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Moses reminds the people of the

CHAP. IV. Lord's mercies and judgments. command you, neither shall ye 9 Only take heed to thyself, An. Ex. Isr. 40. diminish aught from it, that ye and 5 keep thy“ soul diligently, An. Ex. Isr. 40.

may keep the commandments lest thou forget the things which of the LORD your God which I command you. thine eyes have seen, and lest they depart

3 Your eyes have seen what the Lord did from thy heart all the days of thy life : but because of Baal-peor : for all the men that I teach them thy sons, and thy sons' sons ; followed Baal-peor, the LORD thy God hath 10 Specially the day that thou stoodest destroyed them from among you.',

before the LORD thy God in Horeb, when the 4 But

уе.

that did cleave unto the LORD LORD said unto me, Gather me the people your God are alive every one of yourthis day. together, and I will make them hear my

5 Behold, I have taught you statutes and words, that they may learn to -fear' me all the judgments, even as the LORD my God com- days that they shall live upon the earth, and manded me, that ye should do so in the land that they may teach their children. whither ye go to possess it.

11 And ye çame near and stood under the 6 Keep therefore and do them ; for this is mountain and the mountain burned with your wisdom and your understanding in the fire unto the m midst of heaven, with darkness, sight of the nations, which shall hear all these clouds, and thick darkness. statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is 12 " And the LORD spake unto you out of a wise and understanding people.

the midst of the fire: 0

ye

heard the voice of 7 For e what nation is there so great, who the words, but saw no similitude; Ponly a ye hath ? God so nigh unto them, as the LORD heard a voice.. our God is in all things that we call upon 13 And he declared unto you his covehim for?

nant, which -he commanded you to perform, 8 And what nation is there so great, that even s ten commandments; and the wrote hath statutes and judgments so righteous as them upon two tables of stone. all this law, which I set before you this day? 14 And w.the LORD commanded me at that

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Num. xxv. 4, &c.; Josh. xxv. 17; Psa. cvi. 28, 29.- d Job Heb. xii. 18, 19. - Exod. xix. 18; chap. v. 23. Heb, xxvi. 28; Psa. xix. ñ ; cxi. 10; Prov. i. 7.2 Sam. vii. 23. heart. Chap v. 4, 22. — Ver. 33, 36. Exod. xx. 22; Psa. xlvi. l; cxlv. 18; cxlviii. 14; Isa. lv. 6.- - Prov. iv. 23. (1 Kings xix. 12.- -4 Heb, save a vnice. - Chap. ix. 9, 11.

Prov. iii. 1, 3,; iv. 21. i Gen. xviii. 19.; chap: vi. 7 ; xi. 19 *Exod. xxxiv. 28.- - Exod. xxiv. 12; xxxi. 18.- Exodus Psa. Ixxviii. .5,6 ; Eph. vi. 4,- * Exod. xix. 0, 16; XX. 18; xxi. l; chap. xxii., xxiii.

take away any larger portion of this word, but ye shall man forget the work of God on his soul, he loses that not take one jol or tittle from the Law; it is that word work. of God that abideth for ever.

1

Lest they depart from thy heart] It is not suffiVerse 6. Keep-and do them; for this is your wis- cient to lay up Divine things in the memory, they must dom] There was no mode of worship at this time on be laid up in the heart. Thy word have I hidden in the face of the earth that was not wicked, obscene, my heart, -says David, that' I might not sin against puerile, foolish, or ridiculous, except that established thee. The life of God in the soul of man can alone by God himself among the Israelites. And every part preserve the soul to life everlasting; and this grace of this, taken in its connection and reference, may be must be retained all the days of our life. When Adam truly called a wise and reasonable service...

fell, his condition was not melibrated by the reflection The nationsand say, Surely this great nation is that he had been once in paradise ; nor does it avail a wise and understanding people.) Almost all the Satan now that he was once an angel of light. Those nations in the earth showed that they had formed this who let the grace of God. depart from their hearts, opinion of the Jews, by borrowing from them the lose that grace; and those who lose the grace, fall principal part of their civil code. Take away what from the grace; and as some have fallen and risen no Asia and Europe, whether ancient or modern, have more, so may others; therefore, take heed to thyself, borrowed from the Mosaic laws, and you leave little, &c.. Were it impossible for men finally to fall from behind that can be called excellent.

the grace of God, exhortations of this kind had never Verse 9. Only take heed to thyself] Be circum- been given, because they would have been unnecesspect and watchful.

sary, and God never does an unnecessary thing. Keep thy soul diligently) Be mindful of thy eternal But teach them thy sons) If a man know the worth interests. Whatever becomes of the body, take care of his own soul, he will feel the importance of the salof the soul.

vation of the souls of his family. Those who neglect Lest thou forget] God does his works that they family religión, neglect personal religion ; if more may be had in everlasting remembrance ; and he that attention were paid to the former, even among those forgets them, forgets his own mercies. Besides, if a called religious people, we should soon have a better

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Idolatry prohibited,

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and obedience enjoined. A. M. 2553. time to teach you statutes and 20 But the LORD hath taken

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An. Ex. Isr. 40. judgments, that ye might do them you, and brought you forth out An. Ex. Isr. 40.

in the land whither ye go over of the iron furnace, even out of to possess it.

Egypt, * to be unto him a people of inheritance, - 15. Take ye therefore good heed unto as ye are this day. yourselves; for ye saw no manner of » simili- 21 Furthermore the Lord was angry with tude on the day that the LORD spake unto me for your sakes, and sware that I should you

in Horeb out of the midst of the fire : not go over Jordan, and that I should not go 16 Lest ye * corrupt yourselves, and y make in unto that good-land, which the LORD thy you a' graven image, the similitude of any God giveth thee for an inheritance : figure, the likeness of male or female, 22. But h I must die in this land, i I must

.17 The likeness of any beast that is on the not go over Jordan :- but shall
earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that possess that good land:
flieth in the air,

23. Take heed unto yourselves, "lest ye

for 18 The' likeness of any thing that creepeth get the covenant of the LORD your God, on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is which he made with you, and make you a in the waters beneath the earth :

gràven image, or the likeness of any thing, 19 And lest thou • lift up thine eyes unto which the Lord thy God hath forbidden thee. heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the 24 For the LORD thy God is a consuming moon, and the stars, even all the host of fire, even a jealous God." heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, 25 When thou shalt beget children, and and serve them, which the LORD thy God children's children, and ye shall have rehath : divided unto all nations under the whole mained long in the land, and P shall corrupt heaven,

yourselves, and make a graven image, or the Joshua xxiii. 11. - -w Isa. xl. 18.** Exodus xxxii, 7. & Num. xx. 12; chap. i. 37; 11. 26. ch Soe 2 Pet. 1. 13, 14, » Exodus XX. 4. 5; ver. 23 ; 'chap. v. 8.- - Rom. .i. 23. 15. -i Chap. iii. 27. -k Chap. ni. 25.- Ver. 9. <m Ver. a Chap. xvii. 3; Job xxxi. 26, 27.- Gen. ii. 1; 2 Kings 16; Exod. xx. 4,5.-- un Exod. xxiv. 17; chap. ix. 3; Isa. xxxm. xvii. 16; xxi. 3. c Rom. i. 25.---. Or, imparted.- Le 1 Kings 14; Heb. xii. 29.- Exod. xx. 5; chap. vi. 15; Isa. xlii. 8. .viii. 51; Jer. xi. 4. - Exod. xix, 5; chap. ix. 29; xxxii. 9. p Ver. 16.

- 12 state of civil society. On family religion God lays not the knowledge of the true God were led to conmuch stress; and no head of a family can neglect it sider the sun, moon, planets, and stars, as not only selfwithout endangering the final salvation of his own soul. existing, but the authors of all the blessings possèssed See the note at the conclusion of Gen. xviii.; and that by mankind. The knowledge of a rational system of at the end of Gen. xix., and the note on chap. vi. 7. astronomy served to destroy this superstition ; and

Verse 15. Yè saw no manner of similitude] How- very little of it 'remains now in the world, except soever. God chose to appear or manifest himself, he among a few Christian' and, Mohammedan astrologers; took care never to assume any describable form. He those miserable sinners who endeavour, as much as would have no image worship, because he is a SPIRIT, possible, to revive the old idolatry, while vainly proand they who worship him must worship him in Spirit fessing to believe in the true God! · Nor is it to be and in truth. These outward things tend to draw the doubted that God will proceed with them as he has mind out of itself, and diffuse it on sensible, if not sen- done of old with the worshippers of the host of heasual, objects; and thus spiritual worship is prevented, ven. Sound philosophy is next in importance to and the Holy Ghost grieved. Persons acting in this sound divinity; and next to the study of the work of way can never know much of the religion of the heart, grace is that of the operations of God in nature ; for

Verse 16. The likeness of male or female] Such as these visible things make known his eternal power and Baal-peor and the Roman Priapus, Ashtaroth or "Aš- Godhead. tarte, and the Greek and Roman Venus ; after whom Verse 20. Out of the iron furnace] From this menmost nations of the world literally went a whoring. Lion of the word iron furnace there can be little doubt. ,

Verse 17. The likeness of any beast, fc.] Such as that the Israelites were employed in Egypt in the the Egyptian god 4pis, who was worshipped under most laborious works of metallurgy. - Digging, smeltthe form of a white bull; the ibis and hawk, among ing, and forging of iron, in so hot a climate must have the Fowls, had also Divine honours paid to them; been oppressive works indeed. serpents and the crocodile among REPTILES ;; besides Verse 21. The Lord was angry with me) And if monkeys, dogs, cats, the scarabeus, leeks, and onions! with me, so as to debar me from entering into the proSce this explained at large, Exod. xx. 4.

mised land, can you think to escape if guilty of greater Verse 19. When thou seest the sun, and the moon, provocations? and the stars] The worship of the heavenly bodies Verse 24. Thy God is a consuming fire] They had was the oldest species of idolatry. Those who had seen him on the mount as an unconsuming fire, while

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The disobedient are threatened,

CHAP. IV.

and the penitent encouraged. likeness of any thing, and I shall seek him with all thy heart and An. Ex. Isr. 40. do evil in the sight of the Lord with all thy soul. · thy God, to provoke him to anger :

30 When thou art in tribulation, 26 "I call heaven and earth, to witness and all these things w are come upon thee, against you this day, that ye shall soon ut- * even in the latter days, if thou 1. turn to the terly perish from off the land whereunto ye Lord thy God, and shalt be obedient unto his go over Jordan to possess it; ye 'shall not voice; prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be 31 (For the LORD thy God is ? a merciful destroyed.

God ;) he will not forsake thee, neither de 27 And the Lord $ shall scatter you among stroy thee, nor forget the covenant of thy the nations, and ye

shall be left few in num- fathers which he sware unto them. ber among the heathen, whither the LORD 32 For a ask now of the days that are past,

which were before thee, since the day that 28 And + there ye shall serve gods, the work God created man upon the earth, and ask of men's hands, wood and stone, '" which from the one side of heaven unto the other, neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell. whether there hath been any such thing as

29 But if from thence thou shalt seek the this great thing is, or hath been heard like it? LORD thy God, thou shalt find him, if thou 33.- Did ever people hear the voice of God

shall lead you

9 2 Kings xvii. 17, &c.- -- Ch. xxx: 18, 19; Isa. i. 2; Mic. Jer. xxix. 12, 13, 14.- -" Heb. have found thee; Exod. xviir: 8; vi. 2.- Lev. xxvi. 33; chapter xxviii. 62, 64; Neh. i 8. chap. xxxi. 17. A Gen. xlix. l; chap. xxxi. 29; Jer. xxiii. 20;

Chap. xxviii. 64; 1 Sam. xxvi. 19; Jer. xvi. 13. - Psa. cxv. Hos. ii. 5.-y Joel ii. 12. -2 2 Chron. xxx. 9; Neh. ix. 31 ; 4, 5; cxxxv. 15, 16; Isa. xliv. 9; xlvi. 7.—Lev. xxvi. 39, Psa. cxvi. 5; Jonah ivi 2. -a Job viii. 8. Lb Matt. xxiv. 31. 40; chrap. xxx. 1, 2, 3 ; 2 Chron. xv. 4; Neh. i. 9; Isa. lv. 6,7; Exod. xxiv. 11; xxxul. 20; chap. v. 24, 26,

appearing to Moses, and giving the law, and they had who were carried away captive by the Assyrians, and seen him as a consuming fire in the case of Korah, of whose residence no man at present knows any thing Dathan, . Abiram, and their company.. They had, with certainty. That they still exist there can be. no therefore, every good to expect from his approbation, doubt ; but they are now, most probably, so completely and every evil to dread fror his displeasure.

incorporated with the idolaters among whom they dwell, Verse 26. I call heaven and earth to witness against as to be no longer distinguishable : yet God can gather you] A most solemn method of adjuration, in use them. among all nations in the world. So Virgil, Æn., lib. Verse 29. But if from thence thou shalt seek the xii., ver. 176, &c.

Lord] God is longsuffering, and of tender mercy ; Tum pius Æneas stricto şic ense precatur :

and waits, ever ready, to receive a backsliding soul Esto nunc Sol testis et hæc mihi terra vocanti

when it returns to him. Is not this promise left on Fontesque flaviosque voco, quæque ætheris alti

récord for the encouragement and salvation of lost

Israel? Relligio, et quæ cæruleo sunt numina ponto, &c.

Verse 30. When thou drt in tribulation in the lat“ Then the great Trojan prince unsheathed his sword, ter days] Are not these the times spoken of?. And And thus, with lifted hands, the gods adored :

is there not still hope for Israel ? Could we see them Thou land for which I wage this war, and thou become zealous for their own law and religious obGreat source of day, be witness to my-vow! servances-could we see them humble themselves beAlmighty king of heaven and queen of-air, fore the God of - Jacobcould we see them conduct Propitious now and reconciled by prayer,— their public worship with any tolerable decency and Ye springs, ye floods, ye various powers who lie decorum—could we see them zealous to avoid every Beneath the deep, or tread the golden sky, moral evil, inquiring the road to Zion, with their faces Hear and ATTEST!”

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thitherward"; then might we hope that the redemption God and man being called upon to bear testimony to of Israel was at hand : but alas! there is not the most the truth of what was spoken, that if there was any distant evidence of any thing of the-kind, except in flaw.or insincerity, it might be detected; and if any a very few solitary instances. They are, perhaps, in crime, it might not go unpunished. Such appeals to the present day, more lost to every sacred principle of God, for such purposes, show at once both the origin their own institutions than they have ever been since and use of oaths. See the note on chap. vi. 13. their return from the Babylonish captivity. By whom

Verse 27. The Lord shall scatter you among the shall Jacob arise? for in this sense he is smalldeeply nations] This was amply verified in their different fallen, and greatly degraded. captivities and dispersions.

Verse 33.. Did ever people hear the voice of God] It Verse 28. There ye shall serve gods-wood and seems to have been a general belief that if God apstone) This was also true of the Israelites, not only peared to men, it was for the purpose of destroying in their captivities, but also in their own land. And them; and indeed most of the extraordinary maniit may now be literally the case with the ten tribes | festations of God were in the way of judgment; but

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The distinguished privileges
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of the Israelites. speaking out of the midst of thou heardest his words out of An. Ex. Isr. 40. the fire, as thou hast heard, and the midst of the fire. live?

37 And because he loved thy 34 Or hath God assayed to go and take fathers, therefore he chose their seed after him a nation from the midst of another nation, them, and m brought thee out in his sight, d by temptations, by signs, and by, wonders, with his mighty power, out of Egypt ; and by war, and ' by a mighty hand, and s by 38 - To drive out nations from before thee a stretched-out arm, hand by great terrors, greater and mightier than thou art; to bring according to all that the Lord your God did thee in, to give thee their land for an inheritfor you in Egypt before your eyes?

ance, as it is this day. 35 Unto thee it was showed, that thou 39 Know therefore this day, and consider it mightest know that the Lord he is God: in thine heart, that, the Lord he is God in i there is none else beside him.

heaven above, and upon the earth beneath : 36 k Out of heaven be made thee-to hear there is none else. his voice, that he might instruct thee : and 40 p Thou shalt keep therefore his statutes upon earth he showed thee his great fire; and and his commandments, which I command thee

Chap. vii. 19; xxix. 3. —e Exod. vii. 3. Exod. xiii. 3. * Exod. xix. 9, 19; xx. 18, 22; xxix. 16; Heb. xi. 18. & Exod. vi. 6. Chap. xxvi. 8; xxxiv. 12.- Chap. xxxii

. 'Chap. 6. 15.

m Exod. xii. 3, 9, 14.- –n Chap. vi. 1; ix.1, . 39; 1 Sam. ii. 2; Isa. xlv, 5, 18, 22; Mark xii. 29, 32.

4, 5. Lo Ver. 35; Josh. ii. 11. -P Lev. xxii. 31.

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here it was different;'God did appear in a sovereign is used, Zech. iii.-8.,' joshua, the high priest, and his and extraordinary manner ; but it was for the deliver-companions were noia vix anshey mophelh, typical ánce and support of the people.: 1. They heard his men, raised up by God as types of Christ, and proofs voice speaking with them in a distinct, articulate man- that God would bring his servant The BRANCH. All

2. They saw.the fire, the symbol of his presence, the dealings of God with this people, and even the the appearances of which demonstrated it to be super- people themselves, were types-present significators natural. - 3. Notwithstanding God appeared so terrible, of distant facts and future occurrences., yet no person was destroyed, for he came, not; to de- 4. War, nonho milchamah, hostile engagements; stroy, but to save,

such as those with the Amalekites, the Amorites, and Verse 34. From the midst of another nation] This the Bashanites, in which the hand of God was seen, was a most extraordinary thing, that a whole people, rather than the hand of man. .consisting of upwards of 600,000 effective men, be- -5. A MIGHTY HAND, 7pin ?' yad chazakah ; one sides women and children, should, without striking.a that is strong to deal its blows, irresistible in its opeblow, be brought out of the midst of a very powerful rations, and grasps its enemies hard, so that they cannation, to the political welfare of which their services not escape, and protects its friends so powerfully that were so essential; that they should be brought out in they cannot be injured. Neither stratagem nor policy so open and public a manner ; that the sea itself-should was used in this business, but the openly displayed be supernaturally divided to afford this mighty-host a power of God. passage ; and that, in a desert útterly unfriendly to 6. A STRETCHED-OUT ABM, 710 pri zeroa netuyah; human life, they should be sustained for forty years fa series of almighty operations, following each other These were such instances of the almighty power and in quick and astonishing succession. Let it be noted goodness of God as never could be forgotten. . that in the Scriptures, I. The finger of God denotes

In this verse Moses enumerates seven different means any manifestation of the Divine power, where effects used by the Almighty in effecting Israel's deliverance. are produced beyond the power of art or nature.

1. Temptations, no? massoth, from, 7Dj nasah, to 2. The hand of God signifies the same power, but put try or prove; the miracles which God wrought to try forth in a more signal manner. 3. The arm of God, the faith and prove the obedience of the children of the Divine omnipotence manifested in the most stupenIsrael.

dous miracles. 4. The arm of God stretched out, this 2. Signs, nnx othoth, from anx athah, to come near; same, omnipotence exerted in a continuation of stupensuch signs as God. gave them of his continual presence dous miracles, both in the way of judgment and mercy. and especial providence, particularly the pillar of cloud In this latter sense it appears to be taken in the text : and pillar of fire, keeping near to them night and day, the judgments were poured out on the Egyptians ; the and always directing their journeys, showing them mercies wr ht" in favour of the Israelites." when and where to pitch their tents, &c., &c..

7: GREAT TERRORS, D:57) D'xin moraim gedolim;3. Wonders, D'noin mophethim, from no' yaphath, such terror, dismay, and consternation as were proto persuade ; persuasive facts and events, says Park- duced by the ten plagues, to which probably the inhurst, whether strictly miraculous, and exceeding the spired penman here alludes : or, as the Septuagint has powers of nature, as Exod. vii. 9 ; xi. 9, 10; or not, it, ev opapaoiv Meyadors, with great or portentous as Isa. xx. 3; Ezek. xii. 6, 11. It probably means sights; such as that when God looked out of the typical representations : in this signification the word | cloud upon the Egyptians, and their chariot wheels

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God's covenant with

CHAP. V.

the people in Horeb. this day, " that it may go well | tutes, and the judgments, which An. Ex. Isr. 40. with thee, and with thy children Moses spake unto the children An. Ex. Isr. 40.

Sebat. after thee, and that thou mayest of Israel, after they came forth prolong thy days upon the earth, which the out of Egypt, LORD thy God giveth thee, for ever.

46 On this side Jordan, u in the valley over 41 Then Moses. I severed three cities on against Beth-peor, in the land of Sihon king this side Jordan, toward the sunrising; of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon, whom

42 That the slayer might flee thither, Moses and the children of Israel smote, after
which should kill his neighbour unawares, they were come forth out of Egypt:
and hated him not in times past; and that 47 And they possessed bis- land, and the
fleeing unto one of these cities he might | land w of Og king of Bashan, two kings of
live :

the Amorites, which were on this side Jordan,
43 Namely, · Bezer in the wilderness, in toward the sunrising ;.
the plain country of the Reubenites; and 48 - From Aroer, whích is by the bank of
Ramoth in Gilead, of the Gadites; and Golan the river Arnon, even unto Mount Sion,
in Bashan, of the Manassites.

which is į Hermon. 44 And this is the law which Moses set 49 And all the plain on this side Jordan, before the children of Israel :

eastward, even unto the sea of the plain, un.45 These are the testimonies, and the sta- der the ? springs of Pisgah.

9 Chap. v. 16; vi. 3,. 18; xii. 25, 28 ; xxii. 7; Eph. vi. 3. Num. xxi. 24; chap. i. 4. Num. xxi. 35; chap. iii. 3, 4. Num. xxxv. 6, 14.- Chap. xix. 4.- Josh. xx. 8.- u Chap. *Chap. ii. 36 ; ii. 12.- Chap. iii. 9; Psa. cxxxiii. 3

Chap. iii. 17. were taken off, Exod. xiv, 24, 25. More awful dis- of refuge are generally understood to be types of the plays of God's judgments, power, and might, were salvation provided by Christ for sinners; so their never witnessed by man.

names have been thought to express some attribute Verse 41. Then Moses severed three cities] See of the Redeemer of mankind. See' them explained the law relative to the cities of refuge explained Josh, xx. 7, 8. Num. XXXV. 9, &c.

I SUPPOSE the last nine verses of this chapter to · Verse 43. Bezer in the wilderness] “ As the cities have been added by either Joshua or Ezra.

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CHAPTER V.
God's covenant with the people in Horeb, 1-4: Moses the mediator of it, 5. A repetition of the ten com-

mandments, 6-21; which God wrote on two tables of stone, 22. The people are filled with dread at the
terrible majesty of God, 23-26; and beseech Moses to be their mediator, 27. The Lord admits of their
request, 28; and deplores their ungodliness, 29. They are exhorted to obedience, that they may be pre-
served in the possession of the promised land, 30–33.
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O Israel, the statutes and judg- with us, 'even us, who are all of
ments which I speak in your ears this, dày, that us here alive this day.
ye may learn them, and : keep, and do them: 4. The LORD talked with you face to face,

2 b. The LORD our God made a covenant in the mount, out of the midst of the fire, with us in Horeb.

5.( I stood between the LORD and you at a Heb. keep to do them.- -b Exod. xix. 5 ;-chap. iv. 23.- See Exod. xix. 9, 19; xx. 22 ; chap. iv. 33, 36 ; xxxiv. 10.- - Exod. Matt. xiii. 17; Heb. viii. 9.

XX. 21 ; Gal. iñ. 19.
NOTES ON CHAP. V.

believing and upright heart. 5. That they might do
Verse 1. And Moses called all Israel, and said them-obey the whole will of God, taking his word
Hear, &c.] 1. God speaks to the people. 2. The for the invariable rule of their conduct: Should not
people are called to hear what God speaks. 3. To all these points be kept in view by every Christian
learn what they heard, that they may be thoroughly assembly?
instructed in the will of God. 4. To keep God's tes- Verse 3. The Lord made not this covenant with our
timonies ever in mind, and to treasure them up in a) fathers (only) but with us (also.)

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