« הקודםהמשך »
God's gracious dealings
CHAP. XXXII. with Israel in the wilderness.
B. C. 1451.
breed of Bashan; and goats, An. Ex. Isr. 40.
11 As an eagle stirreth up her with the fat of kidneys of
15 But h Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked:
art covered with fatness; then he ? forsook
Psa. xvii. 8; Prov. vii. 2 ; Zech. ii. 8. Exod. xix. 4; h Chap. xxxiii. 5, 26; Isa. xliv. 2. il Sam. ii. 29.
1 Cor. x. 22.
God upon the land.
Spreadeth abroad her wings, &c.). In order, not the germ of the grain to the lobes or farinaceous parts.
here is synonymous with juice. This intimates that
Verse 15. Jeshurun) p10', the upright. This ap-
Verse 13. He made him ride] 1977 yarkibehu, cousness, should, in tủe time signified by the prophet, he will cause him to ride. All the verbs here are in not only revolt from God, but actually fight against the future tense, because this is a prophecy of the him ; like a full fed horse, who not only will not bear prosperity they should possess in the promised land. the harness, but breaks aways from his master, and enThe Israelites were to ride~exult, on the high places, deavours to kick him as he struggles to get loose. the mountains and hills of their land, in which they all this is spoken prophetically, and is intended as a are promised the highest degrees of prosperity; as warning, that the evil might not take place. For even the rocky part of the country should be rendered were the transgression - unavoidable, it must be the fertile by the peculiar benediction of God. .
effect of some necessitating cause, which would destroy Suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty the turpitude of the action, as it referred to Israel ; rock] This promise states that even the most barren for if the evil were absolutely unavoidable, no blame
B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451.
Israel's ingratitude and
rebellion against God A. M. 2553. 17 p They sacrificed imto devils, red them, because of the pro- A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. - 4 not to God; to gods whom they voking of his sons, and of his An. Ex. Isr. 40.
knew not, to new gods that came daughters. newly up, whom your fathers feared not. 20. And he said, w.I will hide my face from
18 : Of the Rock that begat thee thou art them, I will see what their end shall be : for unmindful, and hast · forgotten God that form- they are a very froward generation, * children ed thee.
in whom is no faith. 19 • And when the LORD saw it, he u abhor- 21 y They have moved me to jealousy with p Lev. xvii. 7; Psa. cvi. 37; 1 Cor. x. 20; Rev. ix. 20. 1 Judg. ii. 14. Or, despised; Lam. ii. 6.- Isa. i. 2. 9 Or, which were not God; ver. 21.- Isa. xvii. 10.- Jer. w Chap. xxxi. 17. Isa. xxx. 9; Matt. xvii. 17.
-y Ver. 16; ii. 32.
Psa. lxxviii. 58. could attach to the unfortunate agent, who could only conduct proceeds~from a want of consciousness that consider himself the miserable instrument of a dire ne- hís strength depends upon his master's care and keepcessity. See a case in point, 1 Sam. xxiii. 11, 12, ing; and a lack of consideration that leanness and where the prediction appears in the most absolute form, wretchedness must be the consequence of his leaving and yet the evil was prevented by the person receiving his master's service, and running off from his master's the prediction as a warning. The case is the following: pasturage. How easy to apply all these points to the
The Philistines attacked Keilah and robbed the thresh- case of the Israelites! and how illustrative of their ing-floors ; David, being informed of it, asked counsel former and latter state! And how powerfully do they of God whether he should go and relieve it; he is or
apply to the case of many called Christians, who, hav. dered to go, and is assured of success; he goes, routs ing increased in riches, forget that God from whose the Philistines, and delivers Keilah.
hand alone those mercies flowed !
Saul, hearing that David was in Keilah, determines to besiege the nal word d'70 shedim has been variously understood.
Verse 17. (They sacrificed unto devils] The origiplace. David, finding that Saul meditated his destruc, The Syriac, Chaldee, Targums of Jerusalem and Jotion, asked counsel of the Lord, thus :: “ O Lord God of Israel, thy servant hath certainly heard that Saul nathan, and the Samaritan, retain the original word: seeketh to come to Keilah, to destroy the city for my
the Vulgate, Septuagint, Arabic, Persic, Coplic, and sake. Will the men of Keilah deliver me up into his Anglo-Saxon, have devils or demons
. The Septuagint hand? Will Saul come down, as thy servant hath has eüvoav daquovioes, they sacrificed to demons: the Vulheard? And the Lord said, He will come down. sale copies the Septuagint: the Arabic has blue Then said David, Will the men of Keilah deliver me shecateen, the plural of Sheetan, Satan, by and my men into the hand of Saul ? And the Lord which the rebellious angels appear to be intended, as said, They will deliver thee up. Then David and his the word comes from the root obie shatana, he was men (about six hundred) arose and departed out of Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go : and it is likely that these fallen spirits
, having utterly
obstinate, proud, refractory, rent far away. 'And it was told Saul that David was escaped from Keilah, the empire at which they aimed, got themselves worand he forbore to go forth.” Here was the most po- shipped under various forms and names in different sitive prediction that Saul would come to Keilah, and that the men of Keilah would deliver David into his places. The Anglo-Saxon has deoplum, devils. hands ; yet neither of these events took place, be-bau, “ which came up from their neighbours;" viz.,
New gods that came newly up] x po mikkarob cause David departed from Keilah, But had he continued there, Saul would have come down, and the men ceived and worshipped-on their way through the wil.
the Moabiles 'and Ammonites, whose gods they reof Keilah would have betrayed their deliverer. Thus the prediction was totally conditional; and so were all
derness, and often afterwards..
Verse 18. Of the Rock that begat thee 113 isur, these prophecies relative to the apostasy of Israel.,
the first cause, They were only fulfilled in those who did not receive
the fountain of thy being. See the them as warnings. See Jer. xviii. 8-10.
Verse 19. When the Lord saw it, fc.] More liteThe Rock of his salvation.) He ceased to depend rally, And the Lord saw it, and through indignation on the fountain whence his salvation issued; and think- he reprobated his sons and his daughters. That is, ing highly of himself, he lightly esteemed his God; When the Lord shall see such conduct, he shall be and having ceased to depend on him, his fall became justly incensed, and so reject and deliver up to captiinevitable. The figure is admirably well supported vity his sons and daughters. through the whole verse. We see, first, a miserable, Verse 20. Children in whom is no faith] da paxx's lean steed, taken under the care and into the keeping To emon bam, “There is no steadfastness in them," of a master who provides him with an abundance of they can never be depended on. They are fickle, beprovender. We see, secondly, this horse waxing fat cause they are faithless: under this keeping. We see him, thirdly, breaking Verse 21. They have moved me to jealousy) This away from his master, leaving his rich pasturage, and verse contains a very pointed promise of the calling of running to the wilderness, unwilling to bear the yoke the Gentiles, in consequence of the rejection of the or harness, or to make any returns for his master's Jews, threatened ver. 19; and to this great event it is care and attention. We see, fourthly, whence this applied by St. Paul, Rom. x. 19.
pote on ver 4.
They are threatened
with his judgments.
A. M. 2553. that which is not God; they destruction : I will also send A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451.
Sebat. their vanities : and I will move with the poison of serpents of them to jealousy with those which are not a the dust. people; I will provoke them to anger with a ,25 i The sword without, and terror kwithin, foolish nation.
shall destroy both the young man and the
23 I will heap mischiefs upon them; 'I to cease from among men :
27 Were it not that I feared the wrath of 24 They shall be burnt with hunger, and the enemy, lest their adversaries » should bedevoured with 5 burning heat, and with bitter have themselves strangely, and lest they * 1 Sam. xii. 21; 1 Kings xvi. 13, 26; Psa. xxxi. 6; Jer. viii. Psa. vii. 12, 13; Ezek. v.-16.
—Heb. burning coals ; Hab. 19; x. 8; xiv. 22; Jonah ii. 8; Acts xiv. 15. Hos. i. 10; iij. 5.- h Lev. xxvi. 22.-Lam. i. 20; Ezek. vii. 15; 2 Cor. Rom. x. 19. b Jer. xv. 14 ; xvii. 4; Lam. iv. 11, Or, hath vií. 5. Heb. from the chambers.--Heb.bereave.
Ezek. burned. - Or, hath consumed. e Isa. xxvi. 15.
xx. 13, 14, 23. _n Jer. xix. 4. Verse 22. The lowest hell] nurinn boxe sheol How frequently the same figure is employed in the tachtith, the very deepest destruction ; a total exter- sacred writings, 'every careful reader knows; and mination, so that the earth—their land, and its in quotations need not be multiplied. crease, and all their property, should be seized ; and Verse 24. They shall be 'burnt with hunger] the foundations of their mountains--their strongest Their land shall be cursed, and famine shall prevail. fortresses, should be razed to the ground. All this This is one of the arrows. was fulfilled in a most remarkable manner in the last Burning heat) No showers to cool the atmosdestruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, so that of the phere; or rather boils, blains, and pestilential fevers; fortifications of that city not one stone was left on ano- this was a second. ther. See the notes on Matt. xxiv.
· Bitter destruction] The plague; this was a third. Verse 23. I will spend mine arrows upon them.] Teeth of beasts-with-tho- poison of serpents] The The judgments of God in general are termed the arrows beasts of the field should multiply upon and destroy of God, Job vi.. 4;. Psa. xxxviii. 2, 3; xci. 5; see them; this was a fourth: and poisonous serpents, inalso Ezek. v. 16 ; Jer. 1. 14; 2 Sam. xxii. 14, 15. festing all their steps, and whose mortal bite should In this and the following verses, to the 28th inclusive, produce the utmost anguish, were to be a fifth arrow. God threatens this people with every species of cala- | Added to all these, the sword of their enemies—terror mity that could possibly fall upon man. How strange among themselves, ver. 25, and captivity were to comit is that, having this law continually in their hands, plete their ruin, and thus the arrows of God were to be they should not discern those threatened judgments, spent upon them. There is a beautiful saying in the and cleave to the Lord that they might be averted ! Toozuki Teemour, which will serve to illustrate this
It was customary among the heathens to represent point, while it exhibits one of the finest metaphors that any judgment from their gods under the notion of ar- occurs in any writer, the sacred writers excepted. rows, especially a pestilence; and one of their greatest "It was once demanded of the fourth Khaleefeh, deities, Apollo, is ever represented as bearing a bow (Aaly,) on whom be the mercy of the Creator, “If the and quiver full of deadly arrows; so Homer, Il. i., canopy of heaven were a bow; and if the earth were ver. 43, .where he represents him, in answer to the the cord thereof; and if calamilies were ARROWS; if prayer of his priest Chryses, coming to smite the mankind were the mark for those arrows; and if AlGreeks with the pestilence S
mighty God, the tremendous and the glorious, were
the unerring ARCHER; to whom could the sons of Adam Ως έφατ' ευχομενος του δ' εκλυε Φοίβος Απολλων: Βη δε κατ' Ουλυμποιο καρηνων χωομενος κηρ,
flee for protection ?? The Khaleefeh answered, say,
ing, • The sons of Adam must flee unto the LORD.'" Τοξ' ωμοισιν εχων αμφηρεφεα τε φαρετρην.
Verse 27. Were it not that I feared the wrath of Έζετ' επειτ' απανευθε νεων" μετα δ' ιον έηκε:
the enemy) Houbigant and others contend that wrath Δεινη δε κλαγγή γενετ' αργυρεοιο βιοιο. κ. τ. λ.
here refers not to the enemy, but to God; and that “ Thus Chryses pray’d; the favouring power attends, the passage should be thus translated : " Indignation And from Olympus' lofty tops descends,
for the adversary deters me, lest their enemies should - Bent was his bow the Grecian hearts to wound; be alienated, and say, The strength of our hands, and Fierce as he moved, his silver shafts resound; not of the Lord's, hath done this." Had not God The fleet in view, he twang'd his deadly bow, punished them in such a way as proved that his hand And hissing fly the feather'd fates below.
and not the hand of man had done it, the heathens On mules and dogs, the infection first began; would have boasted of their prowess, and Jehovah And last the vengeful arrows fix'd in man. would have been blasphemed, as not being able to
up or left.
A pathetic lamentation
over the people.
A: M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Is. 40. and the LORD hath not done all are bitter :
An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat. this.
|-- 33 Their wine is a the poi-
29 O that they were wise, that they under- 34 Is not this blaid up in store with me, and
35 To me 'belongeth vengeance and re30 How should one chase a thousand, and compense ; their foot shall slide in due time: two put ten thousand to flight, except their for the day of their calamity is at hand, and Rock « had sold them, and the LORD had shut the things that shall come upon them make them up?
haste. 31 For their rock is not as our Rock, 36 e For the Lord shall judge his people, even our enemies themselves being judges. * and repent himself for his servants, when he 32 For * their vine Y is of the vine of Sodom, seeth that their power is gone, and there is and of the fields of Gomorrah : their
grapes none shut • Psa. cxl. 8. Or, Our high hand, and not the LORD, hath the vine of Sodom, &c.—-- Psa. Iviii 4. a Psa. cxl. 3; Rom. done all this. Isa. xxvii. 11; Jer. iv. 22. - Chap. v. 29; | iii. 13.- _ Job xiv. 17; Jer. ii. 22; Hos. xiii. 12; Rom. ii. 5. Psa. Ixxxi. 13; cvii. 43 ; Luke xix. 42.- Isa. xlvii. 7; Lam. Psa. xciv. 1; Ecclus. xxviii. 1; Rom. xii. 19; Heb. x. 30. i. 9.- - Lev. xxvi. 8 ; Josh. xxiii. 10; 2 Chron xxiv. 24; Isa. 4 2 Pet. ii. 3. Psa. cxxxv. 14, - Judg. ii. 18; Psa. cri. 45; xxx. 17.-Psa. xliv. 12; Isa. 1. 1; lii. 3. Sam. ii. 2. Jer. xxxi. 20; Joel ii. 14; 2 Mac. vii. 6.
- Heb. hand. W1 Sam. iv. 8; Jer. xl. 3:- * Isa. i. 10. y Or, is worse than 1 Kings xiv. 10; xxi. 21 ; 2 Kings ix. 8; xiv. 26. protect his worshippers, or to punish their infidelities. ites; for by the vine the inhabitants of the land are Titus, when he took Jerusalem, was so struck with signified ; see Isa. v. 2, 7. the strength of the place, that he acknowledged that Their grapes] Their actions, are gall and wormif God had not delivered it into his hands, the Roman wood-producing nothing but mischief and misery to armies never could have taken it.
themselves and others. Verse 29. That they would consider their latter. Their clusters are bitter] Their united exertions, end!] Dina acharitham, properly, their latter times as well as their individual acts, are sin, and only sin, —the glorious days of the Messiah, who, according to continually. That: by vine. is meant the people, and the flesh, should spring up among them. Should they by grapes their moral conduct, is evident from Isa. v. carefully consider this subject, and receive the pro- 1–7. It is very likely that the grapes produced about mised Saviour, they would consequently act as persóns the lake Asphallites, where Sodom and Gomorrah forunder infinite obligations to God ; his strength would merly stood, were not only of an acrid, disagreeable be their shield, and then
taste, but of a deleterious quality, and to this, it is Verse 30. How should one chase a thousand] If probable, Moses here alludes. therefore they had not forgotten their Rock, God their Verse 33. Their wine] Their system of doctrines author and defence, it could not possibly have come and teaching, is the poison of dragons, &c., fatal and to pass that a thousand of them should flee before one destructive to all them who follow it. of their enemies.
Verse 34. Sealed up among my treasures ?j Deeds Verse 31. For their rock]. The gods and pre- or engagements by which persons were bound at a tended protectors of the Romans.
specified time to fulfil certain conditions, were sealed Is not as our Rock) Have neither power nor in- and laid up in places of safety ;, so here God's justice fluence like our God.
is pledged to avenge the quarrel of his broken coveOur enemies themselves being judges.] For they nant on the disobedient Jews, but the time and manner. often acknowledged the irresistible power of that God were sealed in his treasures, and known only to himwho fought for Israel. . See Exod. xiv., 25; Num. self. Hence it is said, xxj. 8-12, 19-21; 1 Sam. iv. 8.
Verse. 35. Their foot shall slide in due time, There is a passage in Virgil, Eclog. iv., ver. 58, fc.) But Calmet thinks that this verse iş spoken very similar to this saying of Moses :
against the Canaanites, the enemies of the Jewish Pan Deus Arcadia mecum si judice certet,
people. Pan etiam Arcadia dicat se judice victum.
Verse 36. The Lord shall judge his people] He has
an absolute right over them as their Creator, and au“ Should the god Pan contend with me,” (in, singing thority to punish them for their rebellions as their
the praises of the future hero, the deliverer, pro- Sovereign; yet he will repent himself—he will change phesied of in the Sibylline books,) “were even his manner of conduct towards them, when he seeth Arcadia judge, Pan would acknowledge himself that their power is gone—when they are entirely sub
to be vanquished, Arcadia herself being judge." jugated by their adversaries, so that their political power Verse 32. For their vine is of the vine of Sodom] is entirely destroyed; and there is none shut up or left The Jews are as wieked and rebellious as the Sodom-1-not one strong place untaken, and not one family left,
Threatenings and promises. CHAP. XXXII.
Moses exhorts the people. A. M. 2553. 37. And he shall say, · Where captives, from the beginning of A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr, 40. are their gods, their rock in revenges upon the enemy. An. Ex. Isr. 40.
Adar. whom they trusted,
43 Rejoice, u ye nations, 38 Which did eat the fat of their sacrifices, with his people : for he will avenge the blood and drank the wine of their drink-offerings ? let of his servants, and will render vengeance to them rise up and help you, and be your pro- his adversaries, and will be merciful unto his tection.
land, and to his people. 39 See now that 11, even I, am he, and 44 And Moses came and spake all the words m there is no god with me : n I kill, and I make of this song in the ears of the people, he, and alive; I wound, and I heal : neither is there » Hoshea the son of Nun. any that can deliver out of
45 And Moses made an end of speaking all 40 ° For I lift up my hand to heaven, and these words to all Israel : say, I live for ever.
46And he said unto them, ? Set your
hearts 41 P If I wet my glittering sword, and mine unto all the words which I' testify among you hand take hold on judgment; ? I will render this day, which ye shall command your chilvengeance to mine enemies, and will reward dren to observe to do, all the words of this law. them that hate me.
47 For it is not a vain thing for you; a be42 I will make mine arrows ' drunk with cause it is your life: and through this thing blood, and my sword shall devour flesh; and ye shall prolong your days in the land, whither that with the blood of the slain and of the ye go over Jordan to possess it.
i Judg. x. 14 ; Jer. 11. 28.-ek Heb. a hiding for you. - Psa. 9 Isa. i. 24; Nah. 1. 2. - Jer. xlvi. 10. - s Job xin. 24; Jer. cii. 27; Isa. xli. 4 ; xlvii. 12. - Chap. iv. 35;
Isa. xlv. 5, 18, xxx. 14; Lam. ij. 5. —'Or, Praise his people, ye nations ; or, 22.—" | Sam. ii. 6; 2 Kings v. 7; Job v 18; Psa. lxviii. 20; Sing ye. u Rom. xv. 10.- - Rev. vi. 10; xix. 2. —
-w Ver. Hos. vi. 1 ; Tob. xiii. 2; Wisd. xvi. 13. - Gen. xiv. 22; Exod. 41.- - Psa, lxxxv.1. - Or, Joshua. -Chap. vi. 6; xi. 18; vi. 8; Num. xiv. 30.- P Isa. xxvii, 1 ;. xxxiv. 5; lxvi. 16; Ezek. xl. 4. Chap. xxx. 19; Lev. xviii. 5; Prov.ui. 2, 22; Ezek. xxi. 9, 10, 14, 20.
iv. 22; Rom. x. 5, all being carried into captivity, or scattered into strange | iugathering with his people, for they shall not be utterly lands. Or, he will do justice to his people, and avenge cast off. (See Rom. xv. 9, for in this way the apostle them of their adversaries ; see ver. 35. •
applies it.) But how shall the Gentiles be called, and Verse-37. He shall say). He shall begin to expos- the Jews have their iniquity purged? He will be mertulate with them, to awaken them to a due sense of ciful unto his land and to his people, ai vechipper, their ingratitude and rebellion. This may refer to the he shall cause an atonement to be made for his land preaching of the Gospel to them in the latter days." and people; i. e., Jesus Christ, the long promised Mes
Verse 39. See now that I-am he] Be convinced siah, shall be crucified for Jews and Gentiles, and the that God alone can save, and God alone can destroy, way to the holiest be made plain by his blood. and that your idols can neither hurt nor help you. The people have long been making atonements for
I kill, and I make alive, fc.) My mercy is as great themselves, but to none effect, for their atonements as my justice, for I am as ready to save the penitent were but signs, and not the thing signified, for the body as I was to punish the rebellious.
is Christ; now the Lord himself makes an atonement, - Verse 40. For I lift up my hand to heaven] See for the Lamb of God alone taketh away the sin of the concerning oaths and appeals to God in the note on world. This is a very proper and encouraging conchap. vi. 13.
clusion to the awfully important matter of this poem." Verse 42. From the beginning of revenges] The Israel shall be long scattered, peeled, and punished, word niyno paroth, rendered revenges, a sense in which but they shall have mercy in the latter times; they it never appears to be taken, has rendered this place also shall rejoice with the Gentiles, in the common salvery perplexed and obscure. Mr. Parkhurst has rèn- vation purchased by the blood of the Saviour of all dered the whole passage thus :
Verse 44. And Moses came] Probably from the I will make my arrows drunk with blood;
tabernacle; where God had given him this prophetic And my sword shall devour flesh,
ode, and he rehearsed it in the ears of the people. With the blood of the slain and captive From the hairy head of the enemy.
Verse 46. Set your hearts unto all the words) An
other proof that all these awful denunciations of Divine Probably niyne und merosh paroth may be more wrath, though delivered in an absolute form, were only properly translated, from the naked head-the enemy declaratory of what God would do if they rebelled shall have nothing to shield him from my vengeance; against him. the crown of dignity shall fall off, and even the helmet Verse 47. Through this thing ye shall prolong your be no protection against the sword and arrows of the days] Instead of being cut off, as God here threatens, Lord.
ye shall be preserved and rendered prosperous in the Verse 43. Rejoice, O ye, nations] Ye Gentiles, for land which, when they passed over Jordan, they should the casting off of the Jews shall be the means of your possess.