« הקודםהמשך »
A. M. 1536.
B. C. 2468.
Noah is ordered to preserve
GENESIS. a pair of every kind of animals 19 And of every living thing of come unto thee, to keep them 4. M. 1536.
all flesh, f two of every sort shalt alive. thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive 21 And take thou unto thee of all food that with thee; they shall be male and female. is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and
20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle it shall be for food for thee, and for them. after their kind, of every creeping thing of the 22 h Thus did Noah; i according to all that earth after his kind, two of every sort 6 shall God commanded him, so did he.
Chap. vii. 8, 9, 15, 16.— * Chap. vii. 9, 15; see chap. q. 19.
Heb. xi. 7; see Exod. xl. 16.-i Chap. vii. 5, 9, 16.
Almost all nations, in forming alliances, &c., made salvation, Mark xvi. 16. To provide a Saviour, and their covenants or contracts in the same way. A the means of salvation, is GOD'S part: to accept this sacrifice was provided, its throat was cut, and its blood Saviour, laying hold on the hope set before us, is ours. poured out before God; then the whole carcass was Those who refuse the way and means of salvation divided through the spinal marrow from the head to the must perish; those who accept of the great Covenant rump, so as to make exactly two equal parts; these Sacrifice cannot perish, but shall have eternal life. were placed opposite to each other, and the contracting See on chap. xv. 10, &c. parties passed between them, or entering at opposite Verse 19. To keep them alive] God might have ends met in the centre, and there took the covenant destroyed all the animal creation, and created others oath. This is particularly referred to by Jeremiah, to occupy the new world, but he chose rather to prechap. xxxiv. 18, 19, 20 : “I will give the men (into serve those already created. The Creator and Pre the hands of their enemies, ver. 20) that have trans- server of the universe does nothing but what is essengressed my covenant, which have not performed the tially necessary to be done. Nothing should be words of the covenant which they made before wantonly wasted; nor should power or skill be lavished me, when they cut the calf in twain, and passed where no necessity exists; and yet it required more between the · parts thereof,” gc. See also Deut. means and economy to preserve the old than to have xxix. 12.
created new ones. Such respect has God to the work A covenant, says Mr. Ainsworth, is a disposition of of his hands, that nothing but what is essential to the good things faithfully declared, which God here calls credit of his justice and holiness shall ever induce his, as arising from his grace towards Noah (ver. 8) him to destroy any thing he has made. and all men ; but implying also conditions on man's Verse 21. Of all food that is eaten] That is, of part, and therefore is called our covenant, Zech. ix. the food proper for every species of animals. 11. The apostles call it dialnkn, a testament or dis- Verse 22. Thus did Noah] He prepared the ark; position ; and it is mixed of the properties both of and during one hundred and twenty years preached covenant and testament, as the apostle shows, Heb. ix. righteousness to that sinful generation, 2 Pet. ii. 5. 16, &c., and of both may be named a testamental And this we are informed, 1 Pet. iii. 18, 19, &c., he covenant, whereby the disposing of God's favours and did by the Spirit of Christ; for it was only through good things to us is declared. The covenant made him that the doctrine of repentance could ever be with Noah signified, on God's part, that he should save successfully preached. The people in Noah's time Noah and his family from death by the ark. On Noah's are represented as shut up in prison-arrested and part, that he should in faith and obedience make and condemned by God's justice, but graciously allowed the enter into the ark— Thou shalt come into the ark, fc., space of one hundred and twenty years to repent in. 80 committing himself to God's preservation, Heb. xi. This respite was an act of great mercy; and no doubt 7. And under this the covenant or testament of eter- thousands who died in the interim availed themselves nal salvation by Christ was also implied, the apostle of it, and believed to the saving of their souls. But testifying, 1 Pet. iii. 21, that the antitype, baptism, the great majority of the people did not, else the flood doth also now save us ; for baptism is a seal of our I had never come.
God informs Noah that within seven days he shall send a rain upon the earth, that shall continue for forty
days and nights ; and therefore commands him to take his family, with the different clean and unclean animals, and enter the ark, 1-4. This command punctually obeyed, 5–9. In the seventeenth day of the second month, in the six hundredth year of Noah's life, the waters, from the opened windows of heaven, and the broken up fountains of the great deep, were poured out upon the earth, 10–12. The different quadrupeds, fowls, and reptiles come unto Noah, and the Lord shuts him and them in, 13-16. The waters increase, and the ark floats, 17. The whole earth is covered with water fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, 18-20. All terrestrial animals die, 21-23. And the waters prevail one hundred and fifty days, 24.
The flood comes in the six
CHAP. VII. hundredth year of Noah's life. A: M: 2566. AND the Lord said unto Noah, when the flood of waters was upon B. C. 2318.
a Come thou and all thy house the earth. into the ark : for b thee have I seen righteous 7 i And Noah went in, and his sons, and before me in this generation.
his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into 2 Of
every c clean beast thou shalt take to the ark, because of the waters of the flood. thee by d sevens, the male and his female ; 8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are . and of beasts that are not clean by two, the not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing male and his female
that creepeth upon the earth, 3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the 9 There went in two and two unto Noah male and the female ; to keep seed alive upon into the ark, the male and the female, as God the face of all the earth.
had commanded Noah. 4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it to 10 And it came to pass,
k after seven days, rain upon the earth f forty days and forty that the waters of the flood were upon the nights; and every living substance that I earth. have made will I 8 destroy from off the face 11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's life, of the earth.
in the second month, the seventeenth day of 5 h And Noah did according unto all that the month, the same day were all ’ the founthe LORD commanded him.
tains of the great deep broken up, and the 6 And Noah was six hundred years old m windows of heaven were n opened.
a Ver. 7, 13; Matt. xxiv. 38; Luke xvii. 26; Heb. xi. 7; Ver. 12, 17.-Heb. blot out. Lh Chap. vi. 22.- Ver. 1 Pet. ii. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5.- Chap. vi. 9; Psa. xxxiii. 18, 19; 1.- Or, on the seventh day.- - Chap. viii. 2; Prov. viii. 28; Prov. x. 9; 2 Pet. ii. 9. Le Ver. 8; Lev. xi.- Heb. seven Ezek. xxvi. 19.- um Or, flood-gates.- Chap. i. 7; viii. 2; seven.- Lev. x. 10; Ezek. xliv. 23.
Psa. lxxviii. 23.
NOTES ON CHAP. VII.
After the deliverance from Egypt, the beginning of Verse 1. Thee have I seen righteous) See on chap. the year was changed from Marcheshvan to Nisan, vi. 9.
which answers to a part of our March and April. But Verse 2. Of every clean beast] So we find the it is not likely that this reckoning obtained before the distinction between clean and unclean animals existed flood. Dr. Lightfoot very probably conjectures that long before the Mosaic law. This distinction seems Methuselah was alive in the first month of this year. to have been originally designed to mark those animals And it appears, says he, how clearly the Spirit of prowhich were proper for sacrifice and food, from those phecy foretold of things to come, when it directed his that were not. See Lev. xi.
father Enoch almost a thousand years before to name Verse 4. For yet seven days] God spoke these him Methuselah, which signifies they die by a dart ; words probably on the seventh or Sabbath day, and the or, he dieth, and then is the dart; or, he dieth, and days of the ensuing week were employed in entering then it is sent. And thus Adam and Methuselah had the ark, in embarking the mighty troop, for whose measured the whole time between the creation and the reception ample provision had been already made. flood, and lived above two hundred and forty years
Forly days] This period became afterwards sacred, together. See chap. v. at the end. and was considered a proper space for humiliation. Were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, Moses fasted forty days, Deut. ix. 9, 11; so did and the windows of heaven were opened.] It appears Elijah, 1 Kings xix. 8; so did our Lord, Matt. iv. 2. that an immense quantity of waters occupied the centre Forty days' respite were given to the Ninevites that of the antediluvian earth; and as these burst forth, by they might repent, Jonah iii. 4; and thrice forty (one the order of God, the circumambient strata must sink, hundred and twenty) years were given to the old world in order to fill up the vacuum occasioned by the ele. for the same gracious purpose, Gen. vi. 3. The forty yated waters. This is probably what is meant by days of Lent, in commemoration of our Lord's fasting, breaking up the fountains of the great deep. These have a reference to the same thing; as each of these waters, with the seas on the earth's surface, might be seems to be deduced from this primitive judgment. deemed sufficient to drown the whole globe, as the
Verse 11. In the six hundredth year, &c.] This waters now on its surface are nearly three-fourths of must have been in the beginning of the six hundredth the whole, as has been accurately ascertained by Dr. year of his life ; for he was a year in the ark, chap. Loog. See note on chap. i. ver, 10. viii. 13; and lived three hundred and fifty years after By the opening of the windows of heaven is probably the flood, and died nine hundred and fifty years old, meant the precipitating all the aqueous vapours which chap. ix. 29; so it is evident that, when the flood com- were suspended in the whole atmosphere, so that, as menced, he had just entered on his six hundredth year. Moses expresses it, chap. i. 7, the waters that were
Second month] The first month was Tisri, which above the firmament were again united to the waters answers to the latter half of Seplember, and first half which were below the firmament, from which on the of October; and the second was Marcheshvan, which second day of creation they had been separated. A answers to part of October and part of November. I multitude of facts have proved that water itself is com
A. M. 1656.
The rain prevails
on the earth forty days 12 . And the rain was upon the ark, two and two of all flesh, A M. 1656
B. C. 2348. earth forty days and forty nights. wherein is the breath of life. 13 In the self-same day P entered Noah, and 16 And they that went in, went in male and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of female of all flesh, as God had commanded Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives him: and the LORD shut him in. of his sons with them, into the ark ;
17 u And the flood was forty days upon the 14 . They, and every beast after his kind, earth; and the waters increased, and bare and all the cattle after their kind, and every up the ark, and it was lift up above the creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth earth. after his kind, and every fowl after his kind, 18 And the waters prevailed, and were inevery bird of every "sort.
creased greatly upon the earth ; and the ark 15 And they swent in unto Noah into the went upon the face of the waters.
• Ver. 4, 17. -- Ver. 1, 7; chap. vi. 18; Heb. xi. 7; 1 Pet. Heb. wing.
11. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5. — Ver. 2, 3, 8, 9.
Chap. vi. 20.- Ver. 2, 3. — Ver. 4, 12
Psa. civ. 26.
posed of two airs, oxygen and hydrogen; and that 85 whereas no animals or other substances belonging to parts of the first and 15 of the last, making 100 in the northern regions have been ever found in southern the whole, will produce exactly 100 parts of water. climates. Had these animals died natural deaths in And thus it is found that these two airs form the con- their proper climate, their bodies would not have been stituent parts of water in the above proportions. The found in such masses. But that they were carried no electric spark, which is the same as lightning, passing farther northward than Siberia, is evident from there through these airs, decomposes them and converts them being no remains of any animals besides those of to water. And to this cause we may probably attribute whales found in the mountains of Greenland. That the rain which immediately follows the flash of light- this great rush of waters was from the south or southning and peal of thunder. God therefore, by the means east is farther evident, he thinks, from the south and of lightning, might have converted the whole atmo- south-east sides of almost all great mountains being sphere into water, for the purpose of drowning the much steeper than their north or north-west sides, as globe, had there not been a sufficiency of merely aqueous they necessarily would be if the force of a great body vapours suspended in the atmosphere on the second day of water fell upon them in that direction.” On a subof creation. And if the electric fluid were used on ject like this men may innocently differ. Many think this occasion for the production of water, the incessant the first opinion accords best with the Hebrew text and glare of lightning, and the continual peals of thunder, with the phenomena of nature, for mountains do not must have added indescribable horrors to the scene. always present the above appearance. See the note on chap. viii. 1. These two causes con- Verse 12. The rain was upon the earth] Dr. Light, curring were amply sufficient, not only to overflow the foot supposes that the rain began on the 18th day of earth, but probably to dissolve the whole terrene fabric, the second month, or Marcheshvan, and that it ceased as some judicious naturalists have supposed : indeed, on the 28th of the third month, Cisleu. this seems determined by the word soon mabbul, trans- Verse 15. And they went in, fc.] It was physilated flood, which is derived from sa bal or sa balal, cally impossible for Noah to have collected such a vast to mix, mingle, confound, confuse, because the aqueous number of tame and ferocious animals, nor could they and terrene parts of the globe were then mixed and have been retained in their wards by mere natural confounded together; and when the supernatural cause
How then were they brought from various that produced this mighty change suspended its opera- distances to the ark and preserved there? Only by tions, the different particles of matter would settle ac- the power of God. He who first miraculously brought cording to their specific gravities, and thus form the them to Adam that he might give them their names, various strata or beds of which the earth appears to now brings them to Noah that he may preserve their be internally constructed. Some naturalists have con- lives. And now we may reasonably suppose that their troverted this sentiment, because in some cases the natural enmity was so far removed or suspended that internal structure of the earth does not appear to jus- the lion might dwell with the lamb, and the wolf lie tify the opinion that the various portions of matter had down with the kid, though each might still require his settled according to their specifio gravities; but these peculiar aliment. This can be no difficulty to the anomalies may easily be accounted for, from the great power of God, without the immediate interposition of changes that have taken place in different parts of the which neither the deluge nor the concomitant circumearth since the flood, by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, stances could have taken place. &c. Some very eminent philosophers are of the Verse 16. The Lord shut him in.] This seems to im, opinion “ that, by the breaking up of the fountains of ply that God took him under his especial protection, the great deep, we are to understand an eruption of and as he shut him in, so he shut the others out. waters from the Southern Ocean." Mr. Kirwan sup. God had waited one hundred and twenty years upon poses " that this is pretty evident from such animals as that generation ; they did not repent; they filled up the elephant and rhinoceros being found in great masses the measure of their iniquities, and then wrath came in Siberia, mixed with different marine substances ; / upon them to the uttermost.
The waters subside after
one hundred and fifty days.
A. M. 1656.
B. C. 2348
19° And the waters prevailed of life, of all that was in the dry A. M. 1656.
exceedingly upon the earth; w and land, died. . all the high hills, that were under the whole 23 And every living substance was destroyheaven, were covered.
ed which was upon the face of the ground, 20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters pre- both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, vail; and the mountains were covered. and the fowl of the heaven; and they were
21 - And all flesh died that moved upon the destroyed from the earth : and · Noah only earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, remained alive, and they that were with him and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon in the ark. the earth, and every man :
24 ) And the waters prevailed upon the 22 All in Y whose nostrils was ? the breath earth a hundred and fifty days.
w Psa. civ. 6; Jer. iii. 23.- * Chap. vi. 13, 17; ver. 4; Job the spirit of life; chap. ii. 7; vii. 17.—a Ezra xiv. 14, 20; xxii. 16; 2 Esdr. iii. 9, 10; Wisd. x. 4; Matt. xxiv. 39; Luke Mal. ii. 18; Wisd. x. 4; 1 Pet. iii. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5; iii. 6. xvii. 27; 2 Pet. iii. 6._y Chap. ii. 7. - Heb. the breath of Chap. viii. 3, 4, compared with ver. 11 of this chapter.
Verse 20. Fifteen cubits upward] Should any per- a hundred and fifty days.] The breaking up of the son object to the universality of the deluge because he fountains of the great deep, and the raining forty days may imagine there is not water sufficient to drown the and nights, had raised the waters fifteen cubits above whole globe in the manner here related, he may find the highest mountains; after which forty days it apa most satisfactory answer to all the objections he can pears to have continued at this height for one hundred raise on this ground in Mr. Ray's Physico-theological and fifty days more. “So," says Dr. Lightfoot, “ these Discourses, 2d edit., 8vo., 1693.
two sums are to be reckoned distinct, and not the forty Verse 22. Of all that was in the dry land] From days included in the one hundred and fifty ; so that this we may conclude that such animals only as when the one hundred and fifty days were ended, there could not live in the water were preserved in were six months and ten days of the flood past.” For the ark.
an improvement of this awful judgment, see the conVerse 24. And the waters prevailed upon the earth | clusion of the following chapter,
At the end of one hundred and fifty days the waters begin to subside, 1-3. The ark rests on Mount Ararat, 4.
On the first of the tenth month the tops of the hills appear, 5. The window opened and the raven sent out, 6, 7.
The dove sent forth, and returns, 8, 9. The dove sent forth a second time, and returns with an olive leaf, 10, 11. The dove sent out the third time, and returns no more, 12. On the twentieth day of the second month the earth is completely dried, 13, 14. God orders Noah, his family, and all the crealures to come out of the ark, 15-19. Noah builds an altar, and offers sacrifices to the Lord, 20. They are accepted; and God promises that the earth shall not be cursed thus any more, notwitstanding the iniquity of man, 21, 22.
AND God remembered Noah, windows of heaven were stopped, 4. M.9686.
and every living thing, and all and the rain from heaven was the cattle that was with him in the ark : band restrained ; God made a wind to pass over the earth, and 3 And the waters returned from off the earth the waters assnaged ;
* continually : and after the end of the hun2 • The fountains also of the deep and the dred and fifty days, the waters were abated.
A. M. 1656.
Chap. xix. 29; Exod. ii. 24; 1 Sam. i. 19. b Exod. xiv. a Job xxxviii: 37.
21. _c Chap. xi. 7; Prov. viii. 28.
Lo Heb. in going and returning. - Chap.
NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.
samiel, passing rapidly across the river just as he had Verse 1. And God made a wind to pass over the got out of the water, so effectually dried him in a moearth] Such a wind as produced a strong and sudden ment, that not one particle of moisture was left either evaporation. The effects of these winds, which are on his body or in his bathing dress!
With such an frequent in the east, are truly astonishing. A friend electrified wind as this, how soon could God dry the of mine, who had been bathing in the Tigris, not far whole of the earth's surface ! An operation somefrom the ancient city of Ctesiphon, and within five thing similar to the conversion of water into its two days' journey of Bagdad, having on a pair of Turkish constituent airs, oxygen and hydrogen, by means of drawers, one of these hot winds, called by the natives the galvanic fluid, as these airs themselves may be
The ark rests upon Mount Ararat. GENESIS. The raven and dove sent forth
4 And the ark rested in the seventh | whole earth ; then he put forth his A. M. 1656. B. C. 2348.
2346 month, on the seventeenth day of hand, and took her, and pulled the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. her in unto him into the ark.
5 And the waters & decreased continually 10 And he stayed yet other seven days; and until the tenth month : in the tenth month, on again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; the first day of the month, were the tops of 11 And the dove came in to him in the the mountains seen.
evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive 6 And it came to pass, at the end of forty leaf pluckt off. So Noah knew that the days, that Noah opened the window of the waters were abated from off the earth. ark which he had made :
12 And he stayed yet other seven days, and 7 And he sent forth a raven, which went sent forth the dove ; which returned not again forth i to and fro, until the waters were dried unto him any more. up from off the earth.
13 And it came to pass in the 4 M. 1657. 8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to six hundredth land first year, in Jee if the waters were abated from off the face the first month, the first day of the month, the of the ground;
waters were dried up from off the earth : and 9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of Noah removed the covering of the ark, and her foot, and she returned unto him into the looked, and, behold, the face of the ground ark, for the waters were on the face of the was dry.
Heb. were in going and decreasing. - Chap. vi. 16. Heb.
in going forth and returning.
* Heb. caused her to come.
Chap. vii. 11.
reconverted into water by means of the electric spark. this curious conclusion : That the ark drew exactly
From which it is evident that she did return, but was
a mountain of Armenia is almost universally sions, and continued on the wing as long as she could, agreed. What is commonly thought to be the Ararat having picked up such aliment as she found floating of the Scriptures, has been visited by many travellers, on the waters; and then, to rest herself, regained the and on it there are several monasteries. For a long ark, where she might perch, though she was not adtime the world has been amused with reports that the mitted. Indeed this must be allowed, as it is imposremains of the ark were still visible there; but Mr. sible she could have continued twenty-one days upon Tournefort, a famous French naturalist, who was on the wing, which she must have done had she not rethe spot, assures us that nothing of the kind is there turned. But the text itself is sufficiently determinate. to be seen. As there is a great chain of mountains Verse 8. He sent forth a dove] The dove was sent which are called by this name, it is impossible to de- forth thrice; the first time she speedily returned, having, termine on what part of them the ark rested; but the in all probability, gone but a little way from the ark, highest part, called by some the finger mountain, has as she must naturally be terrified at the appearance of been fixed on as the most likely place. These things the waters. After seven days, being sent out a second we must leave, and they are certainly of very little time, she returned with an olive leaf pluckt off, ver. consequence.
11, an emblem of the restoration of peace between From the circumstance of the resting of the ark on God and the earth; and from this circumstance the the 17th of the seventh month, Dr. Lightfoot draws olive has been the emblem of peace among all civilized