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A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

Sebat.

Sebat.

The curses to be pronounced CHAP. XXVII.

against the ungodly. 15 Cursed be the man that wife; because he uncovereth his An. Ex. Isr

. 40. maketh any graven or molten father's skirt. And all the people An. Ex. Isr. 40.

image, an abomination unto the shall say, Amen. LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, 21 rCursed be he that lieth with any manner and putteth it in a secret place. And all the of beast. And all the people shall say, Amen. people shall answer and say, Amen.

22 Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, 16 - Cursed be he that setteth light by his the daughter of his father, or the daughter of father or his mother. And all the people shall his mother. And all the people shall say,

Amen. 17 - Cursed be he that removeth his neigh- 23 Cursed be he that lieth with his motherbour's landmark. And all the people shall say, in-law. And all the people shall say, Amen. Amen.

24 Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour 18 • Cursed be he that maketh the blind to secretly. And all the people shall say, Amen. wander out of the way. And all the people 25 Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay shallsay, Amen.

an innocent person. And all the people shall 19 r Cursed be he that perverteth the judg- say, Amen. ment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow. 26 w Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the And all the people shall say, Amen.

words of this law to do them.' . And all the 20 Cursed be he that lieth with his father's people shall say, Amen.

say, Amen.

k Exod. xx. 4, 23 ; xxxiv. 17; Lev. xix: 4; xxvi. 1 ; chap. iy. a Lev, xvir. 8; xx. 11; chap. xxii. 30.- Lev. xviii. 23 ; 16, 23; v. 8; Isa. Ixiv. 9; Hos. xiii. 2. See Num. v. 22; xx. 15. Lev. xviii. 9; xx. 17.-! Lev. xviii. 17 ; xx. 14. : Jer. xi. 5; I Cor. xiv. 16,m Exod. xx. 12 ; xxi. 17; Lev. xix. u Exod. xx. 13; xxi. 12, 14; Lev. xxiv. 17; Num. xxxv. 31 ; 3; chap. xxi. 18.- n Chap. xix. 14 ; Prov. xxi. 28. Lo Lev. chap. xix. 11.- - Exod. xxiii. 7, 8; chap. x. 17; xvi. 19; xix. 14.- -- Exod. xxi. 21, 22; chap. x. 18; xxiv. 17; Mal. Ezek. xxii. 12. — Chap. xxviii. 15; Psa. cxix. 21 ; Jer. xi. 3; iii. 5.

Gal. iii. 10.

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was reduced to practice, we find the people did not that the curses, were here proclaimed principally to stand on the mountains, but over against them on the secure obedience to the commandments, as will be plain. See the observations at the end of this chapter. made more clear by the following table :

Verse 15. Cursed be the man, fc.) Other laws, The first, second, third, and fourth Commandments. previously made, had prohibited all these things, and

Verse 15. Cursed be the man that maketh any grapenal sanctions were necessarily understood; but here ven or molten image, an abomination to the Lord, &c. God more openly declares that he who breaks them is

The fifth Commandment.
- cursed-falls under the wrath and indignation of his
Maker and Judge. See the note on Exod. xx. 4.

Verse 16. Cursed be he that setteth light by his
Verse 16. Settelh light by his father or his mother.]

father or his mother. See the note on Exod. xx. 12.

The sixth Commandment. Verse 17. Removeth his neighbour's landmark.] See Verse 25. Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay before on Deut. xix. 14, and on Exod. xx. 17. And an innocent person: for all the rest of these curses, see the notes on Exod. Verse 24. Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbour XX., and the observations at the end of it.

secretly.
Verse 18. The blind to wander out of the way.) A Verse 18. Cursed be he that maketh the blind to
sín against the sixth commandment.' See on Exod. wander out of the way.
XX. 13.

The seventh Commandment:
Verse 26. That confirmeth not all the words of this
law] The word so col, all, is not found in any printed wife.

Verse 20. Cursed be he that lieth with his father's copy of the Hebrew text; but the Samaritan preserves

Verse 21. Cursed be he that lieth with any beast, it, and so do six MSS, in the collections of Kennicott

Verse 22. Cursed be he that lieth with his sister. and De Rossi, besides several copies of the Chaldee

Verse 23. Cursed be he that lieth with his mother-
Targum. The Septuagint also, and St. Paul in his

in-law.
quotation of this place, Gal. iii. 10. St. Jerome says
that the Jews suppressed the word, that it might not

The eighth Commandment,
appear that they were bound to fulfil ALL the precepts

Verse 17. Cursed be he that removeth his neighin the law of Moses.'

bour's landmark.

The ninth Commandment. 1. Dr. KENNICOTT, whó contends that it was the Verse 19. Cursed be he that perverteth the judgDecalogue that was written on the stones mentioned ment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow.. in this chapter, says, “ If we examine these twelve

• The tenth Commandment. curses, they will appear to contain a strong enforce- Verse 26. Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the ment of the ten commands; and it is highly probable words of this law to do them.”

ARK

PRIESTS

Remarks on the
DEUTERONOMY.

blessings and curses. Many will think this arrangement fanciful ; and the was degraded, and was obliged to pronounce the curse, analogy far from being natural.

Cursed is he that lieth with his father's wife. See 2. In pronouncing these blessings and curses, the Gen. xlix. 3, 4, and xxxv. 22, and the notes on both Talmud says, six tribes went up towards the top of places. Mount Gerizim, and six towards the top of Mount 4. It is strange how long the disgrace consequent Ebal; and the priests and the Levites, and the ark on some flagrant transaction of a parent may cleave stood beneath in the midst. The priests encompassed to his posterity! See this exemplified in the posterity the ark, and the Levites stood round about the priests ; of Reuben. Hence, with great propriety we may pray, and all Israel on this side and on that ; see Josh. viii. “Remember not, Lord, our offences, nor the offences 33. Then they turned their faces towards Mount Ge- of our forefathers ; neither take thou vengeance of our rizim and pronounced the blessing, Blessed be the man, sins.”—Lilany. For the offences of our forefathers &c., and those on each side answered AMEN! then may be so remembered against their posterity, that they turned their faces towards Mount Ebal, and pro- God, in the course of his providence, may still keep nounced the curse, Cursed be the man, &c., and those up a controversy in secular matters with the descend. on each side answered Amen! till they had finished ants (though even pious) of unholy ancestors; for as the blessings and the curses; and afterwards they all men are seminally included in their parents, they brought stones and built an altar. Some suppose that come into the world depraved with their depravity, the Levites were divided into two grand bodies, part and in some sort liable to their curses, though not so standing at or on Mount-Gerizim, and part on Mount far as to affect their eternal interests without the addiEbal, and that with each division were some of the tion of their own personal offences. . Thus God may priests. The whole Dr. Parry supposes to have been be said to visit the sins of the fathers upon the chilarranged in the following manner :

dren, even unto the third and fourth generation ; as be

may have a controversy with the land for the evil WEST.

which has been done in it, and for which no proper

atonement has been made. Why is it that at this PRIESTS

moment Spain is suffering the most afflictive and cruel Levites ALTAR Levites

desolations ? What has she done to merit all this? uoaturs

uəqnəd

Is she more wicked than all the European nations beAƏT

pe

cause she suffers such things? Here is the mystery : yepnr

ləySV ІeцotsSI

unpnqəz

Nations, as such, can only be punished in this world. ydəsor

μεα

Look at the torrents of innocent blood shed by their urutesuag

priyden

ancestors in South America 300 years ago; and see sa fudus

sasunans

now and adore the awful hand of retributive justice!

(December; 1811.) We often see persons tried and ISTO

afflicted, for whose distresses we can give no legiti

mate reason. We find others who, though they rise 3. It is worthy of remark that Moses assigns to the early, sit up late, work hard, eat the bread of carefalchildren of Rachel and Leah, the two mothers of the ness, and have a full knowledge of their business, yet family, the office of blessing the people, as being the never get on in life. Who can account for this? most honourable ; and these he places on Mount Geria Shall we say that some injustice in their ancestors has zim. On the contrary, he assigns the office of cursing brought down the displeasure of God upon the earthly the people to the sons of Zilpah and Bilhah, as being possessions that descended in that line, so that the goods the least honourable office; but with these he joins ill gotten shall never be permitted to multiply ? I Zebulun, the youngest of Leah's sons, and Reuben, the knew an honest man, dead many years since, who by eldest. As there must be six tribes on each moun- great diligence, punctuality, and integrity in his busi tain, it was necessary that while mix of the sons of ness, had acquired considerable property. Some time Rachel and Leah, the legitimate wivos, should be em- before bis death, having by will divided his substance ployed in blessing, two tribes descending from the among his sons and his daughters, he expressed himsame mothers should be joined to the other four who self thus : “ Children, you need not fear the curse of proceeded from the handmaids in order to make up God on this property ; every penny of it was honestly the number six. The question is, which two of the earned.". Many years have since elapsed, and the more honourable tribes should be joined to the four blessing of God has been in the basket and in the least honourable, in order to complete the number store of all his children. Parents! leave nothing besix ? Zebulun is chosen, because being the sixth and hind you that you cannot say before your God, with a youngest of all Leah's sons, he was the least honour- clear conscience, “This has been honestly earned.'' able of those who - proceeded from the free woman; If all bequests of a contrary description were to be and Reuben is chosen, who, though the eldest of Ja- deducted from last wills and testaments, the quantum cob's sons, and entitled to the birthright, had lost it of descending property would be, in many cases, small by his transgression. And hence he, in his posterity, I indeed,

806

SOUTH
GERIZIM

Curses

Blessings

EBAL
NORTH

The blessings that shall come

CHAP. XXVIII.

on them that fear God.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451.

Sebat.

The blessings which. God pronounces on the obedient, 1-6. Particular privileges which the faithful shall receive, 7-13.

The curses pronounced against the ungodly and idolatrous, 14–19. A detailed account of the miseries which should be inflicted on them, should they neglect the commandments of the Lord, 20. They shall be smitten with the pestilence, 21; with consumption, fever, fc., 22; drought and barrenness, 23, 24; they shall be defeated by their enemies, 25,,26; they shall be afflicted with the botch of Egypt, 27; with madness and blindness, 28, 29; they shall be disappointed in all, their projects, 30; deprived of all their possessions, and afflicted in all their members, 31-35; they and their king shall go into captiity, 36, and become a by-word among the nations, 37. Their land shall be unfruitful, and they shall be the lowest of all people, 38-44. All these curses shall come on them should they be disobedient, 45--48. Character of the people by whom they should be subdued, 49, 50. Particulars of their dreadful sufferings, 51–57.

A recapitulation of their wretchedness, 58-63. The prediction that they shall be scattered among all the nations of the earth, 64-68.

AND it shall come to pass, * if unto the voice of the Lord thy 4. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. thou shalt hearken diligently God.

An. Ex. Isr. 40 unto the voice of the LORD thy 3 Blessed shalt thou be in the

Sebat. God, to observe and to do all his command- city, and blessed shalt thou be e in the field. ments which I command thee this day, that the 4 Blessed shall be the fruit of thy body, Lord thy God will set thee on high above and the fruit of thy ground, and the fruit of all nations of the earth :

thy cattle, the increase of thy kine, and the 2 And all these blessings shall come on thee, flocks of ihy sheep. and covertake thee, : if thou shalt hearken 5 Blessed shall be ihy basket and thy éstore,

a Exod. xv. 26; Lev. xxvi. 3; Isa. lv. 2. Lo Chap. xxvi. "Ver. Il; Gen. xxii. 17; xlix. 25; chap. vii. 13; Psa. cvii. 38; 19.c Ver. 15; Zech. i. 6. - Psa. cxxviii. 1, 4.- Le Gen, cxxvii. 3 ; cxxviii. 3 ;. Prov. x. 22; 1 Tim. iv. 8. - 5 Or, dough, Xxxix. 5.

or kneading trough. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVIII.

vintage, as the basket was employed to collect those Verse 2. All these blessings shall come on thee) fruits. God shall pour out his blessing from heaven upon thee. Store.), n7x03 mishereth, kneading-trough, or reAnd overtake thee. Upright men are represented as mainder; all that is laid up for future use, as well as going to the kingdom of God, and God's blessings as what is prepared for present consumption. Some think following and overtaking them in their heavenly jour- that by basket all their property abroad may

be meant, ney. There are several things in this verse worthy and by store all that they have at home, i. e., all that of the most careful observation:

is in the fields, and all that is in the houses. The fol1. If thou shalt hearken unto the voice of the Lord lowing note of Mr. Harmer is important : thy God. The voice of God must be heard ; without a - Commentators seem to be at a great loss how to Divine revelation how can the Divine will be known? I explain the basket and the store mentioned Deut. And if not known, it cannot be fulfilled.

xxviii. 5, 17. Why Moses, who in the other verses 2. When God speaks, men must hearken to the mentions things in general, should in this case be so words of his mouth. He who does not hearken will minute as to mention baskets, seems strange ; and they not obey.

that interpret either the first or the second of these 3. He who hearkens to the words of God must set words of the repositories of their corn, &c.; forget that out for the kingdom of heaven. The curse must fall their barnis or storehouses are spoken of presently after on him who stands in the way of sinners, and will over- this in ver. 8. Might 'I be permitted to give my opitake them who loiter in the way of righteousness. nion here, I should say that the basket, xju tene, in

4. Those who run in the way of God's testimonies this place means their travelling baskets, and the other shall have an abundance of blessing. - Blessings shall word nisun mishereth, (their store,) signifies their come upon them, and blessings shall overtake them leathern bags, in both which they were wont to carry in every part of their march through life they shall things in travelling. The first of these words occurs continue to receive the fulfilment of the various pro-' nowhere else in the Scriptures but in the account that mises of God which relate to all circumstances, vicis- is given us of the conveyance in which they were to situdes, trials, stages of life, &c., &c., each overlaking carry their first-fruits to Jerusalem ; the other nothem in the time and place where most needed.. where but in the description of the hurrying journey

Verse 3. In the city). In all civil employments. of Israel out of Egypt, where it means the utensils in In the field-in all agricultural pursuits.

which they then carried their dough, which I have Verse 4. Fruit of thy body) All thy children. In- shown elsewhere in these papers means a piece of crease of thy kine, &c.; every animal employed in do- leather drawn together by rings, and forming a kind mestic and agricultural purposes shall be under the of bag. Agreeably to this, Hasselquist informs us especial protection of Divine Providence.

that the Eastern people use baskets in travelling ; for, Verse 5. Thy basket] Thy olive gathering and I speaking of that species of the palm tree which pro

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V

Blessings promised
DEUTERONOMY.

to the faithful. 6 h Blessed shalt thou be when ground, in the land which the A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. thou comest in, and blessed shalt LORD sware unto thy fathers to An-Ex. Ist. 40. thou be when thou goest out..

give thee. n The LORD i shall cause thine enemies that 12 The LORD shall open unto thee his good rise up against thee to be smitten before thy treasure, the heaven * to give thee rain unto thy face : they shall come out against thee one land in his season, and u to bless all the work way, and flee before thee seven ways. of thine hand and thou shalt lend unto

8 The LORD shall command the blessing many nations, and thou shalt not borrow. upon thee in thy "storehouses, and in all that 13 And the LORD shall make thee-w the head, thou m.settest thine hand unto; and he shall and not the tail ; and thou shalt be above only, bless thee in the land which the LORD thy and thou shalt not be beneath; if that thou God giveth thee.

hearken into the commandments of the LORD 9 - The Lord shall establish thee a holy thy God, which I command thee this day, to people unto himself, as he hath sworn unto observe and to do them: thee, if thou shalt keep the commandments of 14 ? And thou shalt not go aside from any

of the LORD thy God, and walk iņ his ways.

the words which I command thee this day, to 10 And all the people of the earth shall see the right hand or to the left, to go after other that thou art called by the name of the LORD; gods to serve them. : and they shall'be. P afraid of thee.

15 But it shall come to pass, y if thou wilt 11 And a the LORD-shall make thee plenteous not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy ' in goods, in the fruit of thy s body, and in God; to observe to do all his commandments the fruit of thy cattle; and in the fruit of thy and his statutes which I command thee this

ń Psa. cxxi. 8. Lev. xxvi. 7, 8; 2 Sam. xxii. 38, 39, 41; p Chap. xi. 25.4 Ver. 4; chap. xxx. 9; Prov. x. 22. - Or, Psa. lxxxix. 23 ; see ver. 25. Ley. xxv.21. - Or, barns ; l for good.- Heb. belly. Lev. xxvi. 4; chap. xi. 14. Prov. iii. 10. 10 Chap. xv. 10.- Exod. xix, 5, 6; chap. vii. Chap. xiv. 29.- Chap. xv. 6. "Isa. ix. 14, 15Chap. 6; xxvi. 18, 19; xxix. 13. Lo Num. vi. 27; 2 Chron, vii. 14; v. 32 ; xi. 16.—Lev. xxvi. 14; Lam. ii. 17; Dan. ix. 11, 13 ; Tsa. Ixiii. 19; Dan. ix. 18, 19.

Mal. ii. 2 ; Bar. i. 20. duces dates, and its great usefulness to the people of When thou goest out.) Thy way shall be made those countries, he telļs us that of the leaves of this prosperous before thee, and thou shalt have the Divine tree they make baskets, or rather a kind of short bags, blessing in all thy labours. which are used in Turkey on journeys and in their Verse 7. The Lord shall cause thine enemies, fc.) houses ; pages 261, 262. Hampers and panniers are This is a promise of security from foreign invasion, or English terms denoting travelling baskets, as tene total discomfiture of the invaders, should they enter seems to be a Hebrew word of the same general im- the land. They shall come against thee one way—in port, though their forms might very much differ, as it the firmest and most united manner. And flee seven is certain that of the travelling baskets mentioned by ways shall be utterly broken, confounded, and finally Hasselquist now does.

routed. “In like manner as they now carry meal, figs, and Verse 8. The Lord shall command the blessing raisins, in a goat's skin in Barbary for a viaticum, upon thee] Every thing that thou hast shall come by they might do the same anciently, and consequently Divine appointment; thou shalt have nothing casually, might carry merchandise after the same manner, par- but every thing, both spiritual and temporal, shall come ticularly their þoney, oil, and balm, mentioned Ezek. by the immediate command of God. xvii. 17. They were the proper vessels for such Verse 9. The - Lard shall establish thee a holy people things. So Sir J. Chardin, who was so long in the unto himself] This is the sum of all blessings, to be „East, and observed their customs with so much care, made holy, and be preserved in holiness. supposed, in a manuscript note on Gen. xlisi. 11, that If thou shalt keep, fo] Here is the solemn condithe balm and the honey sent by Jacob into Egypt för tion; if they did not keep God's testimonies; taking a present were carried in a goat or kid's skin, in which them for the regulators of their lives, and according all sorts of things, both dry, and liquid, are wont to be to their direction walking in his ways, under the incarried in the East.

Auence and aids of his grace, then the curses, and not “ Understood after this manner, the passage pro- the blessings, must be their portion. See ver. 15, &c. mises Israel success in their commerce, as the next Verse 12. The Lord shall open unto thee his good verse (the 6th) promises them personal safety in their treasure] The clouds, so that a sufficiency of fructifygoing out and in their return. In this view the pas- ing showers should descend at all requisite times, and sage appears with due distinctness, and a noble ex- the vegetative principle in the earth should unfold and tent."-Observations, vol. ii., p. 181.

exert itself, so that their crops should be abundant. Verse 6. When thou comest in] From thy employ- Verse 14. Thou shalt not go asideto the right ment, thou shalt find that no evil has happened to the hand or to the left]. The way of obedience is a straight family or dwelling in thy absence.

way; it goes right forward; he who declines either

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B. C. 1451.

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z Ver. 2.

Amos iv. 9.

Curses that shall fall
CHAP. XXVIII.

on the disobedient.
A. M. 2553. day; that all these curses shall 22 8 The LORD shall smite thee A. M, 2553.
An. Ex. Isr. 40, come upon thee, and 2. overtake with a consumption, and with a An. Ex. Isr. 40.
Sebat.
thee :
fever, and with an inflammation,

Sebat. 16 Cursed shalt thou be in the city, and and with an extreme burning, and with the cursed shalt thou be in the field.

h sword, and with i blasting, and with mildew; 17 Cursed shall be thy basket and thy store. and they shall pursue thee until thou perish.

18 Cursed shall be the fruit of thy body, and 23 And k thy heaven that is over thy head the fruit of thy land, the increase of thy kine, shall be brass, and the earth that is under thee and the flocks of thy sheep.

shall be iron. 19 Cursed shalt thou be when thou comest in, 24 The LORD shall make the rain of thy and cursed shalt thou be when thou.goest out. land powder and dust: from heaven shall it

20 The Lord shall send upon thee cursing, come down upon thee, until thou be dec vexation, and drebuke, in all that thou set-stroyed. test thine hand unto e for to do, until thou be 25. 1 The LORD shall cause thee to be smita destroyed, and until thou perish quickly; be- ten before thine enemies : thou shalt go out . cause of the wickedness of thy doings, whereby one way against them, and flee seven ways thou hast forsaken me.

before them: and i shalt be a remoyed into all 21 The Lord shall make f the pestilence the kingdoms of the earth. cleave unto thee, until he have consumed 26 And • thy carcass shall be meat unto all thee from off the land, whither thou goest to fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the possess it.

earth, and no man shall fray them away. Ver. 3, &c. _b Mal. ii. 2. c] Sam. xiv. 20; k Lev. xxvi. 19. Ver. 7; Lev. xxvi. 17, 37; chap. xxxii. Zech. xiv, 13. - Psa. lxxx. 16; Isa. xxx. 17; li. 20; lxvi. 15. 30; Isa. xxx, 17. m Jer. xv. 4; xxiv. 9; Ezek. xxiii. 46. e Heb. which thou wouldest do.- - Lev. xxvi. 25; Jer. xxiv. 10. 1 Heb. for a removing. Sam. xvii. 44, 46; Psa. lxxix. 2; & Lev.*xxvi. 16. Lh Or, drought.

Jer. vii. 33 ; xvi, 4; xxxiv. 20. to right or left from this path goes astray and misses awful pestilential winds which suffocate both man and heaven.

beast wherever they come. These often prevail in
Verse 20. Cursing] This shall be thy state; vexa-different parts of the East, and several examples have
tion-grief, trouble, and -anguish of heart; rebuke already been given. See Gen. xli. 6.
continual judgments, and marks of God's displeasure. Mildew] ip7 yerakon, an erudation of the vege-

Verse 21. The pestilence cleave unto thee) PZT tative juice from different parts of the stalk, by which
20171 x 72 nin' yadbek Yehovah becha eth hadd'aber, the maturity and perfection of the plant are utterly
the Lord shall cement the pestilence or plague to thee prevented. It comes from pr yarak, to throw out
Sept., Προσκολλησει Κυριος εις σε τον θανατον, The moisture.
Lord will GLUE-inseparably attach, the death unto Of these seven plagues, the five former were to fall
thee. How dreadful a plague it must be that ravages on their bodies, the two latter upon their substance.
without intermission, any person máy conceive who What a fearful thing it is to fall into the hands of the
has ever heard of the name.

living God!
Verse 22. Consumption] nonu shachepheth, atro- Verse 23. Thy, heaven--shall be brass, and the
phy through lack of food ; from friv shacaph, to be earth-iron.] The atmosphere should not be reple-
in want.

nished with aqueous vapours, in consequence of which Fever! nnop kaddachath, from no kadach, to be they should have neither the early nor the latter rain; kindled, burn, sparkle ; a burning inflammatory fever. hence the earththe ground, must be wholly intract

Inflammation) np57 dalleketh, from ph7 dalak, to able, and, through its hardness, incapable of cultivapursue eagerly, to burn after ; probably a rapidly con- tion. God shows them by this that he is Lord of suming cancer.

naturè ; and that droughi and sterility are not .casualExtreme burning) yn charchur, burning upon ties, but proceed from the immediate appointment of burning, scald upon scald; from n char, to be heated, the Lord. enraged, &c. This probably refers, not only to excru- Verse 24. The rain of thy land powder and dust] ciating inflammations on the body, but also to the irri- As their heavens-atmosphere, clouds, &c., were to be tation and agony of a mind utterly abandoned by God; as brass—yielding no rain ; so the surface of the earth and lost to hope. What an accumulation of misery! must be reduced to powder; and this, being frequently how formidable ! and especially in a land where great taken up by the strong winds, would fall down in heat was prevalent and dreadful.

showers instead of rain. 'Whole caravans have been Sword] War in general, enemies without, and civil buried under showers of sand; and Thevenot, a French broils within. · This was remarkably the case in the traveller, who had observed these showers of dust, &c., last siege of Jerusalem.

says, “ They grievously annoy all they fall on, filling Blasting] por shiddaphon, probably either the their eyes, ears; nostrils, &c.”—Travels in the East, blighting east wind that ruined vegetation, or those part 1, book ii., chap. 80. The ophthalmia in Egypt

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