Chaldee have both readings : 10; Ixxxix. 17, 24; cxii. 9; Dan. viii. 3, &c.; Luke The dew of heaven from above.

i. 69; Rev. xvii. 3, &c. Verse 14. The precious fruits brought forth by the His horns are like the horns of unicorns) Oxy reem, sun] All excellent and important productions of the which we translate unicorn, from the novoxgws monoearth, which come to perfection once in the year. So keros of the Septuagint, signifies, according to Bochart, the precious things put forth by the moon may imply the mountain goat; and according to others, the chithose vegetables which require but about a month to noceros, a very large quadruped with one great horn bring them to perfection, or vegetables of which several on his nose, from which circumstance his name is decrops may be had in the course of a year.

rived. See the notes on Num. xxiii. 22; xxiv. 8. Verse 15. The chief things of the ancient moun- Reem is in the singular number, and because the tains) op 1977. xv umerosh harerey kedem, and horns of a unicorn, a one-horned animal, would have from the head or top of the ancient or eastern moun- appeared absurd, our translators, with an unfaithfultains, the precious things or productions being still ness not common to them, put the word in the plural understood. And this probably refers to the large trees, number. &c., growing on the mountain tops, and the springs of To the ends of the earth) of the land of Canaan, for water issuing from them. The mountains of Gilead Joshua with his armies conquered all this land, and may be here intended, as they fell to the half tribe of drove the ancient inhabitants out before him. Manasseh. And the precious things of the lasting They are the ten thousands of Ephraim, &c.] That hills may signify the metals and minerals which might is, The horns signify the ten thousands of Ephraim, be digged out of them.

and the thousands of Manasseh. Jacob prophesied, Verse 16. The good will of him that dwelt in the Gen. xlviii. 19, that the younger should be greater bush] The favour of him who appeared the burning than the elder; so here TENs of thousands are given bush on Mount Sinai, who there, in his good will — to Ephraim, and only thousands to Manasseh. See mere love and compassion, took Israel to be his people; I the census, Num. i. 33–35. 834

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