« הקודםהמשך »
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The boundaries of
the promised land.
point out for you. - Mount Hor: 14 r For the tribe of the chil8 From Mount Hor ye shall point out your dren of Reuben according to the house of their border i'unto the entrance of Hamath ; and the fathers, and the tribe of the children of Gad goings forth of the border shall be to k Zedad : according to the house of their fathers, have
9 And the border shall go on to Ziphron, received their inheritance; and half the tribe and the goings out of it shall be at Hazar- of Manasseh have received their inheritance : enan : this shall be your north border.
15 The two tribes and the half tribe have .10 And ye shall point out your east border received their inheritance on this side Jordan from Hazar-enan to Shepham:
near Jericho eastward, toward the sunrising. '11 And the coast shall go down from She- 16 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, . pham * to Riblah, on the east side of Ain; and 17 These are the names of the men which the border shall descend, and shall reach unto shall divide the land unto you: • Eleazar, the the - side of the sea of Chinnereth eastward : priest, and Joshua the son of Nun.
12 And the border shall go down to Jordan, 18 And ye shall take one prince of every
Of the tribe of Judah, u Caleb the son of
Chap. xxxiii. 37. Chap. xiii. 21; 2 Kings xiv. 25.
xiv. 1, 2. - Chap. xxxii. 33; Josh. xiv. 2, 3. Josh. xiv. 1; » Heb. shoulder. Deut.'iii. 17; Josh. xi. 2;
xix. 51. Jer. xxxix. 5, 6.
Chap. i. 4, 16. - Chap. xii. 30 ; xiv. 6, 24, xix. 35 ; Mait. xiv. 34 ; Luke v.1. Ver. 3. — Ver. 1; Josh! | 30,38; xxvi. 65.
In Hebrew there is properly but one term, b' yam, túde of advantages in its climate, its soil, situation, &c. which is applied to all collections of water apparently It 'is bounded on the south by a ridge of mountains, stagnant, and which is generally translated sea. The which 'separate it from Arabia, and screen it from the Greek of the New Testament follows the Hebrew, burning and often pestiferous winds which blow, over and employs, in general, the word garagoa, sea, whe- the desert from that quarter. . On the west it is ther it speaks of the Mediterranean, or of the sea or bounded by the Mediterranean Sea ; on the north, by lake of Galilee.
Mount Libanus, which defends it from the cold northVerse 11. The sea of Chinnereth] The same as ern blasts ; and on the east by the river Jordan, and the sea of Galilee, sea of Tiberias, and sea of Genne- its fertile, well-watered plains. It is described by God sareth.
himself as “a good land, a land of brooks of water, Verse 12. The border. shall go down to Jordan) of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and This river is famous both in the Old and New Testa hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig ments. It takes its rise at the foot of Mount, Libanus, trees, and pomegranates; a land of olive oil and hopasses through the sea of Chinnereth or Tiberias, and ney; a land wherein there was no scarcity of bread, empties itself into the lake Asphaltites or Dead Sea, and where both iron and copper mines abounded," from which it has no outlet. In and by it God wrought Deut. viii. 7-9 : à land finely diversified with hills many miracles.
God cut off the waters of this river and valleys, and well watered by the rain of heaven, as he did those of the Red Sea, so that they stood on in this respect widely different from Egypt; a land a heap on each side, and the people passed over on which God cared for, on which his eyes were condry ground. Both Elijah and Elisha separated its tinually placed from the beginning to the end of the waters in a miraculous way, 2 Kings ii. 8–14. Naa- year; watched over by á most merciful Providence; man, the Syrian general, by washing in it at the com- in a word, a land which flowed with milk and honey, mand of the prophet, was miraculously cured of his and was the most pleasant of all lands; Deut. xi. 11, leprosy, 2 Kings v. 10-14.' In this river John bap- 12; Ezek. xx. 6. Such was the land, and such were tized great multitudes of Jews; and in it was Christ the advantages that this most favoured people were himself baptized, and the Spirit of God descended called to possess. They were called to possess it by upon him, and the voice from heaven proclaimed him lot that each might be satisfied with his possession, as the great and only Teacher and Saviour of men, Matt. considering it to be appointed to him by the especial iii. 16, 17; Mark i. 5-11..
providence of God; and its boundaries were ascer. Verse 13. This is the land which ye shall inherit by tained on Divine authority, to prevent all covetousness lot] Much of what is said concerning this land is pe- after the territories of others. culiarly emphatic. It is a land that contains a multi- Verse 19, &c. And the names of the men are these}
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Forty-eight cities with their
NUMBERS. suburbs to be given to the Levites. 21 Of the tribe of Benjamin, 26 And the prince of the tribe A. M. 2553.
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22 And the prince of the tribe the son of Azzan. of the children of Dan, Bukki the son of Jogli. 27 And the prince of the tribe of the chil
23 The prince of the children of Joseph, for dren of Asher, Ahihud the son of Shelomi. the tribe of the children of Manasseh, Hanniel 28 And the prince of the tribe of the chilthe son of Ephod.
dren of Naphtali, Pedahel the son of Am24 And the prince of the tribe of the children mihud. of Ephraim, Kemuel the son of Shiphtan: 29: These are they whom the LORD com
25 And the prince of the tribe of the chil- manded to divide the inheritance unto the dren of Zebulun, Elizaphản the son of Parnach. children of Israel in the land of Cannan.
Josh. xiii. 32; xiv. 1; xix. 51. It is worthy of remark that Moses does not follow any concerning whose lots see Josh. xix. 10-17. Ninth, ‘order hitherto used of placing the tribes, neither that Asher; and tenth, Naphtali ; see Josh. xix. 24, 32, in chap i., nor that in chap. vii., nor that in chap. &c. And as in encamping about the tabernacle they xxvi., nor any other; but places them here exactly were arranged according to their fraternal relationin that order in which they possessed the land. 1. ship, (see chap. ii.,) so they were in the division and Judah ; 2. Simeon ; 3. Benjamin ; 4. Dan ; 5. Ma- inheriting of the promised land. Judah and Simeon, nasseh ; 6. Ephraim ; 7. Zebulun ; 8. Issachar ; 9. both sons of Leah, dwelt abreast of each other. BenAsher; 10. Naphtali. Judah is first, having the first jamin, son of Rachel, and Dan, son of Rachel's maid, lot; and he dwelt in the souih part of the land, Josh. dwelt next abreast. Manasseh and Ephraim, both sons xv. 1, &c.; and next to him Simeon, because his in- of Joseph, son of Rachel, had the next place abreast. heritance was within the inheritance of the children Zebulun and Issachar, who dwelt next together, were of Judah, Josh. xix: 1. "Benjamin was third; he had both sons of Leah ; and the last pair were Asher, of his inheritance by Judah, between the children of Ju- Leah's maid, and Naphtali, of Rachel's maid. Thus dah and the children of Joseph, Josh. xviii. 11. Dan God, in nominating the princes that should divide the was the fourth; his lot fell westward of that of Ben- land, signified beforehand the manner of their possesjamin, in the country of the Philistines, as may be sion, and that they should be so situated as to dwell seen in Josh. xix, 40, 41, &c. Fifth, Manasseh ; and together as brethren in unity, for the mutual help and sixth, by him, his brother Ephraim, whose inheritances comfort of each other. See Ainsworth. In this arwere behind that of Benjamin, Josh. xvi. 7.. Next to rangement there is much skill, judgment, and kindness these dwelt, seventh, Zebulun; and eighth, Issachar; every where displayed,
CHAPTER XXXV. The Israelites are commanded to give the Levites, out of their inheritances, cities and their suburds for
themselves and for their catlle, goods, g'c., 1-3. The suburbs to be 3,000 cubits round about from the wall of the city; 4, 5. The cities to be forty-two, lo which six cities of refuge should be added, in all forty-eight cities, 6, 7. . Each tribe shall give of these cities in proportion to its possessions, 8. These cities to be appointed for the person who might slay his neighbour unawares, 9-12. Of these six cities there shall be three on each side Jordan, 13, 14. The cities to be places of refuge for all who kill a person unawares, whether they be Israelites, strangers, or sojourners, 15. Cases of murder to which the 'benefit of the cities of refuge shall not extend, 16-21. Cases of manslaughter to which the benefits of the cities of refuge shall extend, 22, 23. How the congregation shall act between the manslayer and the avenger of blood, 24, 25.
The manslayer shall abide in the city of refuge till the death of the high priest ; he shall then return to the land of his possession, 26–28. Two witnesses must atlest a murder before a murderer can be put to death; 29, 30. · Every murderer to be put to death, 31. The manslayer is not to be permitted to come to the land of his inheritance till the death of the high priest, 32. The land must not be polluted with blood, for the Lord dwells in it, 33, 34. A. M. 2553. AN ND the LORD spake unto Mo- 2 . Command the children of A. M. 2553
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a Josh. xiv. 3, 4; xxi. 2; see Ezek. xlv. I, &c.; xlviii. 8, &c.
Verse 5. And ye shall measure from without the Verse 4. And the suburbs of the cities--shall reach city-two thousand cubits, fc.) Commentators have from the wall of the city and outward a thousand cubits been much puzzled with the accounts in these two round about.
In ver. 4 the measure is said to be 1,000
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their possession, cities to dwelly many; but from them that have An. Exod. Isr. in ; and ye shall give also unto few, ye. shall give few : every An. Exod. Isr.
the Levites suburbs-for ihe cities one shall give of his cities unto round about them.
the Levites, according to his inheritance which 3 And the cities shall they have to dwell in; she inheriteth. and the sụburbs of them shall be for their 9. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, catýle, and for their goods, and for all their 10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and sày beasts.
unto them, h When ye be come over Jordan 4 And the suburbs of the cities, which ye into the land of Canaan; shall give unto the Levites, shall reach from 11 Then i ye shall appoint you cities to be the wall of the city and outward a thousand cities of refuge for you ; that the slayer may cubits round about.
flee thither, which killeth any person kat una5 And
shall measure from without the wares. city on the east side two thousand cubits, and 12 And they shall be unto you cities, for on the south side two thousand cubits, and on refuge from the avenger ; that the manslayer the west side two thousand cubits, and on the die not, until he stand before the congregation north side two thousand cubits; and the city in judgment. - shall be in the midst : this shall be to them 13 And of these cities which ye shall give, the suburbs of the cities.
m six cities shall ye have for refuge. 6 And among the cities which ye shall give 14 n Ye shall give three.cities on this side unto the Levitès there shall be b six cities for Jordan, and three cities shall ye give in the refuge, which ye shall appoint for the man- land of Canaan, which shall be cities of refuge. -slayer, that he may flee thither : and to them
flee thither : and « to them - 15 These six cities shaủ be a refuge, both ye shall add forty and two cities.
for the children of Israel, and · for the stran7. So all the cities which ye shall give to the ger, and for the sojourner among them; that Levites shall be d forty and eight cities : them every one that killeth any person unawares shall ye give with their suburbs.
may flee thither: 8 And the cities which ye shall give shall be 16 ? And if he smite him with an instrument • of the possession of the children of Israel : of iron, so that he die, he is a murderer : the * from them that have many, ye shall give murderer shall surely be put to death. • Ver. 13; Deut. iv. 41 ; Josh. xx. 2,7,8; xxi. 3, 13, 21, 27, 32,
* Heb. by error.
Deut. xix. 6; Josh. 36, 38. Heb. above them ye shall give. e Josh. xxi. 3. Chap. xxvi. 54.- - Heb. they inherit. Chap: xv. 16. -P Exod. xxi. 12, 14; Lev. xxiv. 17; Deut. ► Deut. xix. 2; Josh. xx. 2.
xix. 11, 12.
iExod. xxi. 13.
en Deut. 1v. 41; Joshua xx. 8.
cubits from the wall; in ver. 5. the measure is said to be 2,000 from without the city. It is likely these two measures mean the same thing; at least so it was
Fields and vineyards. understood by the Septuagint and Coptic, who have dloxealous TņXELS, -2,000 cubits, in the fourth, as well as in the fifth verse; but this reading of the Septua
2000 cubits. gint and. Coptic is not acknowledged by any other of
Suburbs. the ancient versions, nor by any of the MSS. collated by Kennicott and De Rossi. We must seek therefore
Cubits. for some other method of reconciling this apparently
CITY. contradictory account. Sundry modes have been pro
1000 posed by commentators, which appear to me, in gene
Cubits. ral, to require full as much explanation as the text itself. Maimonides is the only one intelligible on the subject.
“ 'sqinqng - The suburbs," says he, “ of the cities are expressed
2000 cubits. in the law to be 3,000 cubits on every side from the wall of the city and outwards. The first thousand cubits are the suburbs, and the 2,000, which they
“ 'spielauịa pur sple! . measured without the suburbs, were for fields and vine
yards." The whole, therefore, of the city, suburbs, fields, and vineyards, may be represented by the fol
Verse 11. Ye shall appoint-cities of refuge) The lowing diagram
cities of refuge among the Israelites were widely dif.
Fields and vineyards.
Fields and vineyards,
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Laws against murder,
manslaughter, fr. 17 And if he smite him ? with | 25 And the congregation shall An. Exod. Isr. throwing a stone, wherewith he deliver the slayer out of the hand
may die, and he die, he is a of 'the revenger of blood ; and murderer : the murderer shall surely be put the congregation shall restore him to the city to death.
of his refuge, whither he was fled: and he 18 Or if he smite him with a hand weapon shall abide in it unto the death of the higt. of wood, wherewith he may die, and he die, priést, * which was anointed with the holy oil. he is a murderer: the murderer shall surely 26 But if the slayer shall at any time come be put to death.
without the border of the city of his reluge, 19 - The revenger of blood himself shall slay whither he was fled; the murderer: when he meeteth him, he shall 27 And the revenger of blood find him withslay him.
out the borders of the city of his refuge, and 20 But if he thrust him of hatred, or hurl the revenger of blood kill the slayer; he at him by laying of wait, that he die; shall not be guilty of blood :
21 Or in enmity smite him with his hand, 28 Because he should have remained in the that he die : he that smote him shall surely be city of his refuge until the death of the high put to death ; for he is a murderer : the re-| priest : but after the death of the high priest venger of blood shall slay the murderer, when the slayer shall return into the land of his he meeteth him.
possession. 22 But if he thrust him suddenly " without 29 So these things shall be for * a statute enmity, or have cast upon him: any' thing of judgment unto you throughout your genewithout laying of wait,
rations in all your dwellings. 23 Or with any stone, wherewith, a man 30 Whoso kileth any person, the murderer may die, seeing him not, and cast it upon him, shall be put to death by the mouth of withat he die, and was not his enemy, neither nesses: but one witness shall not testify sought his harm:.
against any person to cause him to die. 24 Then the congregation shall judge be- 31 Moreover, ye shall take no satisfaction tween the slayer and the revenger of blood for the life of a murderer, which is guilty of according to these judgments;
death ; but he shall be surely put to death. 4 Heb, with a stone of the hand. - Ver. 21, 24, 27; Deut. Ver, 12; Josh. xx. 6. _ Josh. xx. 6.- Erod. IL T; xix. 6, 12; Josh. xx 3,5.Gen. iv. 8; 2 Sam. iii. 27; Lev. iv. 3; xxi. 10.- - Heb. no blood shall be to hi; Erad. XX. 10; 1 Kings ií. 31, 32. Exod. xxi. 14; Deut. xix. 11. xxii. 2.—2 Chap. xxvii. 11.- Deut. xvii. 6; vir 15: Hati.
xviii. 16; 2 Cor. xu. 1 ; Heb. x. 28. Heb. faulty to die ferent from the asyla among the Greeks and Romans, sence of the people, or the elders their representatives; as also from the privileged altars among the Roman and this was done in the city or place where he had -Catholics. Those among the Hebrews were for the done the murder, Josh. xx. 4, 6. If he was found protection of such only as had slain a person involun- worthy of death, they delivered him to the arenger tarily. The temples and altars among the latter often that he might be slain, Deut. xix. 12; if not, they -served for the protection of the most profligate charac sent him back to the city of refuge, where he remained ters. Cities of refuge among the Hebrews were ne- till the death of the high priest, ver. 25. Before the cessary, because the old patriarchal law still remained cities of refuge were appointed, the altar appears to in force, viz., that the nearest akin had a right to avenge have been a sanctuary for those who had killed a perthe death of his relation by slaying the murderer; for son unwittingly ; see on Exod. xxi. 13, 14. the original law enacted that whosoever shed man's Verse 19. The revenger of blood] 077 58 gee? blood, by man should his blood be shed, Gen. ix. 6, and haddam, the redeemer of blood; the next in blood to none was judged so proper to execute this law as the him who was slain. See on the preceding verse. man who was nearest akin to the deceased. As many Verse 30. But one witness shall not testify against rash executions of this law might take place, from the any] This was a just and necessary provision. One very nature of the thing, it was deemed necessary to man may be mistaken, or so violently prejudiced as to qualify its claims, and prevent injustice; and the cities impose even on his own judgment, or so wicked as to of refuge were judged proper for this purpose. Nor endeavour through malice to compass the life of his do we ever read that they were ever found inefficient, neighbour : but it is not likely that two or more should or that they were ever abused.
be of this kind; and even were they, their separate Verse 12. Until he stand before the congregation in examination would lead to a discovery of the truth, judgment.) So one of these cities was not a perpetual and to their conviction. asylum; it was only a pro tempore refuge, till the case Verse 31. Ye shall take no satisfaction for the life could be fairly examined by the magistrates in the pre-l of a murderer] No atonement could be made for him,
Exod. xxi. 13.
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Laws concerning the
marriage of heiresses 32And ye shall take no satis-a the land cannot be cleansed
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city of his refuge, that he should but e by the blood of him that come again to dwell in the land, until the death shed it. of the priest.
34 f Defile not therefore the land which ye 33 So ye shall not poHute the land wherein shall inhabit, wherein I dwell : for 8 I the ye are: for blood cit defileth the land : and Lord dwell among the children of Israel. • Psa cvi. 38; Mic. iv. 1.- Heb. there can be no expiation . Gen. ix. 6.- Lev. xviii. 25; Deut. xxi. 23. for the land.
xxix. 45, 46. nor any commutation, so as to save him from death. As he who takes a man's life away before his time All the laws of the civilized world have either adjudged may be the murderer of his soul as well as of his body, the murderer to death, or to a punishment equivalent the severest laws should be enacted against this, both to it; such as perpetual imprisonment, in a dungeon, to punish and prevent the crime. under ground, on a stone floor, without light, and to be fed on a small portion of bread and water. In such The Mosaic cities of refuge have in general been circumstances a man could live but a short time ; and considered, not merely as civil institutions, but as types though it is not called the punishment of death, yet, or representations of infinitely better things; and in from its inevitable consequences, it only differed from this light St. Paul seems to have considered them and it by being a little longer respite than was usual where the altar of God, which was a place of general refuge, the punishment of death was awarded. See the note as it is pretty evident that he had them in view when on Gen. ix. 6.
writing the following words : “God, willing more abunVerse 32. Until the death of the priest.) Probably dantly to show unto the heirs of promise the immutaintended to typify, that no sinner can be delivered from bility of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath ; that by his banishment from God, or recover his forfeited in- two immutable things, (his oath and promise;) in which heritance, till Jesus Christ, the great high priest, it was impossible for God to be, we might have a strong had died for his offences, and risen again for his consolation who have FLED for REFUGE to lay HOLDjustification:
upon the hope set before us," Heb. vi. 17, 18. IndeVerse 33. For blood it defileth the land] The very pendently of this, it was a very wise political institute; land was considered as guilty till the blood of the mur- and while the patriarchal law on this point continued derer was shed in it. No wonder God is so particu-in force, this law had a direct tendency to cool and larly strict in bis laws against murderers, 1. Because moderate the spirit of revenge, to secure the proper he is the author of life, and none have any right to dis-accomplishment of the ends of justice, and to make pose of it but himself. . 2. Because life is the time to way for every claim of mercy and equity. But this is prepare for the eternal world, and on it the salvation not peculiar to the ordinance of the cities of refuge ; of the soul accordingly depends; therefore it is of in- every institution of God is distinguished in the same finite consequence to the man that his life be lengthened way, having his own glory, in the present and eterna! out to the utmost limits assigned by Divine Providence. I welfare of man, immediately in view.
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The inconveniences which might be produced by daughters, inheritrixes, marrying out of their own tribe,
remedied on the recommendation of certain chiefs of the tribe of Joseph, who stated the case of the daughters of Zelophehad, 1-4. The daughters of Zelophehad are commanded to marry in their own tribe, 5, 6; which is to be an ordinance in all similar circumstances, 7–9. The daughters of Zelophehad marry their father's brother's sons, and thus their inheritance is preserved in their own tribe, 10-12. The conclusion of the commandments given by the Lord to the Israelites in the plains of Moab, 13.
B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. families of the a children of fathers of the children of Israel: An. Exod. Isr.
Gilead, the son of Machir, the 2 And they said, The LORD son of Manasseh, of the families of the sons commanded my lord to give the land for an of Joseph, came near, and spake before Moses, inheritance by lot to the children of Israel : a Chap. xxvi. 29.
6 Chap.xxvi. 55; xxxiii. 54; Josh. xvii. 3. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVI.
Either the first eleven verses of chap. xxvii. should Verse 2. To give the inheritance of Zelophehad come in before this chapter, or this chapter should unto his daughters.] See this case spoken of at large come in immediately after those eleven verses ; they on chap, xxvii.
certainly both make parts of the same subject.