« הקודםהמשך »
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An. Ex. Isr. 40.
convicted of idolatry. thy God which he hath given pervert the words of the right
· B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. thee.
18 • Judges and officers shalt 20 h That which is altogether just thou make thee in all thy gates, which the shalt thou follow, that thoụ mayest i live, and inLORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy herit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. tribes : and they shall judge the people with 21 Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of just judgment,
any trees near unto the altar of the Lord thy 19. Thou shalt not wrest judgment; • thou God, which thou shalt make thee. shalt not respect persons, f neither take a gift : 22 ? Neither shalt thou set thee up any for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and m image, which the LORD thy God hateth. • Chap. i. 16; 1 Chron. xxiii. 4; Xxvi. 29; 2 Chron. xix. 8 Or, matters.
—Heb. justice, justice.—Ezek. xviii. 5, d Exod. xxiii. 2, 6; Lev. xix. 15. Chap. i. 17; 9.- -k Exod. xxxiv. 13; 1 Kings xiv. 15; -xvi. 33; 2 Kings Prov. xxiv. 23.- Exod. xxiii, 8; Prov. xvii. 23; Eccles. xvii. 16; xxi. 3; 2 Chroni. xxxiii. 3.- Lev. xxvi. 1. - Or, vii. 7; Ecclus. xx. 29.
statue, or pillar.
Verse 18. Judges and officers shalt thou make) for all mirror offences, the person when found guilty is JUDGES, D'ODU shophetim, among the Hebrews, were. punished on the spot, in the presence of the magistrate probably the same as our magistrates or justices of the or mandarin of justice. peace. OFFICERS, D'ON shoteris, seem to have been Verse 21. Thou shalt not plant thee a grove, &c.] the same as our inquest sergeants, beadles, &c., whose We have already seen that groves were planted about office it was to go into the houses, shops, &c., and idol temples for the purposes of the obscene worship examine weights, measures, and the civil conduct of performed in them. (See on chap. xii. 1.) On this the people. When they found any thing amiss, they account God would have no groves or thickets about his brought the person offending before the inagistrate, altar, that there might be no room for suspicion that any and he was punished by the officer on the spot. They thing contrary to the strictest purity was transacted seem also to have acted -as heralds in the army, chap. there. Every part of the Divine worship was publicly XX. 5. See also Rab. Maimon in Sanhedrin. In China, performed, for the purpose of general edification.
An. Ex. Isr. 40.
Al sacrifices to be without blemish, 1. Of persons convicted of idolatry and their punishment, 2–7. Diff
cult matters in judgment to be laid before the priests and judges, and to be determined by them; and all to submit to their decision, 8-13. The king that may be chosen to be one of their brethren; no stranger to be appointed to that office, 14, 15. He shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return unto Egypt, 16. Nor multiply wives, money, fc., 17. He shall write, a copy of the law for his own use, and read and study it all his days, that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, 18-20. 6. M: 2553 THOU shalt not sacrifice jness in the sight of the Lord' A: M: 2552
. unto the LORD thy God any thy God, din transgressing his An. Ex. Isr. 40.
bullock or sheep wherein is covenant, blemish, or any evil-favouredness : for that is 3 And hath gone and served other gods and an abomination unto the LORD thy God. worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or
2 ** If there be found among you, within any any of the host of heaven, f which I have not of thy gates which the LORD thy God giveth commanded ; thee, man or woman that hath wrought wicked- 4 $ And it be told thee, and thou hast heard Chap. xv. 21 ; Mal. i. 8, 13, 14.
Chap. xviii. 12 ;, Hos. viii. 1. Chap. iv. 19; Job xxxi. 26.- Jer. xiii. 6. -d Josh. vii. II, 15;. xxiii. 16; Judg. ij. 20; 2 Kings vii. 22, 23, 31 ; xix. 5; xxxii. 35.- -< Chap. xiii. 12, 14. NOTES ON CHAP. XVII.
and publicly scandalous. And hast inquired diligently Verse 1. Wherein is blemish] God must not have sought to find out the truth of the report by the that offered to him which thou wouldst not use thyself. most careful examination of persons reporting, circumThis not only refers to the perfect sacrifice offered by stances of the case, &c. And, behold, it be true—the Christ Jesus, but to that sincerity and uprightness of report is not founded on vague rumour, hearsay, or heart which God requires in all those who approach malice. And the thing certain—substantiated by the him in the way of worship.
fullest evidence. Then shalt thou bring forth that man, Verse 4. If it be told thee] In a private way. by ver. 5. As the charge of idolatry was the most solemn any confidential person. And thou hast heard of it; so and : awful that could be brought against an Israelite, that it appears to be notorious, very likely to be true, I because it affected his life, therefore God required that
_b Or, goat.
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Of difficult matters in judgment. CHAP. XVII. Of the king they should choose.
of it, and inquired diligently, ånd, shall choose shall show thee; and An. Es. Isr: 40. behold, it be true, and the thing thou shalt observe to do accord- An. Ex. Isr. 40.
Sebat. certain, that such abomination is ing to all that they inform thee : wrought in Israel :
11 According to the sentence of the law 5 Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that which they shall teach thee, and according to woman, which have committed that wicked the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that shalt do : thou shalt not decline from the senwoman, and h shalt stone them with stones, tence which they shall show thee, to the right till they die.
hand nor to the left. 6 i At the mouth of two witnesses, or three 12 And the man that will do presumpwitnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be tuously, and will not hearken unto the priest, put to death; but at the mouth of one witness that standeih to minister there, before, the he shall not be put to death.
LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that 7 * The hands of the witnesses shall be first man shall die ; and thou shalt put away the upon him to put him to death, and afterward evil from Israel. the hands of all the people. So, thou shalt 13 w And all the people shall hear, and fear, put the evil away from among you.
and do no more presumptuously. 8 m If there arise a matter too hard for thee 14 When thou art come unto the land which in judgment, - between blood and blood, be- the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt postween plea and plea, and between stroke and sess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, stroke, being matters of controversy within thy I will set a king over me, like as all the nagates : then shalt thou arise, and get thee tions that are about me ; up into the place which the LORD thy God 15 Thou shalt in any wise set him king over shall choose :
thce y whom the LORD thy God shall choose : 9 And P thou shalt come unto the priests, the one ? from among thy brethren shalt thou set Levites, and 9 unto the judge that shall be in king over thee : thou mayest not set a stranger those days, and inquire ; ' and they shall show over thee, which is not thy brother. thee the sentence of judgment :
16 But he shall not multiply a horses to him10 And thou shalt dø according to the sen- self, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, tence which they of that place which the LORD to the end that he should multiply horses': for
bLev. xxiv. 14, 16; chap. xiii. 10; Josh. vii. 25.— Li Num. Psa. cxxii. 5. -P See Jer. xviii. 18.9 Ch. xix. 17.-Ezek. XXXV. 30; chap. xix. 15; Matt. xviii: 16; John viii. 17; 2 Cor. xliv. 24. Num. xv. 30 ; Ezra x:8; Hos. iv. 4.
- Heb. not xiii. 1; 1 Tim, v.19; Heb. x. 28. k Chap. xiii, 9; Acts vii. 58. to hearken. -u Chap. xviii. 5, 7. Chap. xiii. 5.
Chap. Ver. 12; chap. xii. 5; xix. 19. am 2 Chron. xix. 10; Hag. ii. xiii. 1l ; xix. 20.- x1 Sam. viii. 5, 19, 20. 11; Mal. ii. 7. - See Exod. xxi. 13, 20, 22, 28 ; xxii. 2 ; Num, 15; x. 24; xvi. 12; 1 Chron. xxii. 10. z Jer. xxx. 21.xxxv. 11, 16, 19; chap. xix. 4, 10, 11.- _ Chap. xii. 5; xix. 17; Kings iv. 26; X. 26, 28; Psa. xx. 7.- -b Isa. xxxi. l; Ezek. xvii. 15. the charge should be substantiated by the most unequi- set king over thee] It was on the ground of this comvocal facts, and the most competent witnesses. Hence mand that the Jews proposed that insidious question all the precautions mentioned in the fourth verse must to our Lord, Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar, OR be carefully used, in order to arrive at so affecting and NO? Matt. xxii. 17; for they were then under the so awful a truth.
authority of a foreign power., Had Christ said Yes, Verse 6. Two witnesses] One might be deceived, then they would have condemned him by this law; or be prejudiced or malicious; therefore God required had he said No, then they would have accused him to two substantial witnesses for the support of the charge. Cæsar. -See this subject discussed in great detail in
Verse 8. If there arise a matter too hard for thee) the notes on-Matt. xxii. 16, &c. These directions are given to the common magistrates, Verse 16. He shall not multiply horses] As horses who might not be able to judge of or apply the law in appear to have been generally furnished by Egypt, all cases that might be brought before them. The God prohibits these, 1. Lest there should be such compriests and Levites, who were lawyers by birth and merce with Egypt as might lead to idolatry. 2. Lest continual practice, were reasonably considered as the the people might depend on a well-appointed cavalry best qualified to decide on difficult points.
as a means of security, and so cease from trusting in Verse 12. The man that will do presumptuously) the strength and protection of God. And, 3. That The man who refused to abide by this final determina- they might not be tempted to extend their dominion by tion forfeited his life, as being then in a state of rebel- means of cavalry, and so get scattered among the surlion against the highest authority, and consequently the rounding idolatrous nations, and thus cease, in process public could have no pledge for his conduct.
of time, to be that distinct and separate people which Verse 15. One from among thy brethren shalt thou | God intended they should be, and without which the
-y See 1 Sam. ix.
The priests and Levites
to have no inheritance.
A. M. 2553. asmuch as c the Lord hath said 19 And hit shall be with him, A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. unto you, d Ye shall henceforth and he shall read therein all the An. Ex. Isr
. 40. Sebat. return no more that way. days of his life : that he may learn
Sebat. 17 Neither shall he multiply wives to him to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words self, that. e his heart turn not away : neither of this law and these statutes, to do them: shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and 20 That his heart be not. lifted above his gold.
brethren, and that he i turn not aside from the 18 f And it shall be, when he şitteth upon commandment, to the right hand, or to the the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write left: to the end that he may prolong his days him a copy of this law in a book, out of that in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the which is before the priests the Levites : midst of Israel. . Exod. xiii. 17; Num. xiv. 3, 4.. Chap. xxviii. 68; Hos. xi. 12.-Chap. xxxi. 9, 26; see 2 Kings xxii. 8.
b Josh. i. xi. 5; see Jer. xlii. 15. - See 1 Kings xi. 3, 4.-12 Kings 8; Psa. cxix. 97, 98.-i Chap. v. 32; 1 Kings xv. 5. prophecies relative to the Messiah could not be known a standard, every copy was taken, and with which to have their due and full accomplishment.
doubtless every copy was compared ; and it is probaVerse 17. Neither shall he multiply wives] For ble that the priests and Levites had the revising of this would necessarily lead to foreign alliances, and be ; every copy that was taken off, in order to prevent the means of introducing the manners and customs of errors from creeping into the sacred text. other nations, and their idolatry also: Solomon sin- - Verse 19. And it shall be with him, fc.] It was the ned against this precept, and brought ruin on himself surest way to bring the king to an acquaintance with and on the land by it; see 1 Kings xi. 4.
the Divine law to oblige him to write out a fair copy Verse 18. He shall write him a copy of this law] of it with his own hand, in which he was to read daily. nkin 171nn nun mishneh hattorah hazzoth, an itera- This was essentially necessary, as these laws of God tion or duplicate of this law; translated by the Sep- were all permanent, and no Israelitish king could make tuagint, to deutepovolilov TOUTO, this deuteronomy. From any new law, the kings of this people being ever conthis version both the Vulgate Latin and all the modern sidered as only the vicegerents of Jehovah. versions have taken the name of this book ; and from Verse 20. He, and his children, in the midst of Isthe original word the Jews call it Mishneh. See the rael.] From this verse it has been inferred that the preface to this book.
crown of Israel was designed to be hereditary, and Out of that which is before the priests the Levites) this is very probable ; for long experience has proved It is likely this means, that the copy which the king to almost all the nations of the world that hereditary was to write out was to be taken from the autograph succession in the regal government is, on the whole, the kept in the tabernacle before the Lord, from which, as safest, and best calculated to secure the public tranquillity.
B. C. 1451.
The priests and Levites to have no inheritance, 1, 2. What is the priest's die, 3–5. Of the Levites that
come from any of the other cities, 6–8. The Israelites must not copy the abominations of the former inhabitants, 9. None to cause his son or daughter to pass through the fire, or use any kind of divination or enchantment, as the former inhabitants did, 10-14. The great prophet which God. promised to raise. up, 15–19. Of false prophets, 20; and how to discern them, 21, 22. B. MC: 2853. THE priests the Levites, and
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2 Therefore shall they have no An. Ex, Isr. 40..
all the tribe of Levi, shall inheritance among their brethren : An. Ex. Ist. 40. Sebat.
have no part nor inheritance with the Lord is their inheritance, as Israel; they b shall eat the offerings of the he hath said unto them. Lord made by fire, and his inheritance." 3 And this shall be the priest's due from a Num. xviii. 20; xxvi: 62 ; chap. x. 9.
Num. xviii, 8, 9; Cor. ix. 13.
right, in these or other offerings, he gave to the Verse 1. The priests the Levites-shall have no part] priests." That is, says Rab: Maimon, they shall have no part in Verse 3. Offer a sacrifice] nin ni zobechey hazthe spoils taken from an enemy.
zebach. The word nai zebach is used to signify, not Verse 2. The Lord is their inheritance} ' He is the only an animal sacrificed to the Lord, but also one portion of their souls; and as to their bodies, they killed for common use: See Gen. xliii. 15; Prov. xvi. shall live by the offerings of the Lord made by fire, 1; Ezek. xxv. 6. And in this latter sense it probai. e., the meat-offering, the sin-offering, and the bly should be understood here; and, consequently, the trespass-offering; and whatever was the Lord's command in this verse relates to what the people
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Of the Levite of other cities. CHAP. XVIII. Heathen abominations forbidden.
A. M. 2553. the people, from them that offer a 9 When thou art come into the A. M. 2553.
Sebat. sheep; and they shall give unto giveth thee, m thou shalt not learn the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, to do after the abominations of those nations. and the maw.
10 There shall not be found among you any 4 d The first-fruit also of thy corn, of thy one that maketh his son or his daughter n to wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the pass through the fire, or that useth divinafleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him. tion, or an observer of times, or an enchanter,
5 For the LORD thy God hath chosen him or a witch; out of all thy tribes, to stand to minister in 11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with fa the name of the Lord, him and his sons for miliar.spirits, or a wizard, or a 9 necromancer.
12 For all that do these things are an abo6 And if a Levite come from any of thy mination unto the LORD: and.' because of gates out of all Israel, where he 8 sojourned, these abominations the Lord thy God doth and come with all the desire of his mind hunto drive them out from before thee. the place which the LORD shall choose ; 13 Thou shalt be perfect with the LORD
9 Then he shall minister in the name of the thy God. LORD his God, i as all his brethren the Levites 14 For these nations, which thou shalt do, which stand there before the LORD.
possess, hearkened unto observers of times, 8 They shall have like k portions to eat, be- and unto diviners : but as for thee, the LORD side that which cometh of the sale of his thy God hath not suffered thee so to do. patrimony.
15 "The LORD thy God will raise up unto c Lev, vii. 30–34.- d Exod. xxii. 29; Num. xviii. 12, 24. m Lev. xviii. 26, 27, 30; chap. xii. 29, 30, 31.
n Lev. xviii. e Exod. xxvui. 1; Num. ii. 10.-- Chap. X. 8; xviļ. 12. 21; chap. xii. 31.- L0 Lev. xix. 26, 31'; xx. 27; Isa. viii. 19. & Num. xxxv. 2, 3. h Chap, xiu. 5 - 12 Chron. xxxi. 2. P Lev, XX. 27.1 Sam. xxviii. 7. - Lev. xvii. 24, 25; ch. k 2 Chron. xxxi. 4; Neh. xii. 44, 47. Heb. his sales by the ix. 4.- Or, upright, or sincere ; Gen. xvii. l.- - Or, inherit. fathers.
Ver. 18; John i. 45; Acts ini. 22 ; vii.37. were to allow the priests and Levites from the ani- auguries thence. Some think divination by serpents is mals slain for common use. The parts to be given to meant, which was common among the heathen. , the priests were, 1. The shoulder, probably cut off A witch.] quo mechashsheph, probably those who from the beast with the skin on; so Maimonides. by means of drugs, herbs, perfumes, &c., pretended to 2. The two cheeks, which may include the whole head. bring certain celestial influences to their aid.. See the 3. The maw—the whole of those intestines which are note. on Lev. xix. 26. commonly used for food.
Verse 11. A charmer].nan chober chaber, one · Verse 4. The first-fruit also of thy corn, of thy who uses spells ; a peculiar conjunction, as the term wine, and of thine oil, gc.) All these first-fruits and implies, of words, or things, týing knots, &c., for the firstlings were the Lord's portion, and these he gave purposes of divination. This was a custom among to the priests.
the heathen, as we learn from the following verses :Verse 8. The sale of his patrimony.) So we find
Necte TRIBUS NODIS ternos, Amarylli, colores : that, though the Levites might have no part of the Necte, Amarylli, modo ; et Veneris, dic, vincula necto. land by lot, yet they were permitted to make purchases
Virg. Ecl. viii., ver. 77. of houses, goods, and cattle, yea, of fields also. See the case of Abiathar, 1 Kings ii. 26, and of Jeremiah,
" Knit with three KNOTS the fillets, knit them straight; Jer. xxxii., 7, 8.
Then say, these KNOTS to love I consecrate.”
DRYDEN. Verse 10. To pass through the fire) Probably in the way of consecration to Molech, or some other A consulter with familiar spirits] zis Saw shoel ob, deity. It is not likely that their being burnt to death a Pythoness, one who inquires by the means of one is here intended. See on Lev. xviii. 21.
spirit to get oraculàr answers from another of a supeDivination] pinop Dop kosem kesamim, one who rior order.
See on Lev. xix. 31. endeavours to find out futurity by auguries, using A wizard] 'Jyty yiddeoni, a wise one, a knowing lots, &c.
Wizard was formerly considered as the masObserver of times) plys meonen, one who pretends culine of witch, both practising divination by similar to foretell future events by present occurrences, and means. See on Exod. xxii. 18, and Lev. xix. 31. who predicts great political or physical changes from
.] the aspects of the planets, eclipses, motion of the methim, one who seeks from or inquires of the dead. clouds, &c., &c. See on Gen. xli. 8.
Such as the 'witch at Endor, who professed to evoke Enchanter] vnda menachesh, from und nichesh, to the dead, in order to get them to disclose the secrets view attentively ; one who inspected the entrails of of the spiritual world. beasts, observed the flight of birds, &c., &c., and drew Verse 15. The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee
-doresh el ham דרש אל המתים [
.Or a necromancer
B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40.
The promise of a prophet
like unto Moses.
21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall 17 And the Lord said unto me, * They have we know the word which the LORD hath not well spoken that which they have spoken.
19 b And it shall come to pass, that whoso- it $ presumptuously: thou shall not be afraid
* Chap. y.
b Acts iii, 23.- Chap. xiii. 5; Jer. xiv. 14, 15; Zech. xiii. 3. -y Ver. 15; John i. 45; Acts iii. 22; vii. 37,- -- Isa. li. Chap. xiii. 1,2; Jer. ii. 8.— Jer. xxvii. 9.See chap. 16; John xvii. 8. -- John iv. 25; viii, 28; xii. 49, 50.
xiii. 2. - Ver. 20. a Prophet] Instead of diviners, observers of times, all the signs and wonders which the Lord sent him to &c., God here promises to give them an infallible do, Deut. xxxiv. 10, 11, 12. This therefore cannot guide, who should tell them all things that make for be understood of the ordinary prophets which were their peace, so that his declarations should completely raised up in Israel, but of Christ only, as the apostles answer the end of all the knowledge that was pretended expound it Acts ii. 22–26. 2. Christ was like unto to be gained by the persons already specified. Moses in respect to his office of mediation between Like unto me) Viz., a prophet, a legislator, a king, God and his people, Deut. v. 5; 1 Tim. ii
. 5 ; but a mediator, and the head or chief of the people of greater than Moses as being the mediator of a betler God. This was the very person of whom Moses was covenant, (or testament,) which was established upon the type, and who should accomplish all the great pur- better promises, Heb. viii. 6. · 3. Christ was like unto poses of the Divine Being. Such a. prophet as had Moses in excellency; for as Moses excelled all the pronever before appeared, and who should have no equal phets in speaking to God mouth to mouth, Num. xii. till the consummation of the world.
6, 7, 8, so Christ excelled him and all men in that, This prophet is the Lord Jesus, who was in the being in the bosom of the Father, he hath come down bosom of the Father, and who came to declare him to from heaven and declared God unto us, John i. 18, · mankind. Every word spoken by him is' a living in- iii. 13. . 4. Christ was like to Moses in faithfulness, fallible oracle from God himself; and must be received but therein also excelling; for Moses was faithful in and obeyed as such, on pain of the eternal displeasure God's house as a servant, but Christ as the son over his of the Almighty. See ver. 19, and Acts üi. 22, 23; own house, Heb. iii. 2, 5, 6. 5. Christ was like to and see the conclusion of this chapter.
Moses in signs and wonders, wherein he also excelled Verse 22. If the thing follow not] It is worthy of Moses, as the history of the Gospel shows; for he remark that the prophets in general predicted those was a prophet mighty in deed and word before. God things which were shortly to come to pass, that the and all the people, Luke xxiv: 19. A man approved people might have the fullest proof of their Divine of God among them, by miracles, signs, and wonders, mission, and of the existence of God's providence in which God did by him in the midst of them, Acts ii. the administration of the affairs of men.
22. For he did among them the works which no other
man did, John xv. 24. Unto him, that is, not unto The promise contained in the 15th and 18th verses the diviners, wizards, or any such like, but unto him, of this chapter has long been considered of the first and him only; as Him thou shalt serve, Deut. vi. 13, importance in the controversies between the Christians is expounded, Him only, Matt. iv. 10. And though and Jews. “ Christ,” says
Ainsworth, was to be a this is principally meant of Christ in person, of whom man, and of the stock of the Jews, by promise, because God said, Hear him, Matt. xvii. 5; yet it implies also the people could not endure to hear the voice of God, his ministers, as himself said, He that heareth you ver. 16.' And as in respect of his prophecy, so of the heareth me, Luke x. 16." To these may be added, priesthood': for every high priest is taken from among 6. As Moses was king among his people, in this remen, Heb. v. 1 ; and also of his kingdom, as in Deut. spect Christ is like to him, but infinitely greater ; for xvii. 15: From among thy brethren shalt thou set a he is King of kings and Lord of lords, Rev. xix. 16; king over thee like unto me.
í Tim. vi. 15. ? And, 7. He was like to Moses as a “1. Christ alone was like unto Moses as a PROPHET ; legislator. Moses gave laws to Israel by the authority for it is written, There arose not a prophèt in Israel and commandment of God, which the Jews have ever like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in acknowledged as coming from the immediate inspira