תמונות בעמוד

Concerning clean


and unclean animals.



A. M. 2553. 5 The hart, and the roebuck, l. 8 And the swine, because it A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. and the fallow deer, and the wild divideth the hoof, yet cheweth An. Ex. Isr. 40.

Sebat. goat, and the 'pygarg, 5 and the not the cud, it is unclean unto wild ox, and the chamois.

you : ye shall not eat of their flesh, "nor touch 6 And every beast that parteth the hoof, and their dead carcass. cleaveth the cleft into two claws, and chew- 9 i These


shall eat of all that are in the eth the cud among the beasts, that ye shall waters : all that have fins and scales shall ye eat.

eat : Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of 10 And whatsoever hath not fins and scales them that chew the cud, or of them that di- ye may not eat; it is unclean unto you. vide the cloven hoof; as the camel, and the 11 Of, all clean birds ye

shall eat. hare, and the coney : for they chew, the cud, 12 But these are they of which ye

shall but divide not the hoof; therefore they are not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the unclean unto you.

ospray, ! Or, bison. Heb. dishon.och Lev. xi. 26, 27.

i Lev. xi. 9. k Lev. xi. 13. properly so called, but also the bull, the cow, heifer, The wild goat] 1px akko. It is not easy to tell and calf.

what creature is intended by the akko. Dr. Shaw The sheep] 19 seh: ovis, fifth order Pecora, of posed it to be a kind of very timorous goat, known in the genus MAMMALIA, species 40; including the ram, the East by the name fishtall and serwee, and bearing the wether, the ewe, and the lamb.

a resemblance both to the goat and the stag, whence The goat] ry az: CAPRA, fifth order Pecora, of the the propriety of the name given it by the Septuagint genus MAMMALIA, species 39; including the he-goat, and Vulgate, tragelaphus, the.goat-stag; probably the she-goat, and kid. The words in the text, d'ava nu rupicapra or rock-goat. The word is found nowhere seh chesabim, signify the lamb or young of sheep; and else in the Hebrew Bible. D'iy nu seh izzim, the young' or kid of goats :. but The pygarg] going dishon. As this word is nothis is a Hebrew idiom which signifies every creature where else used, we cannot tell what animal is meant of the genus, as wNX-ya ben enosh and 07875 ben by it. The word pygarg Tuyapyos, literally signifies adam, son of man, signify any human being. See white buttocks, and is applied to a kind of eagle with Psa. cxliv. 3 ; Job xxv. 6.

a white tail; but here it evidently means a quadruped, The flesh of these animals is universally allowed to It was probably some kind of goat, common and well be the most wholesome and nutritive. They live on known in Judea. the very best vegetables; and having several stomachs, The wild ox} x teo. This is supposed to be the their food is well concocted, and the chyle formed from oryx of the Greeks, which is a species of 'large stag. it the most pure because the best elaborated, as it is well It may be the same with the bekker el wash, described Tefined before it enters into the blood. On ruminating by Dr. Shaw as "a species of the deer kind; whose or chewing the cud, see the note on Lev. xi. 3. horns are exactly in the fashion of our stag, but whose

. Verse 5. The hart] 4x aiyal, the deer, according size is only between the red and fallow deer.In to Dr. Shaw; see the note on chap. xii. 15.

Isa. li. 20 a creature of the name of xin to is menThe roebuck] "28 tsebi, generally supposed to be tioned, which we translate wild bull; it may be the the antelope, belonging to the fifth order Pecora, genus same creature intended above, with the interchange MAMMALIA, and species 38. It has round twisted spi- of the two last letters. ral horns, hairy tufts on the knees, browses on tender The chamois i zemer. This was probably a shoots, lives in hilly countries, is fond of climbing species of goat or deer, but of what kind we know not : rocks, and is remarkable for its beautiful black eyes. that it cannot mean the chamois is evident from this The fesh is good and well flavoured.

circumstance, “that the chamois inhabits only the re. The fallow deer) ini yachmur, from 190 chamar, gions of snow and ice, and cannot bear the heat.”to be troubled, disturbed, disordered : 'this is supposed Buffon. The Septuagint and Vulgate translate it the to mean, not the fallow deer, but the bubalus or Camelopard, but this creature is only found in the torbuffalo, which is represented by Dr. Shaw, and other rid zone and probably was never seen in Judea ; contravellers and naturalists, as a sullen, malevolent, and sequently could never be prescribed as a clean animal, spiteful animal, capricious, ferocious, and every way to be used as ordinary food. I must once - more be brutal. According to the Linnæan classification, the permitted to say, that to ascertain the natural history buffalo belongs to the fifth order Pecora, genus MaM- of the Bible is a hopeless case. Of a few of its aniMALIA, species bps. According to 1 Kings iv. 23, mals and vegetables we are comparatively certain, this was one of the animals which was daily served but of the great majority we know almost nothing. up at the table of Solomon. Though the flesh of the Guessing and conjecture are endless, and they have buffalo is not considered very delicious, yet in the on these subjects been already sufficiently employed. countries where it abounds it is eaten as frequently by What learning, deep, solid, extensive learning, and all classes of persons as the od is in England. The judgment could do, has already been done by the inyachmur is not mentioned in the parallel place, Lev. xi. comparable Bochart in his Hierozoicon. The learned

B. C. 1451.

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the swan,

Of unclean birds.

Various ordinances.
A. M. 2553. 13 And the glede, and the kite, 24 And if the way be too long A. M. 2553.

B. C. 1451.
An. Ex. Isr. 40. and the vulture after his kind, for thee, so that thou art not able An. Ex. Isr. 40.
14 And every raven after his to carry it; or if the place be

too far from thee, which the Lord thy God
15 And the owl, and the night-hawk, and shall choose to set his name there, when the
the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind, LORD thy God hath blessed thee :
16 The little owl, and the great owl, and -25 Then shalt thou turn it into money, and

bind up the money in thine hand, and shalt 17 And the pelican, and the gier eagle, and go unto-the place which the LORD thy God the cormorant,

shall choose : 18 And the stork, and the heron after her 26 And thou shalt bestow- that money for kind, and the lapwing, and the bat,

whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or 19 And every creeping thing that flieth is for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or unclean unto you: m they shall not be eaten. for whatsoever thy soul - desireth : and thou

20 But of all clean fowls ye may eat. shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and

21 · Ye shall not eat of any thing, that dieth thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household,
of itself: thou shalt give it unto the stranger 27 And w the Levite that is within thy gates,
that is in thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou shalt not forsake him ; for he hath no
thou mayest sell it unto an alien : © for thou art part nor inheritance with thee.
a holy people unto the Lord thy God. Thou 28. y At the end of three years, thou shalt
shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. bring forth all the tithe of thine increase the

22 a Thou shalt truly tithe all the increase of same year, and shalt lay it up within ihy gates;
thy seed, that the field bringeth forth year by year. 29 2 And the Levite, (because he hath no

23 ' And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy part nor inheritance with thee,) and the stranger,
God, in the place which he shall choose to and the fatherless, and the widow, which are
place his name there, the tithe of thy corn, of within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and
thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings be satisfied ; that b the Lord thy God may
of thy herds and of thy flocks : that thou bless thee in all the work of thine hand which
mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always. thou doest.
1 Lev. xi. 20.-- See Lev. xi. 21.--

:-- Lev. xvii. 15; xxii. 8; u Heb. asketh of thee. Chap. xii. 7, 18; xxvi. 11.-
Ezek. iv. 14. ,0 Verse 2. -Þ Exodus xxiii. 19 ; xxxiv. 26, xij. 12, 18, 19. Num. xviii. 20; chap. xviii. 1, 2.5 Chap,
9 Lev. xxvii. 30 ; chap. xii. 6, 17 ; Neh. x. 37.— Chap. xii. 5, xxvi. 12 ; Amos iv. 4. .: Chap. XXVI. 12.-a Ver. 27 ; chap-
6, 7, 17, 18. Chap. xv. 19, 20.5 Chap. xii. 21.

xii. 12. — Chap. xv. 10; Prov. iii. 9, 10; see Mal ii. 10. reader may consult this work, and, while he gains Num. xviii. 24-28; Neh. x. 37; 38. Then of that much general information, will have to regret that he which remained, the owners separated a second tithe, can apply so little of it to the main and grand ques- which they ate before the Lord the first and second tion. . As I have consulted every authority within my year; and in the third year it was given to the Le'reach, on the subject of the clean and unclean animals vites and to the poor, Deut. xiv. 28, 29. In the fourth mentioned in the law, and have detailed all the and fifth years it was eaten again by the owners, and Information I could collect in my notes on Lev. xi., in the sixth year was given to the poor. The seventh I must refer my readers to what I have there laid year was a Sabbath to the land, and then all things down.

were common, Exod. xxii. 10, 11, where see the Verse 13. The vulture after his kind] The word notes; and see Ainsworth on this verse. 1787 daah is improperly translated vulture Lev. xi. 14, Verse 26. Or for strong drink]* What the sikera and means a kite or glede. The word 777 daiyah in or strong drink of the Hebrews was, see in the note this verse is not only different from that in Leviticus, on Lev. x. 9. This one verse sufficiently shows that but means also a different animal, properly enough the Mosaic law made ample provision for the comfort translated vulture. See the note on Lev. xi. 1 4. and happiness of the people.

Verse 21. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mo- Verse 29. And the Levite (because he hath no part ther's milk.] Mr. Calmet thinks that this precept re- nor inheritance] And hence much of his support defers to the paschal lamb only, which was not to be pended on the mere freewill-offerings of the people. offered to God till it was weaned from its mothers God chose to make his ministers thus dependent on but see the note on Exod. xxiii. 19.

the people, that they might be induced (among other Verse 22. Thou shalt truly tilhe] Meaning the motives) to labour for their spiritual profiting, that the second tithe which themselves were to eat, ver. 23, for people, thus blessed under their ministry, might feel there was a first tithe that was given to the Leviles, it their duty and privilege to support and render them out of which they paid a tenih part to the priests, comfortable,

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The Sabbatical year of release, 1. The manner in which this release shall take place, 2–5. Of lending to

the poor, and the disposition in which it should be done, 6-11. Of the Hebrew servant who has served six
years, and who shall be dismissed well furnished, 12-15. The ceremony of boring the ear, when the
servant wishes to continue with his master, 16-18. Of the firstlings of the flock and herd, 19, 20. No-
thing shall be offered that has any blemish, 21. The sacrifice to be eaten both by the clean and unclean,
except the blood, which is never to be eaten, but poured out upon the ground, 22, 23.
A. M. 2553. AT the end of every seven thee, i thou shalt not harden thine A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451.
An. Ex. Isr, 40. years thou shalt make a re- heart, nor shut thine hand from An. Ex. Isr. 40.

Sebat. lease.

thy poor brother:
2 And this is the manner of the release : 8 « But thou shalt


thine hand wide unto Every creditor that lendeth aught unto his him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for neighbour shall release it; he shall not exact his need, in that which he wanteth. it of his neighbour, or of his brother; because 9 Beware that there be 'not a thought in it is called the Lord's release.

thy n wicked heart, saying, The seventh year, 3 Of a foreigner thou mayest exact it again: the year of release, is at hand; and thine eye but that which is thine with thy brother, thine be evil against thy poor brother, and thou hand shall release :

givest him naught; and he cry unto the 4 d Save when there shall be no poor among Lord against thee, and Pit be sin unto thee. you; e for the Lord shall greatly bless thee 10 Thou shalt surely give him, and a thine in the land which the Lord thy God giveth heart shall not be grieved when thou givest thee, for an inheritance to possess it : unto him : because that for this thing the

5 Only fif thou carefully hearken unto the LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thy
voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do works, and in all that thou puttest thine hand
all these commandments which I command unto.
thee this day.

11 For s the poor shall never cease out of
6 For the Lord thy God blesseth thee, as the land : therefore I command thee, saying,
he promised thee: and thou shalt lend unto Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy
many nations, but thou shalt not borrow; and brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy
I thou shalt reign over many nations, but they land.
shall not reign over thee.

12 And + if thy brother, a Hebrew man, or 7 If there be among you a poor man of one sa Hebrew .woman, be sold unto thee, and of thy brethren, within any of thy gates in serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thou shalt let him go free from thee.

2 Exod. xxi. 2; xxiv. 10, 11 ; Lev. xxv. 2, 4 ; chap. xxxi. 10'; Heb. 'word. Heb. Belial. Chap. xxviii. 54, 56 ;
Jer. xxxiv. 14.- b Heb. master of the lending of his hand. Prov. xxiii, 6; xxviii. 22; Matt. xx. 15. · Chap. xxiv. 15.
• See chap. xxiii. 20.- Or, to the end that there be no poor P Matt. xxv. 41, 42.2 Cor. ix. 5, 7. Chap. xiv. 29;
among you. - Chap. xxviii. 8. Chap. xxviii. 1. * Chap. xxiv. 19; Psa. xli. 1;. Prov. xxi. 9.—Matt. xxvi. 11; Mark
xxviii. 12, 44. Chap. xxviii. 13 ; Prov. xxii. 7. - 1 John xiv. 7; John xii. 8. Exodus xxi. 2; Lev. xxv. 39; Jer,
ii. 17.-k Lev. xxv. 35; Matt. v. 12 ; Luke vi. 34, 35. xxxix. 14.

And thine eyje be evil] An evil eye signifies a covet-
Verse 1. At the end of every seven years thou shalt ous disposition. See the same form of expression used
make a release] For an explanation of many things by our Lord in the same sense, Matt. vi, 23 : If thine
in this chapter, see the notes on Exod. xxi. and xxiii., eye be evilif thou be a covetous person.
and Lev. xxv.

is by our Lord opposed to single eye, i. e., a person of Verse 4. There shall be no poor) . That is, compa- a liberal, benevolent mind. Covetousness darkens the ratively; see ver. 11.

soul; liberality and benevolence enlighten it, Verse 8. Thou shalt open thine hand wide] Thy And he cry unto the Lord against thee What a benevolence shall be in proportion to his distress and consolation to the poor and the oppressed, that they poverty, and thy ability. Thou shalt have no other have a sure-friend in God, who will hear their cry and rule to regulate thy charity by.

redress their grievances ! Verse 9. Beware that there be not a thought in thy Verse 11. For the poor shall never cease out of the wicked heart] Sposa gaab lebabecha beliyaal, thy belial land) To this passage our Lord appears to allude heart, that is, thy good-for-nothing or unprofitable Mark xiv. 7: For ye have the poor with you always. heart; see on chap. xiv. 13.

God leaves these in mercy among men to exercise the

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Evil eye

A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451.

A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451.



Concerning the feast

of the passover. 13 And when thou sendest him he hath been worth a double An. Ex. Isr. 40. out free from thee, thou shalt not hired servant to thee, in serving An. Ex. Isr. 40.

let him go away empty : thee six years : and the Lord 14 Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy God shall bless thee in all that thou doest. thy flock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy 19 y All the firstling males that come of thy winepress : of that wherewith the LORD thy herd and of thy flock thou shalt sanctify unto God hath u blessed thee thou shalt give unto the LORD thy God : thou shalt do no work him.

with the firstling of thy bullock, nor shear the 15 And thou shalt remember that thou firstling of thy sheep: wast a bondman in the land of Egypt, and the 20 - Thou shalt eat it before the Lord thy LORD thy God redeemed thee : therefore I God, year by year, in the place which the command thee this thing to-day.

LORD shall choose, thou and thy household. 16 And it shall be, w if he say unto thee, I 21 4 And if there be any blemish therein, as will not go away from thee; because he if it be lame, or blind, or have any ill blemish, loveth thee and thine house, because he is thou shalt not sacrifice it unto the Lord thy well with thee:

God. 17 Then thou shalt take an awl, and thrust 22 Thou shalt eat it within thy gates : the it through his ear unto the door, and he shall unclean and the clean person shall eat it alike, be thy servant for ever. And also unto thy as the roebuck, and as the hart. maid-servant thou shalt do likewise.

23 c Only thou shalt not eat the blood 18 It shall not seem hard unto thee, when thereof; thou shalt pour it upon the ground thou sendest him away free from thee ; fór as water.

u Prov. x. 22, :- Chap. v. 15; xvi. 12.- Exod. xxi.5, 6. Chap. xii, 5, 6, 7, 17; xiv. 23 ; xvi. 11, 14.-_Lev. xxii. 20; * See Isa. xvi. 14; xxi. 16.

—Exod. xiii. 2; xxxiv. 19; Lev. chap. xvii. 1; Ecclus. xxxv. 12. ---- Chap. xii. 15, 22. — Chap. xxvii. 26; Num. iii. 13.

xii. 16, 23.


feelings of compassion, tenderness, mercy, &c. And Verse 17. Thou shalt take an awl] . See the note without occasions afforded to exercise these, man on Exod. xxi. -6. would soon become a Stoic or a brute.

Verse 20. Thou shalt eat it-in the place which Verse 13. Thou shalt not let him go away empty] the Lord shall choose) Thus Ged in his mercy

made Because during the time he served thee, he made no their duty and interest go hand in hand. And in property for himself, having been always honest to every case. God acts thus with his creatures ; well, wards thee ; and now when he leaves thee, he has therefore, might Şatan ask, Doth Job serve God for nothing to begin the world with.

naught? · No! nor does God design that any man Verse 14. Thou shalt furnish him--out of thy should, flock] Thou shalt give him some cattle to breed with; Verse 21. If there be any blemish] See the notes out of thy floor-some corn for seed and for bread; on Lev. xxii, 20, God will have both a perfect priest and out of thy winepress--an adequate provision of and a perfect offering. wine for present necessity.

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CHAPTER XVI. The month of Abid to be observed, 1. The feast of the passover and of unleavened bread, 2–8. The feast

of weeks, 9-12. The feast of tabernacles, 13-15. All the males to appear before the Lord thrice in the year, none to come empty, each to give according to his ability, 16, 17. Judges and officers to be made in all their cities, 18. Strict justice shall be executed, 19, 20. No grove to be planted near the allar of God, nor any image to be set up, 21, 22. A. M. 2553. a

A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. Abib, and keep the passover night.

An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat.

Sebat. unto the LORD thy God : for bin 2 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the month of Abib the LORD thy God brought the passover unto the LORD thy God, of the a Exod. xii. 2, &c. Exod. xlii. 4; xxxiv, 18.

c Exod. xii. 29, 42. NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.

Egyptians, seeing the blood of the appointed sacrifice Verse 1. Keep the passover) A feast so called be- sprinkled on the lintels and door-posts of the Israelcause the angel that destroyed the first-born of the ites' houses, passed over them, and did not destrnt

A. M. 2553,
B. C. 1451.

An. Ex. Isr. 40.


Of the feast of weeks


and of tabernacles. A. M. 2553. flock and a the herd, in the freewill-offering of thine hand, B. C. 1451.

e place which the Lord shall which thou shalt give unto the An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat.

choose to place his name there. LORD thy God, according as 3 * Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; the LORD thy God hath blessed thee. seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread 11 And s thou shalt rejoice before the LORD therewith, even the bread of affliction ; for thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt in and thy man-servant, and thy, maid-servant, haste : that thou mayest remember the day and the Levite that is within thy gates, and when thou camest forth out of the land of the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, Egypt, all the days of thy life.

that are among you, in the place which the 4 & And there shall be no leavened bread Lord thy God hath chosen to place his name seen with thee in all thy coast seven days; there. h neither shall there any thing of the flesh 12 + And thou shalt remember that thou wast which thou sacrificedst the first day at even, a bondman in Egypt: and thou shalt observe remain all night unto the morning.

and do these statutes. 5 Thou mayest not i sacrifice the passover 13 u Thou shalt observe the feast of taberwithin any of thy gates, which the Lord thy nacles seven days, after that thou hast gathered God giveth thee :

in thy corn and thy wine : 6 But at the place which the LORD thy God 14 And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast, thou, shall choose to place his name in, there thou and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy manshalt sacrifice the passover at keven, at the servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite, going down of the sun, at the season that thou the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, camest forth out of Egypt.

that are within thy gates. 7 And thou shalt ? roast and eat it m in the 1.5 Seven dayš shalt thou keep a solemn place which the LORD thy God shall choose : feast unto the Lord thy God, in the place and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go which the LORD shall choose: because the unto thy tents.

LORD thy God shall bless thee in all thine 8 Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread : increase, and in all the works of thine hands, and non the seventh day shall be a solemn therefore thou shalt surely rejoice. assembly to the Lord thy God; thou shalt 16' Three times in a year shall all thy males do no work therein.

appear before the LORD thy God, in the place 9: P Seven weeks shalt thou number unto which he shall choose : in the feast of unleaventhee : begin to number the seven weeks from ed bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the such time as thou beginnest to put the sickle feast of tabernacles : and they shall not apto the corn...

pear before the Lord empty : 10. And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks 17 Every man shall give " as he is able, unto the LORD thy God, with ? a tribute of a according to the blessing of the LORD

a Num. xxviii. 19. Le Chap. xii. 5, 26. _Exod. xii. 15, 19, 9 Or, sufficiency. - Ver. 17; 1 Cor. xvi. 2. Chap. xii. 39; xii. 3, 6, 7; xxxiv. 18.

h Exod. xii. 7, 12, 18; yerse 14. - Chap. xv. 15. Exod. xxiii. 16; 10; xxxiv. 25. Li Or, kill. Lk Exod. xii. 6. Exod. xii. 8, Lev. xxiii. 34; Num. xxix. 12.- - Heb. floor and thy winepress. 9; 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. m 2 Kings xxiii. 23; John ii, 13, 23; w Neh. viii. 9, &c. *Lev. xxiii, 39, 40,- -y Exod. xxiii. 14, xi. 55.

—Exod. xii. 16; xui. 6; Lev. xxvi. 8. - Heb. re- 17; xxxiv. 23.- -> Exod. xxiii. 15; xxxiv. 20; Ecclus, xxxv. 45 straint ; Lev. xxii. 36. -- Exod. xxii. 16; xxxiv. 22; Lev. - Heb. according to the gift of his hand ; 2 Cor, viii, 12. xxiii. 15; Num. xxviii. 26 ; Acts i. 1. any of their first-born.

See the notes on Exod. xii: faction soon took place ; therefore they were com2, &c.

mánded to let nothing remain until the morning, Verse 3. Bread of affliction] Because, being baked ver. 4. This consideration is sufficient to account without leaven, it was unsavoury, and put them in mind for the command here, without having recourse of their afflictive bondage in Egypt.

to those moral : and evangelical reasons that are Verse 11. Thou shalt rejoice] The offerings of the assigned by the learned and devout Mr. Ainsworth Israelites were to be eaten with festivity, communicated for the command. How beneficent and cheerful to their friends with “liberality, and bestowed on the is the design of this institution !-Harmer, vol. i., poor with great generosity, that they might partake p. 396. with them in these sacred repasts with joy before the Verse 16. Three times in a year] See Exod. xxiii. Lord. To answer these views it was necessary to eat 14, where all the Jewish feasts are explained. See the flesh while it was fresh, as in that climate putre- | also Lev. xxiii. 34.

-5 Exod. xiii. 7.

b Verse 10.

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