תמונות בעמוד




Year before the common Year of Christ, 1451. —Julian Period, 3263.-Cycle of the Sun, 10: Dominical

Letter, B. --Cycle of the Moon, 10.-—Indiction, 15.-Creation from Tisri or September, 2553.

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CHAPTER I. Introduction to the book, 1, 2. Moses addresses the people in the fortiéth year after the exodus from Egypt,

3-5; and shows how God had spoken to them in Horeb, and the directions he gave them, 6–8. · How, at the commandment of the Lord, he had appointed officers, judges, fc., to share the government with him, 9-18. Of their travels in the terrible wilderness, 19–21. The people's request to have spies sent to search out the land, 22-25. Of their murmuring and rebellion when they heard the report of the spies, 26–28. How Moses encouraged them, 29-33. The displeasure of the Lord against them because of their murmurings, and his purpose to exclude them from the good land, and give it to their children only, 34–40. , How they repented, and yet, without the authority of God, went against the Amoritęs, by whom they were defeated, 41-44. Their return to Kadesh, where they abode many days, 45, 46.

THESE be the words 'which 2 (There are eleven days' jour- A. M. 2553. B. 0. 1451.

B. C. 145), An. Ex. Isr. 40. Moses spake unto all Israel ney from Horeb by the way. An. Ex. Isr. 40. Sebat.

a on this side Jordan in the wil- 'of - Mount Seir dunto Kadeshderness, in the plain over against b the Red barnea.)

Sea, between. Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, 3 And it čame to pass in the fortieth year, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab.

in the eleventh month, on the first day of the

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a Josh. ix. 1, 10; xxii. 4, 7.

Or, Zuph.

- Num. xi. 35. xxxiii. 17, 18. - Num. xiij. 26; ch. ix. 23.-- Num. xxxii. 38. NOTES ON CHAP. I.

place; but see the note from Lightfoot, Num. XX., at Verse 1. These be the words which Moses spake] the end. The five first verses of this chapter contain the intro- Paran) . This could not have been the Paran which duction to the rest of the book : they do not appear to was contiguous to the Red Sea, and not far from Mount be the work of Moses, but were added probably, either Horeb; for the place here mentioned lay on the very by Joshua or Ezra.

borders of the promised land, at a vast distance from ! On this side Jordan} Taya beeber, at the passage the former. of Jordan, i. e., near or opposite to the place where Dizahab.). The word should be separated, as it is the Israelites passed over after the death of Moses. in the Hebrew, 3771 na Di Zahab. As Zahab signifies Though 73y eber is used to signify both on this side gold, the Septuagint have translated it ta xpuola, the and on the other side, and the connection in which it gold mines; and the Vulgate ubi aurum est plurimum, stands can only determine the meaning ; yet here it where there is much gold. It is more likely to be signifies neither, but simply the place or ford where the name of a placę. the Israelites passed over Jordan.

Verse 2. There are eleven days' journey) The In the plain] That is, of Moab; over against the Red Israelites, were eleven days in going from Horeb to Sea-not the Red Sea, for they were now farther from Kadesh-barnea, where they were near the verge of it than they had yet been : the word sea is not in the the promised land; after which they were thirty-eight text, and the word 710 suph, which we render red, does years wandering up and down in the vicinity of this not signify the Red Sea, unless joined with O' yam, place, not being permitted, because of their rebellions, sea ; here it must necessarily signify a place in or ad to enter into the promised test, though they were the joining to the plains of Moab. Ptolemy mentions a whole of that time within a few miles of the land of , people named Sophonites, that dwelt in Arabia Petræa, Canaan! and it is probable that they took their name from this Verse 3. The fortieth year] This was a melancholy

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Boundaries of the land to be DEUTERONOMY. possessed by the Israelites.
A. M. 2553. month, that Moses spake unto1.8 Behold, I have I set the land

B. .
An Ex. 1st. 40. the children of Israel, according before you go in and possess An. Ex. Ist. 40.

unto all that the Lord had given the land which the Lord sware him in commandment unto them ;

unto your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and 4. After he had slain Sihon the king of the Jacob, to give unto them and to their seed Amorites, which dwelt in Heshbon, and Og after them. the king of Bashan, which dielt at Astaroth - 9 And · I spake unto you at that time, say & in Edrei :

ing, I am not able to bear you myself alone. 5 On this side Jordan, in the land of Moab, 1.10 The LORD

10 The Lord your God hath multiplied you, began Moses to declare this law, saying, and, behold, o ye are this day as the stars of

6 The Lord our God spake unto us h in heaven for multitude. Horeb, saying, Yė have dwelt long enough. 11 (The Lord God of your fathers make in this mount :

you a thousand times so many more as ye are, 7 Turn you, and take your journey, and go and bless you, 9 as he hath promised you !) to the mount of the Amorites, and unto k all 12 How can I myself alone bear your cumthe places nigh thereunto, in the plain, in the brance, and your burden, and your strife! hills, and in the vale, and in the south, and 13 Take ' you wise men, and understandby the sea-side, to the land of the Canaanites, ing, and known among your tribés, and I will and unto Lebanon, unto the great river, the make them rulers over you. river Euphrafes.

14 And ye angwered me, and said, The thing i Numbers xxi. 24, 33.- 8 Num. xxi. 33; Joshua xu. 12. Exod. xviii, 18; Num. xi. 14. Lo Gen. xv. 5; chap. 1. 22; b Exod. ii. 1. -i See Exod. xix. 1 ;- Num. x. 11. Heb. all xxviii. 62.-__P2 Sam. xxiv. 3. Gen. xv.5; xxu. 17; nr. his neighbours.Heb. given.

m Genr. xii. 7;, xv. 18; xvii. 4; Exod. xxxü. 13. * 1 Kings iii. 8, 9.- See Exod. xii. 7, 8; xxvi. 4; xxviii. 13.

21: Num. xi, 16, 17.—Heb. give. year to the Hebrews in different respects; in the first to revelation, think it a'vain empty boast, because the month of this year Miriam died, Num. xx.; on the first stars, in their apprehension, amount to innumerable day of the fifth month Aaron died, Num. xxxiii. 38;. millions. Let us consider this subject. How many and about the conclusion of if, Moses himself died. in number are the stars which appear to the naked eye!

Verse 5. Began Moses to declare this law] Began, for it is by what appears to the naked eye we are to be Senin hoil, willingly undertook ; to declare, 1x3 beer, governed in this business, for God brought Abraham to make bare, clear, fc., fully to explain, this law. forth abroad, i. e.,. out of doors, and bade him look lo. See the conclusion of the preface."

wards heaven, not with a telescope, but with his naked Verse 6. Ye have dwell long enough, &c.] They' eyes, Gen. xv. 5. Now I shall: beg the objector to came to Sinai in the third month after their departure come forth abroad, and look up in the brightest and from Egypt, Exod. xix. 1, 2 ; and left it the twentieth most favourable night, and count the stars-he need of the second month of the second year, so it appears not be terrified at their abundance; the more they are, they had continued there nearly a whole year. the more he can count; and I shall pledge myself to

Verse 7. Go to the mouni of the Amoriles] On the find å male Israelite in the very last census taken of south of the land of Canaan, towards the Dead Sea. this people, Num. xxvf., for every star he finds in the

Land of the Canaanites] That is, Phænicia, the coun-whole upper hemisphere of heaven. The truth is, try of Sidon, and the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea only about 3,010 stars can be seen by the naked eye from the country of the Philisti to Mount Libamus. in both the northern and southern hemispheres; and The Canaanites and Phænicians are often confounded. the Israelites, independently of women and children,

The river Euphrates.] Thus Moses fixes the bounds were at the above time more than 600,000. And supof the land, to which on all quarters the territories of pose we even allow that, from the late discoveries of the Israelites might be extended, should the land of Dr. Herschel and others with telescopes which have Canaan, properly so called, be found insufficient för magnified between 35 and 36,000 times, there may be them. Their south border might extend to the mount 75 millions of stars visible by the help of such instruof the Amorites; their west to the borders of the ments, which is the highest calculation ever made, yet Mediterranean Sea ; their north to Lebanon; and their still the Divine word stands literally true: St. Matthew East border to the river Euphrates : and to this extent says, chap. 1., that the generations from Abraham to Solomon reigned; see 1 Kings iv. 21. So that in Christ were 42; now we find at the second census that his time, at least

, the promise to Abraham was literally the fighting men among the Hebrews amounted to fulfilled; see below.

603,000; and the Israelites, who have never ceased Vese 10. Ye are this day as the stars of heaven for to be a distinct people, have so' multiplied as far to exmultitude.) This was the promise God made to Abra- ceed the number of all the fixed stars taken together. ham, Gen. xv. 5, 6; and Moses considers it now as Verse 13. Take you wise men] Dinan chachamim, amply fulfilled. But was it really so ? Many suppose such as 'had gained knowledge by great labour and the expression to be hyperbolical; and others, no friends study. Understanding D'39) nebonim, persons of dis

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The civil constitution of the

CHAP. I. .

Israelites in the wilderness. which thou hast spoken is good | LORD God of thy fathers hath A. M. 2553. An. Ex. Isr. 40. for us to do.

şaid unto thee; e fear not, neither An. Ex. Isr. 40. 15 So I took the chief of your be discouraged. tribes, wise men, and known, Hand made 22. And ye came near unto me every one of them heads over you, captains over thousands, you, and said, We will send men before us, and captains over hundreds, and captains over and they shall search us out the land, and fifties, and captains over tens, and officers bring us word again by what.way we must among your tribes.

go up, and into what cities we shall come... 16 And I charged your judges at that time, 23 And the saying pleased me well : and saying, Hear the causes between your brethren, I took twelve men of you, one of a tribe : and judge righteously between every man and 24 And they turned and went up into the his brother, and the stranger that is with mountain, and came unto the valley of Eshcol, him.

and searched it out. 17 , Ye shall not ? respect persons in judg- 25 And they took of the fruit of the land in ment; but ye shall hear the small as well as their hands, and brought it down unto us, and the great ; ye shall not be afraid of the face brought us word again, and said, It is a good of man; for a the judgment is God's: and the land which the LORD our God doth give us. cause that is too hard for you, bring it unto 26 i Notwithstanding ye would not go up, me, and I will hear it.

but rebelled against the commandment of the 18 And I commanded you at that time, all LORD your God : the things which ye should do.

27 And yeʼmurmured in your tents, and said, 19 And when we departed from Horeb, o we Because the Lord k hated us, he hath brought went through all that great and terrible wilder- us forth oựt of the land of Egypt, to deliver ness,

which ye saw by the way of the mountain us into the hand of the Amorites, to deof the Amorites, as the LORD our God com- 'stroy us. manded us; and we came to Kadesh-barnea. 28 Whither shall we go up ? our brethren 20 And I said-unto you, Ye are come unto have ? discouraged our heart, saying,

m The the mountain of the Amorites, which the LORD people is greater and taller than we; the cities our God doth give unto us.

are great and walled up to heaven ; and more21 Behold, the LORD thy God hath set the over we have seen the sons of the r Anakims land before thée : go up and possess it, as the there. -u Exod. xviii. 25. Heb. gave. - Chap. xvi. 18; Joho a Num. xiii. 26.

Num. xiii. 3.- Num. -y Lev. xix. 15; chap. xvi. 19; xil. 22, 23, 24.

Li Numbers xiv. 1, 2, 3, 4; 1 Sam. xvi. 7; Prov. xxiv. 23; James ii. 1.

Psa. cvi. 24, 25. k Chapter ix. 28.—Heb. melted; Josh. ü. ledge faces. 2 Chron. xix. - Exod. xviij. 22, 26. _in Num. xiii. 28, 31, 32, 33; chap. ix. 1, 2: Num. Num. x. 12; chap. viii. 15; Jer. ii. 6.

xiji. 28. cernment, judicious men. Known, o:yti yeduim, per- either to favour him in an unrighteous cause, or to give sons practised in the operations of nature, capable of judgment against him at the demand of the oppressor. performing curious and important works.

Be uncorrupt and incorruptible, for the judgment is Verse 15. Captains over thousands, fc.] What a God's ; ye minister in the place of God, act like Him. curious and' well-regulated economy was that of the Verse 22. We will send men before us] See on Israelites ! See its order‘and arrangement: 1. GOD, | Num. xiii. the King and Supreme Judge ; 2. Moses, God's prime Verse 28. Cities--walled up to heaven] That is, . minister ; 3. The priests, consulting him by Urim and with very high walls which could not be easily scaled. Thummim ; 4. The chiefs or princes of the twelve High walls around houses, &c., in these parts of Aratribes; 5. Chiliarchs, or captains over thousands ; bia are still deemed a sufficient defence-against the 6. Centurions, or captains over hundreds ; : 7. Tri-Arabs, who scarcely ever attempt any thing in the bunes, or captains over fifty men ; 8. Decurions, or way of plunder but on horseback. · The monastery on. captains over ten men ; and, 9. Officers, persons who Mount Sinai is surrounded with very high walls withmight be employed by the different chiefs in executing out any gate; in the upper part of the wall there is a particular commands. All these held their authority sort of window, or opening, from which a basket is from God, and yet were subject and accountable to suspended by a pulley, by which both persons and goods each other. See the notes on Num. ii.

are received into and sent from the place. It is the Verse 17. Ye shall not respect persons) Heb. faces. same with the convent of St. Anthony, in Egypt; and Let not the bold, daring countenance of the rich or this sort of wall is deemed a sufficient defence against mighty induce you to give an unrighteous decision; the Arabs, who, as we have already observed, scarcely and let not the abject look of the poor man induce you ever like to alight from their horses. VOL. I. ( 48 )



Josh, i. 9. ch Num. xiii. 27.

vii. 24. I Lev. xxiv. 22.

z Heb, acknow




The evil consequences of the DEUTERONOMY. bad report brought by the spies.
A. M. 2553. 29 Then I said unto you, 39 Moreover your little ones,

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B. C. 1451. An. Ex. Isr. 40. Dread not,. neither be afraid which 4 ye said should be a prey, An. Ex. Is. 40. Sebat.

Sebat. of them.


your children, which in that 30 • The Lord your God which goeth be-day had no knowledge between good and fore you, he shall fight for you, according to evil, they shall go in thither, and unto them all that he did for you in Egypt before your will I give it, and they shall possess it. eyes;

40 But as for you, turn you, and take 31 And in the wilderness, wliere thou hast your journey into the wilderness by the way seen how that the Lord thy God p bare thee, of the Red Sea. as a man doth bear his son, in all the way 41 Then ye answered and said unto me, that ye went, until ye came into this place. & We have sinned against the LORD, we will

32 Yet in this thing 4 ye did not believe the go, up and fight, according to all that the LORD your God,

Lord our God commanded us,

And when 33 Who went in the way before you, ' to ye had' girded on every man his weapons of search you out a place to pitch your tents in, war, ye were ready to go up into the bill. in fire by night, to show you by what way ye 42 And the Lord said unto wie, Say unto should go, and in a cloud by day.

them, h Go not up, neither fight; for I am 34 And the Lord heard the voice of your not among you ; lest ye be smitten before words, and was wroth, and sware, saying,

your enemies.
35 u Surely there shall not one of these men 43 So I spake unto you ; and ye would not
of this evil generation see that good land, hear, but rebelled against the commandment
which I sware to give unto your fathers, of the Lord, and I went *presumptuously up

.36 "Save Caleb the son of Jephunneh; he into the hill.
shall see it, and to him will I give the land 44 And the Amorites, which dwelt in that
that he hath trodden upon, and to his children, mountain, came out against you and chased
because w he hath 1 wholly followed the LORD. you, 'as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir,

37. y Also the LORD was angry with me for even unto Hormah.
your sakes, saying, Thou also shalt not go in 45 And ye returned and mwept before the

LORD; but the LORD would not hearken to
38 ? But Joshua the son of Nun, which your voice, nor give ear unto you.
standeth before thee, he shall go in thither ; 46 • So ye abode in Kadesh many days,
encourage him, for he shall cause Israel 10 according unto : the days.

the days that ye abode inherit it.

thère. • Exod. xiv. 14, 25; Neh.iv. 20. p Exod. xix. 4; chap. xxxii. z Num. xiv. 30.- La Exod. xxix. 13; xxxii. 11; see I Sam. 11, 12; Isa. xlvi. 3, 4 ; lxui. 9; Hos. xi. 3; see on Acts xni. 18. xvi. 22. - Num. xxvii. 18, 19; chap. xxxi: 7, 23. — Num. 9 Psa. cvi. 24 ; Jude 5. -- Exod. xiii. 21; Psa, lxxvii. 14. xiv. 31. d Num. xiv. 3. La Isa. vn. 15, 16; Rom. ix. ll. Num. x. 33 ; Ezek. xx. 6. Chap. ii. 14, 15. - Num. xiv. Num. xiv, 25.- Num. xiv. 40.- . Num.. xiv. 42. - Heb. 22, 23; Psa. xcv. 11.-Num. xiv. 24, 30; Josh. xiv. 9.

ye were presumptuous and went * Num. xiv. 44. 45. w Num. xiv. 24. ---* Heb. fulfilled to go after:- Num. xx. 12;

i Psa. cxviủ. 12. -m Psa. . lxxviii. 34. - Heb. xi. 17, xxvii. 14; chap. iii. 26; iv. 21; xxxiv. 4; Psa. cvi. 32.

Num. xiii. 25; xx. I, 22; Judg. xi. 17. Verse 30. The Lordshall fight for you] In the Verse 44. The Amorites-chased you] See the note Targum of Onkelos, it is, the Word of the Lord shall on Num. xiv. 40; as bees do--by irresistible numbers. fight for your In a great number of places the-Tar- Verse 46. According into the days that ye abode gums or Chaldee paraphrases use thé-term "9 892 there.]. They had been a long time at this place, see neimera dayeya or Yehovah, the Word of the Lord, Num. xiii. 27; xx. 1; 14, 21: And some think that exactly in the same way in which St. John uses the the words mean, “ Ye abode as long at Kadesh, when term Aoyos Logos in the first chapter of his Gospel.: you came to it the second time, as ye did at the first.” Many instances of this have already occurred. Or, according to others, “ While ye were in that part

Verse 34. The Lordwas wroth] That is, his of the desert, ye encamped at Kadesh." justice was incensed, and he evidenced his displeasure against you; and he could not have been a just God :1. As one grand object of the law of God was to if he had not done sa.

instruct the people in those things which were calcuVerse 36. Calebwholly followed the Lord.] See: lated to promote their peace and insure their prosperity; on Num. xiv. 24.

and as they were apt to lose sight of their spiritual Verse 37. The Lord was angry with me) See on interests, without a due attention to which their secular Num. xx. 10, &c., where a particular account is given interest could not be promoted ; Moses, not only in this of the sin of Moses.

chapter, but through the whole book, calls upon them 738

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Moses relates how they


compassed Mount Seir. to recollect their former miserable situation, in which 3. If every Christian were thus to call his past life they held neither life nor property but at the will of a into review, he would see equal proofs of God's gramerciless tyrant, and the great kindness and power of cious regards to his body and soul; equal proofs of God manifested in their deliverance from a bondage that eternal mercy in providing for his deliverance from the was as degrading as it was oppressive. These things galling yoke and oppressive tyranny of sin, as the Isproperly remembered would lead them to prize their raelites had in their deliverance from Egypt; and equal blessings, and duly appreciate the mercy of their Maker. displays of a most gracious providence, that had also

2. But it was not only this general display of God's been his incessant companion through all the changes kindness, in the grand act of their deliverance from and chances of this mortal life, guiding him by its Egypt, that he wished them to keep constantly in view, counsel, that he might be at last received into glory: but also that gracious providence which was manifested reader, remember what God has done for thee during in every step they took , which directed all their move-thy forty, fifty, &c., years! He has nourished, fed, ments, provided for all their wants, continually show- clothed, protected, and saved thee. How often and ing what they should do, how they should do it, and how powerfully has his Spirit striven with thee! How also the most proper time and place for every act, often and how impressively thou hast-heard his voice whether religious or civil. By bringing before them in his Gospel and in his providences! Remember the in one point of view the history of almost forly years, good resolutions thou hast made, the ingratitude and in which the strangest and most stupendous occurrences disobedience that have marked thy life ; how his vows had taken place that had ever been exhibited to the are still upon thee, and how tris mercy still spares world, he took the readiest way to impress their minds, thee! And wilt thou live so as to perish for ever? not only with their deep obligation to God, but also to God forbid ! He still waits to be gracious, and reshow them that they were a people on whom their Ma- joices over thee to do thee good. Learn from what is ker had set his heart to do them good, and that if they before thee how thou shouldst fear, love, believe in, feared him they should lack nothing that was good. and obey thy God." The.Lamb of God, that taketh He lays out also before them a history of their mis- away the sin of the world, is still before the throne ; earriages and rebellion, and the privations and evils and whosoever cometh unto God through him shall in they had suffered in consequence, that this might act nowise be cast out. He who believes these things as a continual warning, and thus become, in the hands wíth an upright heart will soon be enabled to live a of God, a preventive of crimes.

| sanctified life.

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CHAPTER II. Moses continues to relate how they compassed Mount Seir, 1. And the commands they received not to med

dle with the descendants of Esau, 2–8; nor to distress the Moabites, 9. Of the Emims, 10, 11 ; the Horuns, 12. Their passage of the brook Zered, 13.. The time they spent between Kadesh-barnea and Zered, 14;. during which all the men of war that came out of Egypt were consumed, 15, 16.

The command not to distress the Ammonites, 17-19. Of the Zamzummims, 20, the Anakims, 21, the Horims, 22, the Avims and Caphtorims, all destroyed by the Ammonites, 23. They are commanded to cross the river, Arnon, and are promised the land of Sihon, king of the Amorites, 24, 25. Of the message sent to Sihon, to request a passage through his territories, 26–29. His refusal, 30. The consequent war, 31, 32. His total overthrow, 33 ; and extermination of his people, 34. The spoils that were taken, 35. And his land possessed from Aroer to Arnon by the Israelites, 36 ; who took care, according to the command of God, not to invade any part of the territories of the Ammonites, 37. A. M. 2553. THEN we turned, and took | Ye are to pass through the coast

À. M. 2553, An. Ex. Isr. 40, qur journey into the wil- of your brethren the children of an. Ex. Isr.40.

Sebat. derness by the way of the Red Esau, which dwell in Seir; and Sea, a as the LORD spake unto mę: and we they shall be afraid of you : take ye good compassed Mount Seir many days.

heed unto yourselves therefore : 2. And the Lord spake unto mė, saying, 5 Meddle not with them ; for I will not give 3 Ye have compassed this mountain b long you of their land, a no, not so much as a foot enough: turn you northward.

breadth; .. because I have given Mount Seir 4 And command thou the people, saying, unto Esau for a possession. Num. xiv. 25; chap. i. 40.-- See ver. 7, 14.- - Num. 1 Hebrew, even to the treading of the sole of the foot.

Xxxvi. 8; Josh. xxiv. 4,

one hand, and Moab and Ammon on the other, so Verse 3. : Turn you northward.) From Mount as to enter into Canaan through the land of the Seir, in order to get to Canaan. This was not Amorites. : the way they went before, viz., by Kadesh-barnea, Verse 5. Meddle not with them] That is, the but they were to proceed between Edom on the Edomites. See on Num. xx. 14-21.

Le Gen.

xx. 14.

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