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How God's acts were to be

CHAP. VI.

taught to their children. 19 To cast out all thine ene- Pharaoh, and upon all his house- A: M. 2553.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. mies from before thee, as the hold, before our eyes :

An. Ex. Isr. 40. LORD hath spoken.

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23 And he brought us out 20 And d when thy son asketh thee e in from thence, that he might bring us in, to time to come, saying, What mean the testi- give us the land which he sware unto our monies, and the statutes, and the judgments, fathers. which the LORD our God hath commanded 24 And the LORD commanded us to do all

these statutes, i to fear the Lord our God, 21 Then thou shalt say unto thy son, We for our good always, that he might preserve were Pharaoh's bondmen in Egypt; and the us alive, as it is at this day. Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty 25 And mit shall be our righteousness, if hand :

we observe to“ do all these commandments 22 & And the LORD showed signs and won before the LORD our God; as he hath comders, great and sore, upon Egypt, upon manded us. c Num. xxxiii. 52, 53. _d Exod. xiii. 14. Heb. to-mor. Ver. 2. * Chap: x. 13; Job xxxv. 7, 8; Jer. xxxii. 39.

- Exod. in. 19; xii. 3. Exod. vii., viii., ix., X., xi., ! Chap. iv. l; viii. 1 ; Psa. xli. 2; Luke x. 28.xii. ; Psa. cxxxv. 9. h Heb. evil.

5, chap. xxiv. 13; Rom. x. 3, 5.

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um Lev. xviii.

Verse 20. And when thy son asketh thee, fc.) the maxim above mentioned, is not the religion of God, “ Here,” as Mr. Ainsworth justly remarks, “ follow- and consequently better untaught than taught. But eth a brief catechism, containing the grounds of what can be said to those parents who, possessing a religion.”

better faith; equally neglect the instruction of their What mean the teslimonies, fc.) The Hebrew children in the things of God? They are highly language has no word to express to mean or signify, criminal ; and if their children perish through neglect, and therefore uses simply the substantive verb what which is very probable, what a dreadful account must is; i. e., what mean or signify, &c. The seven thin they give in the great day! PARENTS! hear what ears are, i. e., signify, seven years of famine. This the Lord saith unto you: Ye shall diligently teach form of speech frequently occurs.

your children that there is one Lord, Jehovah, Elohim; Verse 25. It shall be our righteousness) The evidence the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost : and that that we are under the influence of the fear and love of they must love him with all their heart, with all their God. Moses does not say that this righteousness could soul, and with all their might. And as children are be wrought without the influence of God's mercy, nor heedless, apt to forget, liable to be carried away by does he say that they should purchase heaven by it; sensible things, repeat and re-repeat the instruction, but, God required them to be conformed to his will in and add line upon line, precept upon precept, here a all things, that they might be holy in heart, and right- little and there a little, carefully studying time, place, eous in every part of their moral conduct.

and circumstances, that your labour be not in vain :

show it in its amiableness, excite attention by exciting 1. On a very important subject in this chapter, it interest; show how good, how useful, how blessed, may be necessary to make some farther observations. how ennobling, how glorious it is.

Whet these things A most injurious and destructivè maxim has lately on their hearts till the keenest edge is raised on the been advanced by a few individuals, which it is to be strongest desire, till they can say, “ Whom have I in hoped is disowned by the class of Christians to which heaven but thee ? and there is none upon earth I dethey belong, though the authors affect to be thought sire besides thee !" Christians, and rational ones too; the sum of the See the 'notes on chap. iv. 9, and on Gen. xviii. and maxim is this : “Children ought not to be taught reli- xix. at the end. gion for fear of having their minds biassed to some 2. Without offenee to any, I hope, a few words particular creed, but they should be left to themselves more may be said on the nature of an oath, in addition till they are capable of making a choice, and choose to to the note on ver. 13. The matter is important, and make one." This maxim is in flat opposition to the perhaps not well understood by many. command of God, and those who teach it show how The making an appeal to the Supreme Being, and little they are affected by the religion they profess. If calling him to witness and record, constitutes the spirit they felt it to be good for any thing, they would cer- and essence of an oath. It is no matter in what form tainly wish their children to possess it; but they do this appeal is made, whether by putting the hand under. noi teach religion to their children, because they feel the thigh, as among the patriarchs; by the water of it to be of no use to themselves. Now the Christian the Ganges, as among the Hindoos ; on a surat or religion properly applied saves the soul, and fills the chapter of the Koran, as among the Mohammedans ; heart with love to God and man; for the love of God on a Hebrew Pentateuch, as among the Jews; on the is shed abroad in the heart of a genuine believer, by form of the cross, as among the Roman Catholics ; the Holy Ghost given to him. These persons have kissing the New Testament, as among Protestants in Do such love, because they have not the religion that general; or holding up the hand, and making affirmainspires it; and the spurious religion which admits of tion, as among the people called Quakers ; still the

No covenant or alliances to

DEUTERONOMY.

be made with the Canaanites.

oath is the same, for the appeal is made to God. On punisher of perfidy and wickedness. Swear by my this ground (and this is the true ground) the holding name-bind thyself to me; take me for witness to all up of the hand in a court of justice, is as perfect, as thy actions; and act in all things as having me contisubstantial, and as formal an oath, as kissing the New nually before thine eyes, and knowing that for every Testament. Why then so many objections against act and word thou shalt give account to me in the day taking an oath in a court of justice by any one parti- of judgment. Our Lord's command, Swear not at all, cular form, when the same thing is done in spirit, es- can never relate to an oath in a civil cause, taken acsence, and substance, when God is called to witness cording to the definition above given : profane and and record, though the form be different ? When God common swearing, with an light, irreverent oaths and says, Thou shalt fear the Lord thy God, and shalt imprecations, and all such oaths as are not required by swear by his name, he

says, in effect, Thou shalt have the civil magistrate, in cases where the Lord is supposed no god besides me; thou shalt consider me the foun- to be witness, are certainly intended in our blessed lain of truth, the rewarder of righteousness, and the Lord's prohibition. See on chap. iv. 26.

CHAPTER VII.

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With the seven nations that God shall cast out, 1, they shall make no covenant, 2, nor form any matrimonial

alliances, 3 ; lest they should be enticed into idolatry, 4. All monuments of idolatry to be destroyed, 5. The Israelites are to eonsider themselves a holy people, 6; and that the Lord had made them such, not for their merits, but for his own mercies, 7, 8, They shall therefore love him, and keep his commandments, 9-11. The great privileges of the obedient, 12–24. All idolatry to be avoided, 25, 26.

A. M. 2553. WHEN the Lord thy God | 4 For they will turn away thy B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. shall bring thee into the son from following me, that they An. Ex. Isr. 40.

Sebat. land whither thou goest to pos- may serve other gods : hso will sess it, and hath cast out many nations before the anger of the Lord be kindled against you, thee, ” the Hittites, and the Girgashites, and and destroy thee suddenly. the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the 5 But thus shall 'ye deal. with them : ye Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebuzites, shall i destroy their altars; and break down seven nations greater and mightier than thou; their * images, and cut down their groves, and

2 And when the LORD thy God shall • de- burn their graven images with fire. liver them before thee; thou shalt smite them, 6 For thou art a holy people unto the LORD and é utterly destroy them; 'thou shalt make thy God: m the Lord thy God hath chosen thee no covenant with them, nor show mercy unto to be a special people unto himself, above all them.

people that are upon the face of the earth. 3 5 Neither shalt thou make marriages with 7 The Lord did not set his love upon you, them; thy daughter thou shalt not give unto nor choose you, because ye were more in his son, nor his daughters shalt thou take unto number than any people ; for.ye were

n the thy son.

fewest of all people : a Chap. xxxi. 3 ; Psa. xliv. 2, 3. Gen. xv. 19, &c.; Exod. ii, 14 ; ix. 18; Judg. i. 24. -5 Josh. xxii. 12 ; 1 Kings xi. 2; xxxiii. 2. -- Chap. iv. 38; ix. 1. d Ver. 23; chap. xxiii. 14. Ezra ix. 2. Ch Chap. vi. 15.-iExod. xxvi. 24 ; xxxiv. 13; e Lev. xxvii. 28, 29; Num. xxxiii. 52 ; chap. xx. 16, 17; Josh. chap. xii. 2, 3.

-uk Heb. statues or pillars.

Exod. xix. 6; vi. 17; viii. 24; ix. 24 ; X. 28, 40 ; xi. 11, 12.- Exod. xxiii. chap. xiv. 2 ; xxvi. 19 ; Psa. 1.5 ; Jer. ii. 3. in Exod. xix. 5; 32; xxxiv. 12, 15, 16; Judg. ii. 2; see chap. xx. 10, &c.; Josh. Amos iii. 2; 1 Pet. ii. 9. - Chap. x. 22. NOTES ON CHAP. VII.

on any secular or political consideration whatever ; no Verse 1. Seven nations greater and mightier than mercy was to be shown to them, because the cup of thou] In several places of the Hebrew text, each of their iniquity also was now full ; and they must either these seven nations is not enumerated, some one or embrace, heartily embrace, the true religion, or be cut off

. other being left out, which the Septuagint in general Verse 3. Neither shalt thou make marriages, fc.] supply. How these nations were distributed over the The heart being naturally inclined to evil, there is land of Canaan previously to the entering in of the more likelihood that the idolatrous wife should draw Israelites, the reader may see in the note on Josh. iii. 10. aside the believing husband, than that the believing

Verse 2. Thou shalt smite them, fc.] These idol- husband should be able to bring over his idolatrous atrous nations were to be utterly destroyed, and all the wife to the true faith. others also which were contiguous to the boundaries Verse 6. Thou art a holy people] And therefore of the promised land, provided they did not renounce should have no connection with the workers of iniquity. their idolatry and receive the true faith : for if they A special people] bab segullah,--Septuagint, acov did not, then no covenant was to be made with themTeplovolov,—a peculiar people, a private property. The

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The great privileges
CHAP. VII.

of the obedient.
8 But because the Lord loved diseases of Egypt, which thou
An. Ex. Isr

. 40. you, and because he would keep knowest, upon thee; but will lay An. Ex. Isr. 40.

P the oath which he had sworn them upon all them that hate thee. unto your fathers, a hath the LORD brought 16 And - thou shalt consume all the people you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed which the LORD thy God shall deliver thee; you out of the house of bondmen, from the thine eye shall have no pity upon them : neihand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.

ther shalt thou serve their gods; for that will 9 Know therefore that the LORD thy God, be e a snare unto thee. he is God, 'the faithful God, ' which keepeth 17 If thou shalt say in thine heart, These covenant and mercy with them that love him nations are more than I : how can I disposand keep his commandments, to a thousand sess them? generations :

18 & Thou shalt not be afraid of them: but 10 And + repayeth them that hate him to shalt well h remember what the LORD thy God their face, to destroy them : u he will not be did unto Pharaoh, and unto all Egypt ; slack to him that hateth him, he will repay 19 i The great temptations which thine eyes him to his face.

saw, and the signs, and the wonders, and the 11 Thou shalt therefore keep the command-mighty hand, and the stretched-out arm, ments, and the statutes, and the judgments, whereby the Lord thy God brought thee out : which I command thee this day, to do them. so shall the Lord thy God do unto all the

Wherefore it shall come to pass, if people of whom thou art afraid. ye hearken to these judgments, and keep and 20 Moreover the LORD thy God will send do them, that the LORD thy God shall keep the hornet among them, until they that are left, unto thee * the covenant and the mercy which and hide themselves from thee, be destroyed. he sware unto thy fathers :

21 Thou shalt not be affrighted at them : 13 And he will y love thee, and bless thee, for the Lord thy God is among you, ma and multiply thee : ? he will also bless the mighty God and terrible. fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, 22 And the LORD thy God will • put out thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the in- those nations before thee by little and little : crease of thy kine, and the flocks of thy thou mayest not consume them at once, lest sheep, in the land which he sware unto thy the beasts of the field increase upon thee. fathers to give thee.

23 But the Lord thy God shall deliver them 14 Thou shalt be blessed above all people : Punto thee, and shall destroy them with a * there shall not be male or female barren mighty destruction, until they be destroyed. among you, or among your cattle.

24 And a he shall deliver their kings into 15 And the LORD will take away from thee thine hand, and thou shalt destroy their all sickness, and will put none of the bevil name * from under heaven : there shall no

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• Chap. x. 15. -P Exodh xxxii. 13; Psa. cv. 8, 9, 10; Luke e Ver. 2. La Chap. xii, 8; xix. 13, 21 ; xxv. 12.- Le Exod. i. 55, 72, 73.9 Exod. xii. 3, 14.- -1 Isa. xlix. 7; 1 Cor. i. 9; xxiii. 33 ; chap. xii. 30; Judg. viii. 27; Psa. cvi. 36.- Num. x. 13; 2 Cor. i. 18; 1 Thess. v. 24; 2 Thess. ii. 3; 2 Tim. ii. / xxxiii. 53. - Chap. xxxi. 6. ch Psa. cv. 5. í Chap. iv. 34; 13; Heb. xi. 11; 1 John i. 9. Exod. xx. 6; chap. v. 10; xxix. 3.- k Exod. xxiii. 28; Josh. xxiv. 12. 1 Num. xi. 20; Neh. i. 5; Dan. iv. 4.—Isa. lix. 18; Nah. i. 2. Chap: xiv. 9, 14, 42 ; xvi. 3; Josh. iii. 10. Chap. x. 17; Neh. i.5; xxxii. 35. Lév. xxvi. 3 ; chap. xxviii. 1.-w Heb. because. iv. 14; ix. 32.—Exodus xxiii. 29, 30.—__

Heb. pluck off * Psa. cv. 8, 9; Luke. j. 55, 72, 73. -y John xiv. 21. Chap. 1 P Heb. before thy face ; ver. 2.- - 7 Josh. x. 24, 25, 42 ; xii. I, &c. xxviii. 4.--a Exod. xxiii. 26, &c.—Exod. ix. 14; xv. 26; Exod. xvii. 14 ; chap. ix. 14 ; xxv. 19; xxix. 20.- Chap. xi. chap. xxviii. 27, 60,

25; Josh. i. 5 ; x. 8; xxiii. 9.

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words as they stand in the Septuagint are quoted by Verse 12., The Lord-shall keep unto thee the covethe apostle, 1 Pet. ii. 9.

nanl] So we find their eontinuance in the state of fa. Verse 8. But because the Lord loved you] It was vour was to depend on their faithfulness to the grace no good in them that induced God, to choose them at of God. If they should rebel, though God had chosen this time to be his peculiar people : he had his reasons, them through his love, yet he would cast them off in his but these sprang from his infinite goodness. He in- justice. The elect, we see, may become unfaithful, and tended to make a full discovery of his goodness to the so become reprobates. So it happened to 24,000 of world, and this must have a commencement in some them, whose carcasses fell in the wilderness because they particular place, and among some people. He chose had sinned; yet these were of the elect that came out that time, and he chose the Jewish people ; but not of Egypt. Let him that standeth take heed lest he fall. because of their goodness or holiness.

Verse 22. Put out those nations-by little and lito

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Obedience enforced by
DEUTERONOMY.

God's past mercies. man be able to stand before it is an abomination to the LORD A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. thee, until thou have destroyed thy God.

An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat. them.

26 Neither shalt thou bring an 25 The graven images of their gods shall abomination into thine house, lest thou be a ye burn with fire: thou u shalt not desire the cursed thing like it: but thou shalt utterly silver or gold that is on them, nor take it detest it, and thou shalt utterly abhor it ; : for unto thee, lest thou be "snared therein: for it is a cursed thing.

W

"Ver. 5; Exod. xxxii. 20; chap. xii. 3; 1 Chron. xiv. 12.

" Josh. vii. 1,21; 2 Mac. xii. 40.

Judg. viii. 27; Zeph. i. 3.- Chap. xvii. 1.

Lev. xxvi. 28; chap. xin. 17 ; Josh. vi. 17, 18; vii. I.

tle] The Israelites were not as yet sufficiently nume- Verse 25. Thou shalt not desire the silver or gold rous to fill the whole land occupied by the seven na- that is on them) Some of the ancient idols were plated tions mentioned ver. 1. And as wild and ferocious over with gold, and God saw that the value of the animals might be expected to multiply where either metal and the excellence of the workmanship might there are no inhabitants, or the place is but thinly be an inducement for the Israelites to preserve them; peopled, therefore God tells them that, though at pre- and this might lead, remotely at least, to idolatry. sent, by force of arms, they might be able to expel As the idols were accursed, all those who had them, them, it would be impolitic so to do, lest the beasts of or any thing appertaining to them, were accursed also, the field should multiply upon them.

ver. 26.

CHAPTER VIII.

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An exhortation to obedience from a consideration of God's past mercies, 1, 2. Man is not to live by bread

only, but by every word of God, 3. How God provided for them in the wilderness, 4. The Lord chastened them that they might be obedient, 5, 6. A description of the land into which they were going, 7–9. Cautions lest they should forget God in their prosperity, 10–16, and lest they should attribute that prosperity to themselves, and not to God, 17, 18. The terrible judgments that shall fall upon them, should they prove unfaithful, 19, 20, 8. M: 2453: ALL the commandments which thou wouldest keep his commandAn. Ex. Isr. 40. I command thee this day ments, or no.

An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat.

# shall ye observe to do, that ye 3 And he humbled thee, and may live, and multiply, and go in and possesse suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with the land which the Lord sware unto your manna, which thou knewest not, neither did fathers.

thy fathers know ; that he might make thee 2 And thou shalt remember all the way which know that man doth 5 not live by bread only, the LORD thy God bled thee these forty years in but by every word that proceedeth out of the the wilderness, to humble thee, and < to prove mouth of the Lord doth man live. thee, d to know what was in thine heart, whether 4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee,

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Chap. iv. 1; v. 32, 33 ; vi. 1, 2, 3. xxix. 5 ; Psa. cxxxvi. 16; Amos ii. 16. xiii. 3.

6 Chap. i. 3 ; i. 7; d 2 Chron. xxxii. 31; John ii. 25. e Exodus xvi. 2, 3. -c Exod. xvi. 4; chap. Exod. xvi. 12, 14,35. Psa. eiv, 29; Matr. iv. 4; Luke iv. 4.

Chap. xxix. 5; Neh. ix. 21.

wards you.

NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.

Verse 4. Thy raiment waxed not old, fc.) The Verse 2. Thou shalt remember all the way) The plain meaning of this much-tortured text appears to various dealings of God with you ; the dangers and me to be this : “God so amply provided for them all difficulties to which ye were exposed, and from which the necessaries of life, that they never were obliged God delivered you ; together with the various miracles to wear tattered garments, nor were their feet injured which he wrought for you, and his longsuffering to- for lack of shoes or sandals.” If they had carvers,

engravers, silversmiths, and jewellers among them, as Verse 3. He--suffered thee to hunger, and fed plainly appears from the account we have of the taberthee) Gód never permits any tribulation to befall his nacle and its utensils, is it to be wondered at if they followers, which he does not design to turn to their also had habit and sandal makers, &c., &c., as we are advantage. When he permits us to hunger, it is that certain they had weavers, embroiderers, and such like? his mercy may be the more observable in providing us And the traffic which we may suppose they carried on with the necessaries of life. Privations, in the way of with the Moabites, or with travelling hordes of Araprovidence, are the forerunners of mercy and goodness bians, doubtless supplied them with the materials ; abundant.

though, as they had abundance of sheep and neat cat

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Privileges enjoyed by the

CHAP. VIII.

Israelites in the desert. A. M. 2553. neither did thy foot swell, these 7 For the LORD thy God bring- A. M. 2553. B. C. 1451.

B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. forty years.

eth thee into a good land, la An. Ex. Isr

. 40.

Sebat. 5 i Thou shalt also consider in land of brooks of water, of founthine heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, tains and depths that spring out of valleys so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee.

and hills; 6 Therefore thou shalt keep the command- 8 A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, ments of the LORD thy God, & to walk in his and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land mof ways, and to fear him.

oil olive, and honey; i 2 Sam. vii. 14; Psa. lxxxix. 32 ; Prov. iii. 12; Heb. xii. 5, 6; Chap. v. 33.- Chap. xi. 10, 11, 12. m Heb. of oliveRev. ii. 19.

tree of oil. tle, they must have had much of the materials within decrease, gives the peasants an opportunity of sowing themselves. It is generally supposed that God, by a the lands, sainfoin is one of the first things sown, and miracle, preserved their clothes from wearing out : one of the most profitable. As the Upper Egypt is but if this sense be admitted, it will require, not one hotter than the Lower, and the inundation there goes miracle, but a chain of the most successive and asto- sooner off the lands, the sainfoin appears there first. nishing miracles ever wrought, to account for the The knowledge they have of this causes them to send thing; for as there were not less than 600,000 males their bee-hives from all parts of Egypt, that the bees born in the wilderness, it would imply, that the clothes may enjoy, as soon as may be, the richness of the of the infant grew up with the inerease of his body to flowers, which grow in this part of the country sooner manhood, which would require a miracle to be continu- than in any other district of the kingdom. The hives, ally wrought on every thread, and on every particle of upon their arrival at the farther end of Egypt, are matter of which that thread was composed. And this placed one upon another in the form of pyramids, in is not all; it would imply that the clothes of the pa- boats prepared for their reception, after having been rent became miraculously lessened to fit the body of numbered by the people who place them in the boats. the child, with whose growth they were again to The bees feed in the fields there for some days : afterstretch and grow, &c. No such miraculous interfe- wards, when it is believed they have nearly collected rence was necessary.

the honey and wax, which were to be found for two Verse 8. A land of wheat, 8c.) On the subject of or three leagues round, they cause the boats to go this verse I shall introduce the following remarks, down the stream, two or three leagues lower, and which I find in Mr. Harmer's Observations on the leave them there, in like manner, such a proportion Fertility of the Land of Judea, vol. iii., p. 243. of time as they think to be necessary for the gather

Hasselquist tells us that he ate olives at Joppa ing up the riches of that canton. · At length, about the (upon his first arrival in the Holy. Land) which were beginning of February, after having gone the whole said to grow on the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem; length of Egypt, they arrive at the sea, from whence and that, independently of their oiliness, they were of they are conducted, each of them, to their usual place the best kind he had tasted in the Levant. As olives of abode ; for they take care to set down exactly, in a are frequently eaten in their repasts, the delicacy of register, each district from whence the hives were this fruit in Judea ought not to be forgotten ; and the carried in the beginning of the season, their number oil that is gotten from these trees much less, because and the names of the persons that sent them, as well still more often made use of. In the progress of his as the number of the boats, where they are ranged journey he found several fine vales, abounding with according to the places they are brought from. What olive trees. He saw also olive trees in Galilee; but is astonishing in this affair is, that with the greatest none farther, he says, than the mountain where it is fidelity of memory that can be imagined, each bee finds supposed our Lord preached his sermon.

its own hive, and never makes any mistake. That The fig trees in the neighbourhood of Joppa, Has- which is still more amazing to me is, that the Egypselquist goes on to inform us, were as beautiful as any tians of old should be so attentive to all the advantahe had seen in the Levant.

ges deducible from the situation of their country ; that “The reason why pomegranates are distinctly men- after having observed that all things came to maturity tioned, in this description of the productions of the land sooner in Upper Egypt, and much later in Lower, of promise, may be their great usefulness in forming which made a difference of above six weeks between cooling drinks, for they are used among the Asiaties the two extremities of their country, they thought of nearly, in the same way that we use lemons ; see collecting the wax and the honey so as to lose none vol. ii., 145.

of them, and hit upon this ingenious method of making Honey is used in large quantities in these coun- the bees do it successively, according to the blossomtries; and Egypt was celebrated for the assiduous ing of the flowers, and the arrangement of nature.'” care with which the people there managed their bees. If this solicitude were as ancient as the dwelling Maillet's account of it is very amusing. There are,' of Israel in Egypt, they must have been anxious to says he, abundance of bees in that country; and a know whether honey, about which they took such care singular manner of feeding them, introduced by the in Egypt, was plentiful in the land of promise ; and Egyptians -of ancient times, still continues there. they must have been pleased to have been assured it Towards the end of October, when the Nile, upon its was, It continues to be produced there in large

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