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Of marriage with the wife DEUTERONOMY.

of a deceased brother. 4 Thou shalt not muzzle the band's brother refuseth to raise A. M. 2553.

B. C. 145). ox when he h treadeth out the up unto his brother a name in An. Ex. Isr. 40. corn.

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Israel, he will not perform the 5 i If brethren dwell together, and one of duty of my husband's brother. them die, and have no child, the wife of the 8 Then the elders of his city shall call him, dead shall not marry without, unto a stranger : and speak unto him: and if he stand to it, her k husband's brother shall go in unto her, and say, ' I like not to take her; and take her to him to wife, and perform the 9 Then shall his brother's wife come unto duty of a husband's brother unto her. him in the presence of the elders, and a loose

6 And it shall be, that the first-born which his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, she beareth 1 shall succeed in the name of his and shall answer and say, So shall it be done brother which is dead, that m his name be not unto that man that will not "build up his broput out of Israel. .

ther's house. ng And if the man like not to take his n bro- 10 And his name shall be called in Israel, ther's wife, then let his brother's wife go up to The house of him that hath his shoe loosed.. the gate unto the elders, and say, My hus- 11 When men strive together one with an

& Prov. xii. 10; 1 Cor. ix. 9; 1 Tim. v. 18. h Heb. thresheth; 1 Gen. xxxviii. 9. m Ruth iv. 10. Or, nert kirsman's Hos: x. ll.-Matt. xxii. 24; Mark xii. 19; Luke xx. 28. wife. — Ruth iv. 1; 2.-P Ruth. iv. 6. Ruth iv, 7. k Or, nert kinsman, Gen. xxxviii. 8; Ruth i. 12, 13; iii. 9. r Ruth iv. 11.

understanding is very ancient, for so they practised in make use of beeves to tread out the corn; and Dr. the apostles” days; as Paul testified : Of the Jews five Shaw tells us that the people of. Barbary continue to times received I forty (stripes) save one ; 2 Cor. xi. tread out their corn after the custom of the East. In24. But the reason which they give is - not solid ; stead of beeves they frequently made use of mules and as when they say, If it had been written FORTY IN horses, by tying by the neck three or four in like manNUMBER, I would say it were full forty ; but being ner together, and whipping them afterwards round written, IN NUMBER Forty, it means the number which about the nedders, as they call the treading floors, (the reckons forly next after it, that is, thirty-nine. By Libycæ areæ Hor,) where the sheaves lie open and this exposition they confound the verses and take away expanded, in the same manner as they are placed and the distinction. I rather think this custom was taken prepared with us for threshing. This indeed is a up by reason of the manner of their beating forespoken much quicker way than ours, though less cleanly, for pf, which was with a scourge that had three cords, so as it is performed in the open air, (Hos. xiii. 3,) upon that every stroke was counted for three stripes, and any round level plot of ground, daubed over with cow's then they could not give even forty, but either thirty- dung 10 prevent as much as possible the earth, sand, nine or forty-two, which was above the number set of or gravel from rising; a great quantity of them all, God. And hereof they write thus : When they judge notwithstanding this precaution, must - unavoidably be (or condemn) a sinner to so many (stripes) as he can taken up with the grain, at the same time that the .bear, they judge not but by strokes that are fit to be straw, which is their chief and only fodder, is hereby trebled (that is, to give three stripes to one stroke, by shattered to pieces; a circumstance very pertinently reason of the three cords.) If they judge that he can alluded to in 2 Kings xiii. 7, where the king of Syria bear twenty, they do not say he shall be beaten with is said to have made the Israelites like the dust by one and twenty, to the end that they may treble the threshing.–Travels, p. 138. While the oxen were stripes, but they give him eighteen.Maimon in San- at work some muzzled their mouths to hinder them hedrin, chap. xvii., sec. 2. Thus he that was able to from eating the corn, which Moses here forbids, inbear twenty stripes, had but eighteen : the executioner structing the people by this symbolical precept to be • smote him but six times, for if he had smitten him the kind to their servants and labourers, but especially to seventh they were counted one and twenty stripes, those who ministered to them in holy things; so St, which was above the number adjudged: so he that Paul applies it 1 Cor. ix. 9, &c.; 1 Tim. v. 18. Le was adjudged to forty was smitten thirteen times, Clerc considers the injunction as wholly symbolical ; which being counted one for three, make thirty-nine. and perhaps in this view it was intended to confirm And so R. Bechaios, writing hereof, says, The strokes the laws enjoined in the fourteenth and fifteenth verses are trebled; that is, every one is three, and three of the former chapter. See Dodd and Shaw. times thirteen are nine and thirty."

In Bengal, where the same mode of treading out the Thy brother be vile, or be contemptible.—By this corn is used, some muzzle the ox, and others do not, God teaches us to hate and despise the sín, not the according to the disposition of the farmer.- Ward. sinner, who is by this chastisement to be amended ; as Verse 9. And loose his shoe] It is difficult to find the power which the Lord hath given is to edification, the reason of these ceremonies of degradation. Perhaps not to destruction, 2 Cor. xiii. 10.

the shoe was the emblem of power; and by stripping it Verse 4. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox, fc.] In off, deprivation of that power and authority was repreJudea, as well as in Egypt, Greece, and Italy, they sented. Spitting in the face was a mark of the utmost

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First-fruits must be
CHAP. XXVI.

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. 40. draweth near for to deliver her nation unto the LORD thy God.

husband out of the hand of him 17. y Remember what Amalek that smiteth him, and putteth forth her hand, did unto thee by the way, when ye were come and taketh him by the secrets :

forth out of Egypt; 12 Then thou shalt cut off her hand, thine 18 How he met thee by the way, and smote eye shall not pity her.

the hindmost of thee, even all that were feeble 13 Thou shalt not have in thy bag " divers behind thee, when thou wast faint and weary ; weights, a great and a small.

and he ? feared not God. 14 Thou, shalt not have in thine house 19 Therefore it shall be, when the LORD divers measures, a great and a small, thy God hạth given thee rest from all thine

15 But thou shalt have a perfect and just enemies round about, in the land which the weight, a perfect and just measure shalt thou LORD thy God giveth the for an inheritance, have: w that thy days may be lengthened in the to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the reland which the LORD thy God giveth thee. membrance of Amalek from under heaven :

16 For 7 all that do such things, and all that thou shalt not forget it.

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•Chap. xix. 13. Lev. xix. 35, 36; Prov. xi. 1; Ezek. xlv. w Exod. xx. 12.- * Prov. xi. 1; 1 Thess. iv, 6. —y Exod. 10; Mic. vi. ll.- - Heb. a stone and a stone. Heb. an xvïi. 8. -z Psa. xxxvi. 1 ; Prov. xvi. 6; Rom. iii. 18.1 Sam. ephah and an ephah.

xv. 3.

b Exod. xvii. 14.

ignominy; but the Jews, who are legitimate judges in country this was once a common case; smooth, round,
this case, say that the spitting was not in his face, but or oval stones were generally chosen by the simple
before his face on the ground. And this is the way country people for selling their wares, especially sạch
in which the Asiatics express their detestation of a as were sold in pounds and half pounds. And hence
person to the present day, as Niebuhr and other intel- the term a stone weight, which is still in use, though
ligent travellers assure us. It has been remarked that lead or iron be the matter that is used as a counter-
the prefix a beth is seldom applied to '3D peney; but poise : but the name itself shows us that a stone of a
when it is it signifies as well before as in the face. certain weight was the material formerly used as a
See. Josh. xxi. 44 ; xxiii. 9; Esther ix. 2 ; and Ezek. weight. See the notes on Lev. xix. 35, 36.
xlii. 12; which texts are supposed to be proofs in Verse 14. Divers measures] · Literally, an ephah
point. The act of spitting, whether in or before the and an ephah; one large, to buy thy neighbour's
face, marked the strong contempt the woman felt for wares, another small, to sell thy own by. So
the man who had slighted her. And it appears that there were knaves in all ages, and among all na-
the man was ever after disgraced in Israel ; for-

stions, See the notes on Exod. xvi. 16, and Lev.
much is certainly implied in the saying, ver. 10: And xix. 35.
his name shall be called in Israel, The house of. him Verse 18. Smote the hindmost of thee) See the note
that hath his shoe loosed.

on Exod. xvii. 8. It is supposed that this command Verse 13. Divers weights) 1989j38 eben vaaben, a had its final accomplishment in the death of Haman stone and a stone, because the weights were anciently and his ten sons, Esth. iž., vå., ix., ás from this time made of stone, and some had two sets of stones, a the memory and name of Amalek was blotted out from light and a heavy. With the latter they bought their under heaven, for through every period of their history wares, by the former they sold them. In our own it might be truly said, They feared not God.

CHAPTER XXVI.

First-fruits must be offered to God, 1, 2. The form of confession to be used on the occasion, 3–11. The

third year's tithe. to be given to the Levites and the poor, 12, and the form of confession to be used on this
occasion, 13-15. The Israelites are to take Jehovah for their God, and to keep his testimonies, 16, 17.
And Jehovah is to take them for his people, and make them high above all the nations of the earth, 18, 19.
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Sebat. the LORD thy God giveth thee 2 a That thou shalt take of the a Exod. xxiii. 19; xxxiv. 26; Num. xviii. 13; chap. xvi. 10 ; Prov. iii. 9. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVI.

remembrance of the kindness of God, in preserving Verse 2. Thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit, them through so many difficulties and literally fülfe.) This was intended to keep them in continual filling the promises he had made to them. God being VOL. I. ( 52 )

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The confession to be made DEUTERONOMY. on offering the first fruits.

A. M. 2553. first of all the fruit of the earth, | 8 And the LORD brought us A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. which thou shalt bring of thy forth out of Egypt with a mighty An. Ex. Isr. 40.

land that the LORD thy God giveth hand, and with an outstretched thee, and shalt put it in a basket, and shalt arm, and with great terribleness, and with

go unto the place which the Lord thy God signs, and with wonders : shall choose, to place his name there.

9 And he hath brought us into this place, 3 And thou shalt go unto the priest that and hath given us this land, even la land that shall be in those days, and say unto him, I floweth with milk and honey. profess this day unto the LORD thy God, 10 And now, behold, I have brought the that I am come unto the country which the first-fruits of the land, which thou, O LORD, LORD sware unto our fathers for to give us. hast given me.

And thou shalt set it before 4 And the priest shall take the basket out the LORD thy God, and worship before the of thine hand, and set it down before the altar Lord thy God : of the LORD thy God.

: | 11 And m thou shalt rejoice in every good 5. And thou shalt speak, and say before the thing which the LORD thy God hath given LORD thy God, o A Syrian - ready to perish unto thee, and unto thine house, thou, and the was my father, and he went down into Levite, and the stranger that is among you. Egypt, and sojourned there with a few, and 12 When thou hast made an end of tithing became there a nation, great,. mighty, and all the tithes of thine increase the third year, populous :

which is the year of tithing, and hast given 6 And & the Egyptians evil entreated us, and it unto the Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, afflicted

US, and laid upon us hard bondage : and the widow, that they may eat within thy 7 And when we cried unto the LORD God gates, and be filled ; of our fathers, the Lord heard our voice, and 13 Then thou shalt say before the LORD thy looked on our affliction, and our labour, and God, I have brought away the hallowed things our oppression.

out of mine house, and also have given them Chap. xii. 5.

d Gen. xliii. 1,2; xlv. 7,11. i Exod. xii. 37, 51 ; xiii. 3, 14, 16; chap, v. 15.-Chap. iv. te Gen. xlvi. 1, 6; Acts vii. 15. I Gen. xlvi. 27; chap. x. 22. 34. Exod. iii. 8. Chap. xii: 7, 12, 18; xvi. 11.& Exod. i. 11,"14. h Exod. ü. 23, 24, 25; ii. 9; iv. 31.

xxvii. 30; Num: xviii. 24.- Chap. xiv. 28, 29. the author of all their blessings, the first-fruits of the signifies famine, dearth, &c., he thus makes out his land were consecrated to him, as the author of every version, and this version he defends at large in his good and perfect gift.

It is pretty evident, from the text, that by a Verse 5. A Syrian ready to perish was my father). Syrian we are to understand Jacob, so called from his This passage has been variously understood, both by long residence in Syria with his father-in-law Laban. the ancient versions and by modern commentators. And his being ready to perish may signify the hard The Vulgate renders it thus : · Sýrus persequebatur usage and severe labour he had in Laban's service, by patrem meum, “Ą Syrian persecuted my father.” which, as his health was mụch impaired, so his life The Septuagint thus : Evplav äteßahev ó matnp uov, might have often been. in imminent danger. “My father abandoned Syria.” The Targum thus : • Verse 8. With a mighty hand, fc.] See on Deut

' . . leobada yath abba, “ Laban the Syrian endeavoured to Verse 11. Thou shalt rejoice) God intends that his destroy my father. The Syriac : “My father was led followers shall be happy; that they shall eat their out of Syria into Egypt.” The Arabic: “Surely, La- bread with gladness and singleness of heart, praising ban the Syrian had almost destroyed my father.” The him. Those who eat their meat grudgingly, under the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel : “Our father Jacob pretence of their unworthiness, &c., profane God's went at first into Syria of Mesopotamia, and Laban bounties, and shall have no thanks for their voluntary sought to destroy him."

humility. Father Houbigant dissents from all, and renders the original thus : Fames urgebat patrem meum, qui in to take care to share God's bounties among all those

Thou, and the Levite, and the stranger] They were Ægyptum descendit, “ Famine oppressed my father, who were dependent on them. The Levite has no who went down into Egypt.” This interpretation inheritance, let him rejoice with thee. The stranger Houbigant gives the text, by taking the 'yod from the has no home, let him feel thee to be his friend and his word 978 arammi, which signifies an Aramite or Sy- father. rian, and joining it to 7JX' yeabud, the future for the 'perfect, which is common 'enoagh in Hebrew, and

Verse 12. The third year, which is the year of which may signify constrained ; and seeking for the tithing] This is supposed to mean the thịrd year of meaning of 07 aram in the Arabic

the seventh or Sabbatical year, in which the tenths which arama,

were to be given to the poor. See the law, chap. 802

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-c Hos. xii. 12.

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.34 .Laban arammaal bea | iv לבן ארמאה בעא לאונרא ית אבא

ارم

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The covenant-between
CHAP. XXVII.

God and Israel A. M. 2553. unto the Levite, and unto the manded thee to do these statutes A. M. 2553 B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. stranger, to the fatherless, and to and judgments : thou shalt there- An. Ex. Isr. 40 Sebat.

the widow, according to all thy fore keep and do them with all commandments which thou hast commanded thine heart, and with all thy soul. me : I have not transgressed thy command- 17 Thou hast s avouched the LORD this day ments, P neither have I forgotten them: to be thy God, and to walk in his ways, and

14 . I have not eaten thereof in my mourn 10 keep his statutes, and his commandments, ing, neither have I taken away aught thereof and his judgments, and to hearken unto hiş for any unclean use, nor given aught thereof voice : for the dead : but I have hearkened to the voice 18. And the LORD hath avouched thee this of the Lord my God, and have done accord-- day to be his peculiar people, as he hath proing to all that thou hast commanded me. mised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all

15 Look down from thy holy habitation, his commandments ; from heaven, and bless thy people Israel, and 19 And to make thee u high above all nations the land which thou hast given us, as thou which he hath made, in praise, and in name, swarest unto our fathers, a land that floweth and in honour; and that thou mayest be a' with milk and honey.

holy people unto the LORD thy God, as 'he 16 This day the LORD thy God hath com- hath spoken. P Psa.cxix. 141, 153, 176.

:--9 Lev. vii. 20; xxi.1, 11 ; Hos. ix. 4. 5; chap. vii. 6; xiv. 2; xxviii. 9. — Ch. iv. 7, 8; xxviii. 1; Psa. Isa. Ixiii. 15; Zech. ii. 13. - Exod. xx. 19. - Exod. vi. 7; xix. cxlviii: 14.—Exod. xix. 6; chap. vii. 6; xxviii, 9; 1 Pet. ii. 9 xiv. 28. But from the letter in both these places it mies, howsoever excellent and well appointed, that can would appear that the tithe was for the Levites, and ultimately exalt and secure thy permanence among the that this tithe was drawn only once in three years., nations. It is righteousness alone. Become irreligious,

Verse 14. I have not-given aught thereof for the neglect God's ordinances, profane his Sabbath, despise dead ] That is, I have not consecrated any of it to an his word, persecute his followers, and thou art lost. idol, which was generally a dead man whom supersti- But fear, love, and serve him, and thy enemies shall cion and ignorance had deified. From 1 Cor. x. 27, be found. liars, thou shalt defeat their projects, and 28, we learn that it was customary to offer that flesh trample on their high places. to idols which was afterwards sold publicly in the shambles ; probably the blood was poured out before, The form of confession when bringing the firstthe idol in imitation of the sacrifices offered to the true fruits, related ver. 4-10, is both affecting and edifying. God. Perhaps the text here alludes to, a similar custom.. Even when brought into a state of affluence and rest,

Verse 17. Thou hast avouched the Lord] The they were commanded to remember and publicly acpeople avouch—publicly declare, that they have taken Knowledge their former degradation and wretchedness, Jehovah to be their God.

that they might be ever kept humble and dependent ; Verse 18. And the Lord hath avoyched]. Publicly and they must bring their offering as a public acknowdeclared, by the blessings he pours down upon them, ledgment 'to God that it was by his mercy their state that he has taken them to be his peculiar people. was changed, and by his bounty their comforts were Thus the covenant is made and ratified between God continued. If a man rise from poverty to affluence, and his followers.

and forget - his former state, he becomes proud, insoVerse 19. Make thee high above all nations] It is | lent, and oppressive. If a Christian convert forget his written, Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a former -state, the rock whence he was hewn, and the reproach to any people, Prov. xiv. 34.. While Israel hole of the pit whence he was digged, he soon becomes regarded God's word and kept his testimonies, they careless, unthankful, and unholy. The case of the ten were the greatest and most respectable of all nations ; lepers that were cleansed, of whom only one returned but when they forsook God and his law, they became to give God thanks, is an awful lesson. the most contemptible. 'o Britain, even more highly are continually living on the bounty of God, who feel no favoured than ancient Israel ! learn wisdom by what gratitude for his mercies! Reader, is this thy state ? they have suffered. It is not thy fleets nor thine år- | If so, then expect the just God to curse thy blessings.

How many

CHAPTER XXVII. Moses commands the people to write the law upon stones, when they shall come to the promised land, 1-3.

And to set up these stones on Mount Ebal, 4 ; and to build an altar of unhewn stones, and to offer on it burnt-offerings and peace-offerings, 5–7. The words to be written plainly, and the people to be exhorted to obedience, 8-10. The six tribes which should stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people, 11, 12, Those who are to stand upon Mount Ebal to curse the transgressors, 13. The different transgressors against whom the curses are to be denounced, 14-26.

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How the tribes were placed DEUTERONOMY.

upon Gerizim and Ebal. AND Moses with the elders of 7 And thou shalt offer peace

Israel commanded the people, offerings, and shalt eat there, and An: Ex. Ist. 40.

saying, Keep all the command- rejoice before the LORD thy God. ments which I command you this day. 8 And thou shalt write upon the stones all

2 And it shall be; on the day a when ye shall the words of this law very plainly.. pass over Jordan unto the land which the LORD 9 And Moses, and the priests the Levites, thy God giveth thee, that b thou shalt set thee spake unto all Israel, saying, Take heed, and up great stones, and plaster them with plaster : hearken, O Israel ; . this day thou art become

3 And thou shalt write upon them all the the people of the LORD thy God. words of this law, when thou art passed over, 10 Thou shalt therefore obey the voice of that thou mayest go in unto the land which the Lord thy God, and do his commandments the LORD thy God giveth thee, a land that and his statutes, which I command thee this floweth with milk and honey; as the LORD day. God of thy fathers hath promised thee. 11 And Moses charged the people the same

4. Therefore it shall be when ye be gone. day, saying, over Jordan, that ye shall set up these stones, 12 These shall stand upon Mount Gerizim which I command you this day, e in Mount to bless the people, when ye are come over Ebal, and thou shalt plaster them with plaster. Jordan ; Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and

5 And there shalt thou build an altar unto Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin : the LońD thy God, an altar of stones: dthou 13 And s these shall stand upon Mount Ebal shalt not lift up any iron tool upon them. h to curse ; Reuben, Gad, and Asher, and Ze

6 Thou shalt build the altar of the Lord thy bulun, Dan, and Naphtali. God of whole stones : and thou shalt offer . 14 And the Levites shall speak, and say burnt-offerings thereon unto the Lord thy God: unto all the men of Israel with a loud voice,

- Ch. xi. 29; Josh. viii. 30. 29; Josh. viii. 33 ; Judg. ix. 7. Chap. xi. 29; Josh. viii. 33. • Exod. xx. 25; Josh. viii. 31. Chap. xxvi. 18. Chap. xi. Heb. for a cursing.– i Ch. xxxiii. 10; Josb. viii.33; Dan. ix. ll.

a Josh. iv. 1: Josh. viii. 32.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXVII.

ordered to be written on these stones, some supposing Verse 2. Thou shalt set thee up great stones] How the whole Mosaic law. to be intended, others, only the many is not specified, possibly twelve, and possibly only decalogue, I am fully of opinion that the (7710 torah) a sufficient number to make a surface large enough to law or ordinance in question simply means the blessings write the blessings and the curses on.

and curses mentioned in this and in the following chap Plaster them with plaster) Perhaps the original ter;" and indeed these contained a very-good epitome niva ons navi vesadta otham bassid should be trans- of the whole law in all its promises and threatenings, lated, Thou shalt cement them with cement, because in- reference to the whole of its grand moral design. this was intended to be a durable monument. In si- Şee at the end of this chapter. milar cases it was customary to set up a single stone, Verse 4. Set up these stones—in Mount Ebal] So or a heap, rudely put together, where no. cement or the present Hebrew text, but the Samaritan has Mount mortar appears to have been used ; and because this Gerizim. Dr. Kennicott has largely defended the was common, it was necessary to give partieular direc- reading of the Samaritan in his second dissertation on tions when the usual method was not to be followed. the present state of the Hebrew text, and Dr. Parry Some suppose that the writing was to be in relievo, has defended the Hebrew against the Samaritan in his and that the spaces between the letters were filled up Case between Gerizim and Ebal fairly slated. So by the mortar or cement. This is quite a possible has J. H. Verschuir, in his Dissert. Critica. Many case, as the Eastern inscriptions are frequently done still think Dr. Kennicott's arguments unanswerable, in this way.

There is now before me a large slab of and have no doubt that the Jews have here corrupted basaltes, two feet long by sixteen inches wide, on the text through their enmity to the Samaritans. On which there is an inscription in Persian, Arabic, and all hands it is allowed that Gerizim abounds with

Tamul ; in the two former the letters are all raised, springs, gardens, and orchards, and that it is covered the surface of the stone being dug out, but the Tamul with a beautiful verdure, while Ebal is as naked and is indented. A kind of reddish paint had been smeared as barren as a rock. On this very account the former over the letters to make them more apparent. Two was highly proper for the ceremony of blessing, and Arabic marbles in the University of Oxford have the the latter for the ceremony of cursing. inscriptions in relievo, like those on the slab of basalt Verse 12. These shall stand upon Mount Gerizim in my possession. In the opinion of some even this to bless the people) Instead of upon Mount, &c., we case may cast light upon the subject in question. may translate by, as the particle Sy.al is sometimes

Verse 3. All the words of this law] After all that used; for we do not find that the tribes did stand on has been said by ingenious critics concerning the law. I either mount, for in Josh. vii. 33, when this direction

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