« הקודםהמשך »
Love to the stranger, and
the fear of God enjoined. A. M. 2553. your heart, and be no
more 20 Thou shalt fear the LORD A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. I stiff-necked.
thy God; him shalt thou serve, An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat. 17 For the Lord your God is and to him shalt thou cleave,
Sebat. m God of gods, and Lord of lords, a great u and swear by his name. God, a mighty, and a terrible, which pre- 21 He is thy praise, and he is thy God, gardeth not persons, nor taketh reward : w that hath done for thee these great and ter
18 . He doth execute the judgment of the rible things, which thine eyes have seen. fatherless and widow, and loveth the stranger, 22 Thy fathers went down into Egypt * with in giving him food and raiment.
threescore and ten persons; and now the 19 · Love ye therefore the stranger : for ye LORD thy God hath made thee y as the stars were strangers in the land of Egypt.
of heaven for multitude. Chap. ix. 6, 13.
.- Josh. xxii. 22 ; Psa. cxxxvi. 2; Dan. • Chap. vi. 13; Matt. iv. 10; Luke iv. 8. - Chap. xi. 22; 47; xi. 36, — Rev. xvii. 14; xix. 16. ,Chap. vii. 21. xili. 4. - Psa ixiii. ll. Exod. xv. 2; Psa. xxii. 3; P2 Chron. xix. 7; Job xxxiv. 19; Acts x. 34 ; Rom. ii. 11; Gal. Jer. xvii. 14.-"1 Sam. xii. 24 ; 2 Sam. vii. 23; Psa. cvi. 21, ii. 6; Eph. vi. 9; Col. vi. 25; 1 Pet. i. 17. –9 Psa. lxviii. 5; 22.—Genxlvi. 27; Exod. i. 5; Acts vii. 14. — Gen. xv. 5; cxlvi. 9. - Lev. xix. 33, 34.
chap. i 10; xxviii. 62.
pointed out spiritual things, and that it was not the book he has recorded as spoken will be best understood
sary to be here attended to are these. In Exodus, Verse 17. God of gods, and Lord of lords]. That chap. xx., God speaks the ten commandments ; in chap. is, He is the source whence all being and power pro- xxiv. Moses, on Mount Sinai, receives the two tables, ceed; every agent is finite but himself; and he can and is there forty days and nights; in chap. xxv., counteract, suspend, or destroy all the actions of all xxvi., xxvii., God appoints the service of the tabercreatures whensoever he pleases. If he determine to nacle; in chap. xxviii. 'separates Aaron and his sons save, none can destroy; if he purpose to destroy, none for the priest's office, by a statute for ever, to him and
How absolutely necessary to have such a his seed after him; in chap. xxxii. Moses, incensed at God for our friend!
the golden calf, breaks the tables; yet he prays for A great God-mighty] 20 5x7 hael haggibbor, the people, and God orders him to lead them towards the mighty God; this is the very title that is given to Canaan; in chap. xxxiv. Moses carries up two other our blessed Lord and Saviour, Isa. ix. 6.
tables, and stays again forty days and nights. In Verse 21. He is thy praise] It is an eternal honour Numbers, chap. iii., the tribe of Levi is selected; chap. to any soal to be in the friendship of God. Why are vii., consecrated; chap. x. and xi. the Israelites people ashamed of being thought religious ? Because march from Sinai on the twentieth day of the second they know nothing of religion. He who knows his month in the second year; in chap. xiii. spies sent; Maker may glory in his God, for without him what in chap. xiv. the men are sentenced to die in the wilhas any soul but disgrace, pain, shame, and perdition ? derness during the forty years; in chap. xvii. the How strange is it that those who fear God should-be Levites are to have no lot nor large district in Canaan, ashamed to own it, while sinners boldly proclaim their but to be the Lord's inheritance ; -in chap. xx. Aaron relationship to Satan!
dies on Mount Hor; lastly, in the complete catalogue Verse 22. With threescore and ten per: ms] And of the whole march (chap. xxxüi.) we are told that now, from so small a beginning, they were multiplied they went from Moseroth to Bene-jaakan, thence to to more than 600,000 souls; and this indeed in the Hor-hagidgad, to Jotbathah, to Ebronah, to Ezion-gaspace of forty years, for the 603,000 which came out ber, to Zin, (which is Kadesh,) and thence to Mount of Egypt were at this time all dead but Moses, Jo- Hor, where Aaron died in the fortieth and last year. shua, and Caleb. How easily can God increase and In Deuteronomy, chap. ix., Moses tells the Israelites, multiply, and how easily diminish and bring low! In (ver. 7,) thát they had been rebels, from Egypt even all things, because of his unlimited power, he can do to Jordan, particularly at Horeb, (ver. 8–29,) whilst whatsoever he will; and he will do whatsoever is right. he was with God, and received the tables at the end
of forty days and nights ; and that, after breaking the On a very important subject in this chapter Dr. tables, he fasted and interceded for his brethren during Kennicott has the following judicious observations :- a second period of forty days and nights; and this
“ The book of Deuteronomy contains the several ninth chapter ends with the prayer which he then speeches made to the Israelites by Moses just before made. Chapter x. begins thus : At that time the his death, recapitulating the chief circumstances of Lord said unto me, Hew thee twò tables of stone, like their history, from their deliverance out of Egypt to unto the first, and come up,' &c. And from ver. 1 to their arrival on the banks of Jordan. What in this the end of ver. 5 he describes the second copy of the Dr. Kennicott's remarks
on the preceding chapter. ten commandments, as written also by God, and depo- the speech of Moses in this place. And this speech sited by himself in the ark.
without these four verses is a regularly connected ad“After this we have now four verses, (6, 7, 8, and monition from Moses to this purpose : that his bre9,) which not only have no kind of connection with the thren were for ever to consider themselves as indebted verses before and after them, but also, as they stand to him, under God, for the renewal of the two tables, in the present Hebrew text, directly contradict that and also to his intercession for rescuing them from devery text; and the two first of these verses have not, struction. The words are these : (chap. x. 4,) . The in our Hebrew text, the least connection with the two Lord wrote again the ten commandments, and gare last of them. Our Hebrew text, (ver. 6,) says that Is- them unto me. (5) And I came down from the mount, rael journeyed from Bene-jaakan to Mosera. Whereas and put the tables in the ark, which I had made that very text in the complete catalogue, (Num. xxxiii. (10) Thus I stayed in the mount according to the first 31,) says they journeyed from Moseroth to Bene- lime, forty days and forty nights : and the Lord jaakan. Again : Aaron is here said to have died at hearkened unto me at that time also; the Lord would Mosera, whereas he died on Mount Hor, the seventh not destroy thee. (11) And the Lord said unto me, station afterwards ; see Num. xxxiii. 38. And again : Arise, take thy journey before the people, that they they are here said to go from Bene-jaakan to Mosera, may go in- and possess the land,' &c. But then, if thence to Gudgodah, and thence to Jotbath ; whereas these four verses were not at first a part of this chapthe complete catalogue says, Moseroth to Bene-jaakan, ter, but are evidently interpolated, there arises another thence to Hor-hagidgad, and thence to Jotbathah. But inquiry, Whether they are an insertion entirely spuif the marches could possibly be true as they now rious, or a genuine part of the sacred text, though stand in these two verses, yet what connection can removed hither out of some other chapter ? As they there be between Jotbath and the SEPARATION OF contain nothing singular or peculiar, are of no particoTHE TRIBE OF Levi? It is very happy that these lar importance, and relate to no subject of disputation, several difficulties in the Hebrew text are removed by they are not likely to have arisen from fraud or de. the SAMARITAN Pentateuch : for that text tells us here sign; but, perfectly coinciding in sense with other rightly that the march was from Moseroth to Bene- passages, they may safely be considered as another jaakan ; to Hagidgad, to Jotbathah, to Ebronah, to instance of a large transposition (86 words) in the Ezion-gaber, to Zin, (which is Kadesh,) and thence to present text, arising from accident and want of care. Mount Hor, where Aaron died. Again : as the regu- And the only remaining question therefore is, Whether lar deduction of these stations ends with Mount Hor we can discover, though not to demonstration, yet with and Aaron's death, we have then what we had not any considerable degree of probability, the original before, a regular connection with the two next verses, place of these four versés, that so they may be at last and the connection is this : That when Aaron, the son restored to that neighbourhood and connection from of Amram, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, died, which they have been, for so many ages, separated ? neither the tribe of Levi nor the priesthood was de- “It was natural for Moses, in the course of these serted, but God still supported the latter by maintain- several speeches to his brethren in Deuteronomy, to ing the former; and this, not by allotting that tribe embrace the firsť opportunity of impressing on their any one large part of Canaan, but separate cities memories a matter of such particular importance as among the other tribes, and by allowing them to live the continuation of the priesthood among the Lerites upon those offerings which were made by the other after Aaron's death. · And the first proper place seems tribes to God himself. These four verses therefore, to be in the second chapter, after the first verse. (6, 7, 8, and 9,) in the same text, stand thus :. (ver. 6,) chap. i. 19 he speaks of their march from Hored to When the children of Israel journeyed from Mose- Kadesh-barnea, whence they sent the spies into Carolh, and encamped in Bene-jaakan; from thence they naan. He then sets forth their murmurings, and God's journeyed and encamped at Hagidgad ; from thence sentence that they should die in the wilderness, and they journeyed and encamped in Jotbathah, a land of he ends the first chapter with their being defeated by rivers of water : (7) From thence they journeyed and the Amoriles, their weeping before the Lord, and abidencamped in Ebronah ; in Ezion-gaber; in the wil- ing many ways in Kadesh, which is KADESH-BARNEA, derness of Zin, which is Kadesh; and then at Mount near Canaan. Hor: And A ARON DIED THERE, and there he was bu- “Chap. ii. begins thus : Then we turned, and took ried; and Eleazar his son ministered as priest in his our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red stead. (8) At that time ihe Lord had separated the Sea, as the Lord spake unto me : and WE COMPASSED tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of the Mount SEIR MANY DAYS. Now, the many days, or Lord, to stand before the Lord, to minister unto him, long time, which they spent in compassing Mount and to bless in his name unto this day. (9) Where- Seir, that is, going round on the south-west coasts of fore Levi hath no part nor inheritance with his bre- Edom in order to proceed north-east from Edom, thren; the Lord is his inheritance, according as the through Moab to Arnon, must include several of their Lord thy God promised him.
stations, besides that eminent one at Mount Hor, “But however consistent these four verses are now where Aaron died. And as part of their road, during with themselves, it will be still demanded, What con- this long compass, lay through Ezion-gaber, (which nection have they with the fifth verse before them, and was on the eastern tongue of the Red Sea, and the with the tenth verse after them? I confess I cannot south boundary of Edom,) thence to Zin, (which is discover their least pertinency here, because Aaron's Kadesh, that is, MERIBAH KADESH,) and thence to DEATH and Levi's SEPARATION seem totally foreign to | Mount Hor, as they marched to the north-east ; so it
Obedience enforced by God's
mercies and judgments.
of the first verse, the second verse begins a new para-
A. M. 2553.
and what he did in the wilderness, 5, and the judgment on Dathan and Abiram, 6, and from the mercies of
B. C. 1451.
2 And know ye this day: for I speak not ness, until ye came into this place ;
3 f And his miracles, and his acts, which he tents, and all the i substance that k was in their
7 But your eyes have seen all the great acts
a Chap. x. 12 ; xxx. 16, 20. — 5 Zech. iii. 7. — Chap. vii. 5. Chap. v. 24. Chap.vii, 19.- - Psa. lxxviii. 12; cxxxv. 9. & Exod. xiv. 27, 28; xv. 9, 10; Psa. cvi. Il.
bNum. xvi. 1, 31 ; xxvii. 3; Psa. cvi. 17.-i Or, living substance which followed them. * Heb. was at their
feet, - Chap. V.3; vii. 19.
NOTES ON CHAP. XI.
all good, and consequently miserable. See the note
A. M. 2553.
A. M. 2553.
The great fertility of
the promised land.
you this day, 'to love the Lord
10 For the land, whither thou goest in to latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn,
-16 Take heed to yourselves, that your
17 And then the Lord's wrath be kindled 12 A land which the Lord thy God careth against you, and he shut up the heaven, that for; ' the eyes of the LORD thy God are always there be no rain, and that the land yield not upon it, from the beginning of the year even her fruit; and lest fye perish quickly from off unto the end of the year.
the good land which the Lord giveth you. 13. And it shall come to pass,
18 Therefore & shall ye lay up these my m Josh. i. 6, 7. - Chap. iv. 40; v. 16 ; Prov. x. 27.- Chap. y Psa. civ. 14.
-2 Heb. give.
Chap. vi. 11; Joel ii. 19. ix. 5. -Exod. iii. 8. -4 Zech. xiv. 18. - Chap. viii. 7. • Chap. xxix. 18; Job xxxi. 27.- Chap. viii. 19; xxx. 17. .Heb. seeketh. - 1 Kings ix. 3.° Ver. 22; chap. vi. 17. a Chap. vi. 15. - 1 Kings viii. 35 ; 2 Chron. vi. 26; vii. 13. Chap. X. 12. " Lev. xxvi. 4; chap. xxviii. 12.- -* Joel ii. 'Chap. iv, 26 ; vii. 19, 20; xxx. 18; Joshua xxii. 13, 15, 16. 23; James v. 7.
& Chap. vi. 6; xxxii. 46.
ments] Because God can execute such terrible judg- of water, and causes it to empty itself into the gutter." ments, and because he has given such proofs of his This, Mr. Ward supposes, illustrates this passage. See power and justice; and because, in similar provoca- Hindoo Customs, fc., vol. iii., p. 104. But after all, tions, he may be expected to act in a similar way; the expression, wateredst it with thy foot, may mean therefore keep his charge, that he may keep you unto no more than doing it by labour ; for, as in the land everlasting life.
of Egypt there is scarcely any rain, the watering of Verse 10. Wateredst it with thy foot] Rain scarcely gardens, &c., must have been all artificial. But in eyer falls in Egypt, and God supplies the lack of it by Judea it was different, as there they had their proper the inundations of the Nile. In order to water the seasons of rain. The compound word kan2 beregel, grounds where the inundations do not extend, water with, under, or by the foot, is used to signify any thing is collected in ponds, and directed in streamlets to dif- under the power, authority, &c., of a person; and this ferent parts of the field where irrigation is necessary. very meaning it has in the sixth verse, all the subIt is no unusual thing in the East to see a man, with stance that was in their possession, is, literally, all the a small mattock, making a little trench for the water substance that was under their feet, 07:1973 beragto run by, and as he opens the passage, the water fol-. leyhem, that is, in their power, possession, or what lowing, he uses his foot to raise up the mould against they had acquired by their labour. the side of this little channel, to prevent the water
Verse 14. The rain in his due season, the first from being shed unnecessarily before it reaches the rain and the latter rain] By the first or former rain place of its destination. Thus he may be said to wa- we are to understand that which fell in Judea about ter the ground with his foot. See several useful ob- November, when they sowed their seed, and this servations on this subject in Mr. Harmer, vol. i., pp. served to moisten and prepare the ground for the 23–26, and vol. iii., p. 411. “For watering land an vegetation of the seed. The latter rain fell about instrument called janta is often used in the north of April, when the corn was well grown up, and served Bengal : it consists of a wooden trough, about fifteen to fill the ears, and render them plump and perfect. feet long, six inches wide, and ten inches deep, which Rain rarely fell in Judea at any other seasons than is placed on a horizontal beam lying on bamboos fixed these. If the former rain were withheld, or not sent in the bank of a pond or river in the form of a gallows. in due season, there could be no vegetation : if the One end of the trough rests upon the bank, where a latter rain were withheld, or not sent in its due seagutter is prepared to carry off the water, and the other son, there could be no full corn in the ear, and conis dipped into the water by a man standing on a stage sequently no harvest. Of what consequence then was near that end, and plunging it in with his foot. A long it that they should have their rain in due season! God, bamboo, with a large weight of earth at the farther end by promising this provided they were obedient, and of it, is fastened to that end of the janta near the river, threatening to withhold it should they be disobedient, and passing over the gallows, poisés up the janta fulll shows that it is not a general providence that directs
A. M. 2553.
The necessity of obedience.
Blessings and curses. A. M. 2553. words in your heart and in your all the land that ye shall tread B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr.40. soul, and h bind them for a sign upon, as he hath said unto you. An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat.
upon your hand, that they may 26 w Behold, I set before you be as frontlets between your eyes.
this day a blessing and a curse; 19 i And ye shall teach them your children, 27 * A blessing, if ye obey the commandspeaking of them when thou sittest in thine ments of the LoŘd your God, which I comhouse, and when thou walkest by the way, mand you this day : when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. 28 And a y curse, if ye will not obey the
20 k And thou shalt write them upon the commandments of the LORD your God, but door-posts of thine house, and upon thy gates: turn aside out of the way which I command
21 That 'your days may be multiplied, and you this day, to go after other gods, which ye the days of your children, in the land which have not known... the Lord sware unto your fathers to give them, 29 And it shall come to pass, when the LORD mas the days of heaven upon the earth. thy God hath brought thee in unto the land
22 For if " ye shall diligently keep all these whither thou goest to possess it, that thou shalt commandments which I command you, to do put ? the blessing upon Mount Gerizim, and them, to love the LORD your God, to walk in the curse upon Mount Ebal. all his ways, and to cleave unto him ; 30 Are they not on the other side Jordan,
23 Then will the LORD P drive out all these by the way where the sun goeth down, in the nations from before you, and ye shall 4 possess land of the Canaanites, which dwell in the greater nations and mightier than yourselves. champaign over against Gilgal, obeside the
24. Every place, whereon the soles of your plains of Moreh? feet shall tread, shall be yours: from the wil
shall pass over Jordan to go in derness and Lebanon, from the river, the river to possess the land which the LORD your God Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea, shall giveth you, and ye shall possess it, and dwell
therein. 25 There shall no 'man be able to stand 32 And ye shall observe e to do all the stabefore you: for the LORD your God shall |tutes and judgments which'I set before you
lay the fear of you and the dread of you upon this day. - Chap: vi. 8. -i Chap. iv. 9, 10; vi. 7.- k Chap. vi. 9. Gen. xv. 18; Exod. xxii. 31 ; Num. xxxiv. 3, &c. -f Chap. Chap: iv. 40; vi. 2; Prov. iii. 2; iv. 10; ix. 11.-__m Psa. vii. 24. - Chap. ii. 25.
Chap. xxx. lxxi. 5 ; lxxxix. 29. - Ver. 13; chap. vi. 17.- Chap. x. 20; | 1, 15, 19.-X
Chap. xxviii. 2. - Chap. xxviii. 15.
Li Chap xxx. 20.-p Chap. iv. 38; ix. 5.- -9 Chap. ix. 1. - Joshua xxvii. 12, 13; Josh. viii. 33. La Gen. xii. 6; Judg. vii. l. i. 3 ; xiv. 9.
o Chap. ix. 1; Josh. i. 11.- Chap. v. 32; xii. 32. these things, but that the very rain of heaven falls by the word, have been rewardable for obedience. A STONE particular direction, and the showers are often regu- is not rewardable because, in obedience to the laws of lated by an especial providence.
gravitation, it always tends to the centre ; nor is it Verse 18. Therefore shall ye lay up these my punishable because, in being removed from that centre, words] See chap. vi. 4-8, and see on Exod. xiii. 9. in its tending or falling towards it again it takes away
Verse 24. From the river] Euphrates, which was the life of a man. on the east, to the uttermost sea--the Mediterranean, That God has given man à free, self-determining which lay westward of the prontised land. This pro- WILL, which cannot be forced by any power but that mise, notwithstanding the many provocations of the which is omnipotent, and which God himself-never will Israelites, was fulfilled in the time of Solomon, for force, is declared in the most formal manner through “ he reigned over all the kings from the river (Eu- the whole of the sacred writings. No argument can phratés) even unto the land of the Philistines, and to affect this, while the - Bible is considered as a Divine the border of Egypt." See 2 Chron. ix. 26, and the revelation; no sophistry can explain away its evidence, note on Num. xxxiv. 12.
as long as the accountableness of man for his conduct Verse 26. Behold, I set before you-a blessing and is admitted, and as long as the eternal bounds of moral a curse) If God had not put it in the power of this good and evil remain, and the essential distinctions bepeople either to obey or disobey; if they had not had tween vice and virtue exist. If ye will obey, (for God a free will, over which they had complete authority, is ever ready to assist,) ye shall live; if ye will to use it either in the way of willing or nilling; could disobey and refuse that help, ye shall die. So hath God, with any propriety, have given such precepts as Jehovah spoken, and man cannot reverse it. these, sanctioned with such promises and threatenings? Verse 29. Thou shalt put the blessing upon Mount If they were not free agents, they could not be pun- Gerizim, and the curse upon Mount Ebal.] The etyished for disobedience, nor could they, in any sense of mology of these names may be supposed to cast some Vol. I. ( 50 )
your coast be.
Exod. xxiii. 27.-W