« הקודםהמשך »
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Noah's family leave the ark.
He offers a sacrifice to God. 14 And in the second month, on 19 Every beast, every creeping 4M. 1657.
the seven and twentieth day of the thing, and every fowl, and whatmonth, was the earth dried.
soever creepeth upon the earth, after their 15 And God spake unto Noah, saying, p kinds, went forth out of the ark.
16 Go forth of the ark, - thou, and thy wife, 20 And Noah builded an altar unto the and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of
17 Bring forth with thee every living thing every clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, on the altar. and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth ; that they may breed and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again abundantly in the earth, and • be fruitful, and curse the ground any more for man's sake ; multiply upon the earth.
u for the imagination of man's heart is evil 18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and from his youth ; " neither will I again smite his wife, and his sons' wives with him : any more every thing living, as I have done.
nat 21 And the Lord smelled "a "sweet savour :
Chap. vii. 13.A Chap. vii. 15.- Chap. i. 22. Heb. 17.u Or, though.-Chap. vi. 5; Job xiv. 4 ; xv. 14; Psa. families, -9 Lev. xi. -- Lev. i. 9; Ezek. xx. 41; 2 Cor. 11. li. 5; Jer. xvii. 9; Matt. xv. 19; Rom. i. 21 ; iii. 23. Chap. 15; Eph. v. 2. Heb. a savour of rest. Chap. iii. 17; vi. ix. 11, 15.
nations. At the end of the other seven days the dove, worshipping the Divine Being, is the invention or inbeing sent out the third time, returned no more, from stitution of God himself; and sacrifice, in the act and which Noah conjectured that the earth was now suffi- design, is the essence of religion. Without sacrifice, ciently drained, and therefore removed the covering of actually offered or implied, there never was, there the ark, which probably gave liberty to many of the never can be, any religion. Even in the heavens, a fowls to fly off, which circumstance would afford him lamb is represented before the throne of God as newly the greater facility in making arrangements for disem- slain, Rev. v. 6, 12, 13. The design of sacrificing is barking the beasts and reptiles, and heavy-bodied do- two-fold : the slaying and burning of the victim point mestic fowls, which might yet remain. See verse 17. out, 1st, that the life of the sinner is forfeited to Di
Verse 14. And in the second month, on the seven vine justice; 2dly, that his soul deserves the fire of and twentieth day] From this it appears that Noah perdition. was in the ark a complete solar year, or three hundred The Jews have a tradition that the place where and sixty-five days; for he entered the ark the 17th Noah built his altar was the same in which the altar day of the second month, in the six hundredth year of stood which was built by Adam, and used by Cain and his life, chap. vii. 11, 13, and continued in it till the Abel, and the same spot on which Abraham afterwards 27th day of the second month, in the six hundredth offered up his son Isaac. and first year of his life, as we see above. The months The word naina mizbach, which we render altar, of the ancient Hebrews were lunar; the first six con- signifies properly a place for sacrifice, as the root nai sisted of thirty days each, the latter six of twenty- zabach signifies simply to slay. Altar comes from the nine ; the whole twelve months making three hundred Latin altus, high or elevated, because places for sacriand fifty-four days: add to this eleven days, (for though fice were generally either raised very high or built on he entered the ark the preceding year on the seven- the tops of hills and mountains ; hence they are called teenth day of the second month, he did not come out high places in the Scriptures; but such were chiefly till the twenty-seventh of the same month in the fol- used for idolatrous purposes. lowing year,) which make tly three hundred and Burnt-offerings] See the meaning of every kind sixty.five days, the period of a complete solar revolu- of offering and sacrifice largely explained on Lev. vii. tion; the odd hours and minutes, as being fractions of Verse 21. The Lord smelled a sweet savour] That time, noncomputed, though very likely all included in is, he was well pleased with this religious act, perthe account. This year, according to the Hebrew formed in obedience to his own appointment, and in computation, was the one thousand six hundred and faith of the promised Saviour. That this sacrifice prefifty-seventh year from the creation ; but according to figured that which was offered by our blessed Redeemer the reckoning of the Septuagint it was the two thou- in behalf of the world, is sufficiently evident from the sand two hundred and forty-second, and according to words of St. Paul, Eph. v. 2: Christ hath loved us, Dr. Hales, the two thousand two hundred and fifty- and given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice sixth. See-on chap. xi. 12.
to-God for a sweet-SMELLING SAVOUR ; where the Verse 20. Noah builded an altar] As we have words oounu evadias of the apostle are the very
words already seen that Adam, Cain, and Abel, offered sacri- used by the Septaagint in this place. fices, there can be no doubt that they had altars on I will not again curse the ground] yox 5 lo osiph, which they offered them; but this, builded by Noah, I will not add to curse the ground—there shall not be is certainly the first on record. It is worthy of re- another deluge to destroy the whole earth ; for the mark that, as the old world began with sacrifice, so imagination of man's heart, '3 ki, although the imaalso did the new. Religion, or the proper mode of Igination of man's heart should be evil, i. e. should they
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The promise respecting the
regulation of the seasons. 22 - While the earth y remaineth, heat, and summer and winter, and A. M. 1657. seed-time and harvest, and cold and - day and night, shall not cease.
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* Isa. liv. 8.- Heb. as yet all the days of the earth.
2 Jer. xxxiii. 20, 25.
become afterwards as evil as they have been before, I has the destruction of the world by water given of the will not destroy the earth by a FLOOD. God has other Divine justice, such convincing testimony of the truth means of destruction; and the next time he visits by of the sacred writings, that not only every part of the a general judgment, FIRE is to be the agent. 2 Pet. earth gives testimony of this extraordinary revolution, iii. 7.
but also every nation of the universe has preserved Verse 22. While the earth remaineth, seed-time and records or traditions of this awful display of the jusharvest, &c.] There is something very expressive in tice of God. the original, pan807 is so ty od col yemey haarets, until A multitude of testimonies, collected from the most all the days of the earth ; for God does not reckon its authentic sources in the heathen world, I had intended duration by centuries, and the words themselves afford for insertion in this place, but want of room obliges me a strong presumption that the earth shall not have an to lay them aside. But the state of the earth itself endless duration.
is a sufficient proof. Every part of it bears unequivoSeed-time and harvest.-It is very probable that the cal evidence of disruption and violence. From the seasons, which were distinctly marked immediately hand of the God of order it never could have proceeded after the deluge, are mentioned in this place; but it is in its present state. In every part we see marks of difficult to ascertain them. Most European nations the crimes of men, and of the justice of God. And divide the year into four distinct parts, called quarters shall not the living lay this to heart ? Surely God is or seasons ; but there are six divisions in the text, and not mocked; that which a man soweth he shall reap. probably all intended to describe the seasons in one of He who soweth to the flesh shall of it reap destructhese postdiluvian years, particularly in that part of the tion; and though the plague of water shall no more globe, Armenia, where Noah was when God gave him, destroy the earth, yet an equal if not sorer punishment and mankind through him, this gracious promise. From awaits the world of the ungodly, in the threatened dethe Targum of Jonathan on this verse we learn that struction by fire. in Palestine their seed-time was in September, at the In ancient times almost every thing was typical autumnal equinox; their harvest in March, at the ver- and no doubt the ark among the rest; but of what and nal equinox ; that their winter began in December, at ' in what way farther than revelation guides, it is both the solstice; and their summer at the solstice in June. difficult and unsafe to say. It has been considered a
The Copts begin their autumn on the 15th of Sep- type of our blessed Lord; and hence it has been obtember, and extend it to the 15th of December. Their served, that “as all those who were out of the ark winter on the 15th of December, and extend it to the perished by the flood, so those who take not refuge in 15th of March. Their spring on the 15th of March, the meritorious atonement of Christ Jesus must perish and extend it to the 15th of June. Their summer on everlastingly.” Of all those who, having the opporthe 15th of June, and extend it to the 15th of Septem- tunity of hearing the Gospel, refuse to accept of the ber, assigning to each season three complete months. sacrifice it offers them, this saying is true; but the Calmet.
parallel is not good. Myriads of those who perished There are certainly regions of the earth to which during the food probably repented, implored mercy, neither this nor our own mode of division can apply : and found forgiveness; for God ever delights to save, there are some where summer and winter appear to and Jesus was the Lamb slain from the foundation of divide the whole year, and others where, besides sum- the world. And though, generally, the people conmer, winter, autumn, and spring, there are distinct tinued in carnal security and sensual gratifications till seasons that may be denominated the hot season, the the flood came, there is much reason to believe that cold season, the rainy season, &c., &c.
those who during the forty days' rain would naturally This is a very merciful promise to the inhabitants flee to the high lands and tops of the highest mounof the earth. There may be a variety in the seasons, tains, would earnestly implore that mercy which has but no season essentially necessary to vegetation shall never been denied, even to the most profligate, when utterly fail. The times which are of greatest conse- under deep humiliation of heart they have returned to quence to the preservation of man are distinctly noted; God. And who can say that this was not done by there shall be both seed-time and harvest—a proper multitudes while they beheld the increasing flood; or time to deposit the different grain in the earth, and a that God, in this last extremity, had rendered it improper time to reap the produce of this seed.
possible ? Thus ends the account of the general deluge, its St. Peter, 1st Epist. iii. 21, makes the ark a figure cause, circumstances, and consequences. An account of baptism, and intimates that we are saved by this, as that seems to say to us, Behold the goodness and the eight souls were saved by the ark. But let us not severity of God! Both his justice and long-suffering mistake the apostle by supposing that the mere cereare particularly marked in this astonishing event. mony itself saves any person ; he tells us that the salHis justice, in the punishment of the incorrigibly vation conveyed through this sacred rite is not the wicked; and his mercy, in giving them so fair and full putting away the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a a warning, and in waiting so long to extend his grace good conscience toward God; i. e. remission of sins to all who might seek him. Such a convincing proof and regeneration by the Holy Spirit, which are signi
God blesses Noah and his sons. CHAP. IX.
Eating of blood forbidden. fied by this baptism A good conscience never ex-give sins, and that no ordinance can confer it, though isted where remission of sins had not taken place ; and ordinances may be the means to convey it when piously every person knows that it is God's prerogative to for-I and believingly used.
God blesses Noah and his sons, 1. The brute creation to be subject to them through fear, 2. The first grant
of animal food, 3. Eating of blood forbidden, 4. Cruelty to animals forbidden, 5. A man-slayer to
increase of Shem and Japheth, 26, 27. The age and death of Noah, 28, 29.
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herb have you shall be upon every beast of the earth, I given you all things : and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that 4 But flesh with the life thereof, which is moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.
•Chap. i. 2; ver, 7, 19; chap. A. 32.– - Chap. i. 28; e Rom. xiv. 14, 20; 1 Cor. 1. 23, 26; Col. ii. 16; 1 Tim. iv. Hos. ii. 18. -- Deut. xii. 15; xiv. 3, 9, 11; Acts x. 12, 13. 3, 4. - Lev. xvii. 10, 11, 14; xix. 26; Deut. xii. 23; I Sam. Chap. i. 29.
xiv. 34; Acts xv. 20, 29.
NOTES ON CHAP. IX.
How wise and gracious is this order of the Verse 1, God blessed Noah] Even the increase of Divine providence ! and with what thankfulness should families, which appears to depend on merely natural it be considered by every human being ! means, and sometimes fortuitous circumstances, is all Verse 3. Every moving thing-shall be meat] There of God. It is by his power and wisdom that the hu- is no positive evidence that animal food was ever used man being is formed, and it is by his providence alone before the flood. Noah had the first grant of this kind, that man is supported and preserved.
and-it has been continued to all his posterity ever since. Verse 2. The fear of you and the dread, fc.) Prior It is not likely that this grant would have been now to the fall, man ruled the inferior animals by love and made if some extraordinary alteration had not taken kindness, for then gentleness and docility were their place in the vegetable world, so as to render its proprincipal characteristics. After the fall, untractable- ductions less nutritive than they were before ; and ness, with savage ferocity, prevailed among almost all probably such a change in the constitution of man as orders of the brute creation ; enmity to man seems to render a grosser and higher diet necessary. We particularly to prevail ; and had not God in his mercy may therefore safely infer that the earth was less proimpressed their minds with the fear and terror of man, ductive after the flood than it was before, and that the so that some submit to his will while others flee from human constitution was greatly impaired by the alterahis residence, the human race would long ere this have tions which had taken place through the whole econobeen totally destroyed by the beasts of the field. Did my of nature. Morbid debility, induced by an often the horse know his own strength, and the weakness unfriendly state of the atmosphere, with sore and longof the miserable wretch who unmercifully rides, drives, continued labour, would necessarily require a higher whips, goads, and oppresses him, would he not with nutriment than vegetables could supply. That this one stroke of his hoof destroy his tyrant possessor? was the case appears sufficiently clear from the grant But while God hides these things from him he im- of animal food, which, had it not been indispensably presses his mind with the fear of his owner, so that necessary, had not been made. That the constitution either by cheerful or sullen submission he is trained of man was then much altered appears in the greatly up for, and employed in, the most useful and impor- contracted lives of the postdiluvians; yet from the tant purposes; and even willingly submits, when tortured deluge to the days of Abraham the lives of several of for the spa and amusement of his more bruitish op- the patriarchs amounted to some hundreds of years, pressor. Tigers, wolves, lions, and hyænas, the de- but this was the effect of a peculiar providence, that the terminate foes of man, incapable of being tamed or do- new world might be the more speedily repeopled. mesticated, flee, through the principle of terror, from Verse 4. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the dwelling of man, and thus he is providentially safe. the blood] Though animal food was granted, yet the Hence, by fear and by dread man rules every beast blood was most solemnly forbidden, because it was the of the earth, every fowl of the air, and every fish of life of the beast, and this life was to be offered to God
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Punishment for murder.
God's covenant with Noah 5 And surely your blood of your
9 And I, n behold, I establish my lives will I require; 6 at the hand covenant with you, and with your of every beast will I require it, and hat the seed after you ; hand of man; at the hand of every i man's 10 P And with every living creature that is brother will I require the life of man. with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of
6 * Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man every beast of the earth with you; from all shall his blood be shed; ' for in the image of that go out of the ark, to every beast of the God made he man.
earth. 7 And you, m be ye fruitful, and multiply: 11 And 9 I will establish my covenant with bring forth abundantly in the earth, and mul- you: neither shall all flesh be cut off any tiply therein.
more by the waters of a flood ; neither shall 8 And God spake unto Noah, and to his there any more be a flood to destroy the sons with him, saying,
earth. & Exod. xxi. 28. Ch Chap. iv. 9, 10; Psa. ix. 12.
1 Chap. i. 27.- Ver. 1, 19; chap. i. 28. * Exod. xxi. 12, 14; Lev. xxiv. 17; Matt. xxvi. 52; Chap. vi. 18. Lo Isa, liv. 9. Psa. cxlv. 9.- - Isa. liv.9
i Acts Rev. xiii. 10.
as an atonement for sin. Hence the blood was ever cock-fighters shall be obliged to give an account to God held sacred, because it was the grand instrument of for every creature they have wantonly destroyed. Inexpiation, and because it was typical of that blood by stead of ni'n chaiyah," beast,” the Samaritan reads which we enter into the holiest. 1. Before the deluge mo chai, “living,” any “living creature or perit was not eaten, because animal food was not in use. son ;" this makes a very good sense, and equally forbids 2. After the deluge it was prohibited, as we find cruelty either to men or brutes. above; and, being one of the seven Noahic precepts, it Verse 6. Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall was not eaten previously to the publication of the Mo- his blood] Hence it appears that whoever kills a man, saic law. 3. At the giving of the law, and at several unless unwittingly, as the Scripture expresses it, shall times during the ministry of Moses, the prohibition was forfeit his own life. most solemnly, and with awful penalties renewed. A man is accused of the crime of murder; of this Hence we may rest assured that no blood was eaten crime he is guilty or he is not : if he be guilty of previously to the Christian era, nor indeed ever since murder he should die; if not, let him be punished acby the Jewish people. 4. That the prohibition has cording to the demerit of his crime; but for no offence been renewed under the Christian dispensation, can but murder should he lose his life. Taking away the admit of little doubt by any man who dispassionately life of another is the highest offence that can be comreads Acts xv. 20, 29; xxi. 25, where even the Gen- mitted against the individual, and against society; and tile converts are charged to abstain from it on the au- the highest punishment that a man can suffer for such thority, not only of the apostles, but of the Holy Ghost, a crime is the loss of his own life. As punishment who gave them there and then especial direction con- should be ever proportioned to crimes, so the highest cerning this point ; see Acts xv. 28; not for fear of punishment due to the highest crime should not be instumbling the converted Jews, the gloss of theolo- flicted for a minor offence. The law of God and the gians, but because it was one TWV Enavaykes TOUTWv, eternal dictates of reason say, that if a man kill of those necessary points, from the burden (Bapos) of another, the loss of his own life is at once the highest obedience to which they could not be excused. 5. This penalty he can pay, and an equivalent for his offence command is still scrupulously obeyed by the oriental, as far as civil society is concerned. If the death of Christians, and by the whole Greek Church; and why ? the murderer be the highest penalty he can pay for the because the reasons still subsist. No blood was eaten murder he has committed, then the infliction of this under the law, because it pointed out the blood that punishment for any minor offence is injustice and was to be shed for the sin of the world; and under the cruelty; and serves only to confound the claims of Gospel it should not be eaten, because it should ever be justice, the different degrees of moral turpitude and considered as representing the blood which has been shed vice, and to render the profligate desperate : hence the for the remission of sins. If the eaters of blood in gene- adage so frequent among almost every order of delinral knew that it affords a very crude, almost indigestible, quents, “ It is as good to be hanged for a sheep as a and unwholesome aliment, they certainly would not on lamb ;” which at once marks their desperation, and the these physical reasons, leaving moral considerations out injustice of those penal laws which inflict the highest of the question, be so much attached to the consumption punishment for almost every species of crime. When of that from which they could expect no wholesome nu- shall a wise and judicious legislature see the absurdity triment, and which, to render it even pleasing to the palate, and injustice of inflicting the punishment of death for requires all the skill of the cook. See Lev. xvii. 2. stealing a sheep or a horse, forging a twenty shillings'
Verse 5. Surely your bloodwill I require ; at the note, and MURDERING A MAN; when the latter, in its hand of every beast] This is very obscure, but if taken moral turpitude and ruinous consequences, infinitely literally it seems to be an awful warning against cru- exceeds the others ?* elty to the brute creation ; and from it we may conclude thạt horse-racers, hare-hunters, bull-baiters, and this paragraph was written.-PUBLISHERS.
* On this head the doctor's pious wish has been realized since
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The rainbow is given as a sign CHAP. IX.
of God's covenant with Noah. 12 And God said, "This is the ture of all flesh; and the waters
token of the covenant which I make shall no more, become a flood to between me and you and every living creature destroy all flesh. that is with you, for perpetual generations : 16 And the bow shall be in the cloud; and
13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it I will look upon it, that I may remember the shall be for a token of a covenant between everlasting covenant between God and every me and the earth.
living creature of all flesh that is upon the 14 · And it shall come to pass, when I bring earth. a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be 17 And God said unto Noah, This is the seen in the cloud :
token of the covenant which I have established 15 And I will remember my covenant which between me and all flesh that is upon the is between me and you and every living crea- earth.
Verse 13. I do set my bow in the cloud] On the but that what was formerly created, or rather that origin and nature of the rainbow there had been a which was the necessary effect, in certain cases, of the great variety of conjectures, till Anthony de Dominis, creation of the sun and atmosphere, should now be bishop of Spalatro, in a treatise of his published by considered by them as an unfailing token of their conBartholus in 1611, partly suggested the true cause of tinual preservation from the waters of a deluge; therethis phenomenon, which was afterwards fully explained fore the text speaks of what had already been done, and demonstrated by Sir Isaac Newton. 'To enter into and not of what was now done, 'na 'nup kashti nathis subject here in detail would be improper ; and thaili, “ My bow I have given, or put in the cloud ;" therefore the less informed reader must have recourse as if he said : As surely as the rainbow is a necessary to treatises on Optics for its full explanation. To effect of sunshine in rain, and must continue such as readers in general it may be sufficient to say that the long as the sun and atmosphere endure, so surely shall rainbow is a mere natural effect of a natural cause : this earth be preserved from destruction by water; and 1. It is never seen but in showery weather. 2. Nor its preservation shall be as necessary an effect of my then unless the sun shines. 3. It never appears in any promise as the rainbow is of the shining of the sun part of the heavens but in that opposite to the sun. 4. during a shower of rain. It never appears greater than a semicircle, but often Verse 17. This is the token] ix oth, The Divine much less. 5. It is always double, there being what sign or portent : The bow shall be in the cloud. For is called the superior and inferior, or primary and the reasons above specified it must be there, when the secondary rainbow. 6. These bows exhibit the seven circumstances already mentioned occur; if therefore prismatic colours, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, in- it cannot fail because of the reasons before assigned, digo, and violet. 7. The whole of this phenomenon no more shall my promise ; and the bow shall be the depends on the rays of the sun falling on spherical proof of its perpetuity. drops of water, and being in their passage through Both the Greeks and Lalins, as well as the Hebrews, them, refracted and reflected.
have ever considered the rainbow as a Divine token or The formation of the primary and secondary rain- portent; and both of these nations have even deified bow depends on the two following propositions ; 1. it, and made it a messenger of the gods. When the sun shines on the drops of rain as they are Homer, Il. xi., ver. 27, speaking of the figures on • falling, the rays that come from those drops to the eye Agamemnon's breastplate, says there were three of the spectator, after one reflection and two refrac- dragons, whose colours were tions, produce the primary rainbow. 2. When the sun shines on the drops of rain as they are falling, the rays
-ιρισσιν εoικoτες, ας τε Κρονων. that come from those drops to the eye of the specta
Εν νεφεϊ στηριξε, τερας μεροπων ανθρωπων. tor, after two reflections and two refractions, produce “ like to the rainbow which the son of Saturn has the secondary rainbow. The illustration of these pro- placed in the cloud as a sign to mankind,” or to men positions must be sought in treatises on Optics, assisted of various languages, for so the pepotwv avópwtwv of by plates.
the poet has been understood. Some have thought From the well-known cause of this phenoinenon it that the ancient Greek writers give this epithet to man cannot be rationally supposed that there was no rain- from some tradition of the confusion and multiplication bow in the heavens before the time mentioned in the of tongues at Babel ; hence in this place the words text, for as the rainbow is the natural effect of the may be understood as implying mankind at large, the sun's rays falling on drops of water, and of their being whole human race ; God having given the rainbow for refracted and reflected by them, it must have appeared a sign to all the descendants of Noah, by whom the at different times from the creation of the sun and the whole earth was peopled after the food. Thus the atmosphere. Nor does the text intimate that the bow celestial bow. speaks a universal language, understood was now created for a sign to Noah and his posterity; by all the sons and daughters of Adam. Virgil, from