« הקודםהמשך »
Total amount of the tribes.
NUMBERS. How the land is to be divided. A. M. 2553. 43 All the families of the Shillem, the family of the Shil- A, M. 2553. B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. Shuhamites, according to those lemites.
An. Exod. Isr. that were numbered of them, 50 These are the families of were threescore and four thousand and four Naphtali according to their families : and they hundred.
that were numbered of them were forty and 44 h Of the children of Asher after their five thousand and four hundred. families : of Jimna, the family of the Jimnites: 51 1 These were the numbered of the chilof Jesui, the family of the Jesuites : of Be-dren of Israe), six hundred thousand and a riah, the family of the Beriites.
thousand seven hundred and thirty. 45 Of the sons of Beriah : of Heber, the 52 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, family of the Heberites : of Malchiel, the fa- 53 m Unto these the land shall be divided for mily of the Malchielites.
an inheritance according to the number of 46 And the name of the daughter of Asher names. was Sarah.
54 n To many
thou shalt o give the more in 47 These are the families of the sons of heritance, and to few thou shalt P give the less Asher according to those that were numbered inheritance: to every one shall his inheritance of them; who were fifty and three thousand be given according to those that were numberand four hundred.
ed of him. 48 i Of the sons of Naphtali after their fa- 55 Notwithstanding the land shall be divided milies : of Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeel- by lot : according to the names of the tribes of ites : of Guni, the family of the Gunites : their fathers they shall inherit. · 49 Of Jezer, the family of the Jezerites : of 56 According to the lot shall the possession
Gen. xlvi. 17; 1 Chron. vii. 30- Gen. xlvi. 24 ; 1 Chron. Chap. xxxiii. 54. - Lo Heb. multiply his inheritance. -P Heb. .vii. 13. ki Chron. vii. 13, Shallum. - See chapter i. 46. diminish his inheritance.- - Ch. xxxiii. .54 ; xxxiv. 13; Josh. m Josh. xi. 23 ; xiv. I.
xi. 23 ; xiv. 2. Verse 51. These were the numbered of the children Notwithstanding the amazing increase in some and of Israel, six hundred thousand and a thousand seven decrease in other tribes, the same sort of proportion hundred and thirty.] The following comparative state- 'is preserved in the east, west, north, and south diviment will show how much some of the tribes had in- sions, as before; so as to keep the division of Judah, creased, and others had diminished, since the enume- which was always in the front or van, the largest; and ration in chap. i.
the division of Dan, which was always in the rear, Now. Before
the next in number. But it is worthy of remark that Reuben 43,730 46,500 2,770 decrease
as they are now, properly speaking, to commence their Simeon 22,200 59,300 37,100 decrease
grand military operations, so their front, or advanced
division, is increased from 186,400 to 201,300 ;. and Gad 40,500 45,650 : 5,150 decrease Judah
their rear from 157,600 to 163,200. The first divi. 76,500 . 74,600 1,900 increase Issachar 64,300 54,400. 9,900 increase
sion is strengthened 14,900 men, and the last division
5,600 men. Zebulun
The reasons for this are sufficiently ob60,500 57,400 3,100 increase
vious. Manasseh. 52,700 32,200 20,500 increase
Mr. Ainsworth has a curious remark on the number Ephraim 32,500 40,500 8,000 decrease
of families in the 12 tribes. “Here are families, Benjamin 45,600 35,400 10,200 increase Dan 64,400 62,700 1,700 increase 1. Of Manasseh 8
7. QF Reuben 4 Asher 53,400 41,500 11,900 increase 2. Of Benjamín 7 8. Of Issachar 4 Naphtali 45,400 53,400 8,000 decrease 3. Of Gad
7 9. Of Ephraim 4
4. Of Simeon 5 10. Of Naphtali 4 Total 601,730 603,550 - 1,820 decrease on 5. Of Judah 5 11. Of Zebulun 3 the whole, in 38 years, 6. Of Asher
12. Of Dan 1 Decrease in all, 61,020 Increase in all, 59,200.
"In all 57; to whom if we add the 12 patriarchs, Let it be observed, 1. That among these there was and Jacob their father, the whole number is 70, the not a man of the former census, saye Joshua and Ca- exact number of the souls in Jacob's house that went leb, see ver. 64, 65. 2. That though there was an down to Egypt, Gen. xlvi. 27." In a variety of things increase in seven tribes of not less than 74,800 men, in this ancient economy there is a most surprising proyet so great was the decrease in the other five tribes, portion kept up, which never could have been a forthat the balance against the present census is 1,820, tuitous effect of general causes. But proportion, haras appears above: thus we find that there was an in- mony, and order distinguish all the works of God, both crease of 601,728 from -603,550 in the space of thir- in the natural and moral world. ty-eight years.
Verse 55. The land shall de divided by lot] The
B. C. 1451.
The number of the Levites
after their families
An. Exod. Isr. 40.
57 ? And these are they that 62 v And those that were numwere numbered of the Levites after their fami- bered of them were twenty and three thousand, lies of Gershon, the family of the Gershon- all males from a month old and upward; w for ites: of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites: they were not numbered among the children of Merari, the family of the Merarites. of Israel, because there was no inheritance
58 These are the families of the Levites : given them among the children of Israel. the family of the Libnites, the family of the 63 These are they that were numbered by Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the Moses and Eleazar the priest, who' numbered family of the Mushites, the family of the Ko- the children of Israel y in the plains of Moab, rathites. And Kohath begat Amram. by Jordan near Jericho.
59 And the name of Amram's wife was 64 ? But among these there was not a man • Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom her of them whom Moses and Aaron the priest mother bare to Levi in Egypt : and she bare numbered, when they numbered the children unto Amram. Aaron and Moses, and Miriam of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai.. their sister.
65 For the Lord had said of them, They 60 + And unto Aaron was born Nadab, and shall surely die in the wilderness. And there Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
was not left a man of them, b sáve Caleb the 61. And u Nadab and Abihu died; when they son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of Nún. Gen. xlvi. 11; Exod. vi. 16-19; 1 Chron. vi. 1, 16.---- Exod. Chap. i. 49.
Chap. xviii. 20, 23, 24 ; Deut. x. 9; Josh. ii. 1,2; vi. 20. Chap. 111. 2. Lev. x. 1,2; chap. iii. 4; xiii. 14, 33 ; xiv. 3.- Ver. 3. -1 Chap. i; Deut. ï. 14, 15. 1 Chron. xxiv. 2. See chap. ul. 39.
- Chap. xiv. 28, 29, 1 Cor. x. 5, 6. — 6. Chap. xiv, 30. word 5712 goral, translated lot, is supposed by some to was ever supposed to be the whole disposer in such signify the stone or pebble formerly used for the pur- matters, whatever fell out in the course of God's propose of what we term casting lots. The word bloc vidence was called a lot, 5. This is the lot of them hlot is Anglo-Saxon, from hleotan, to divide, or por- that rob us ;" Isa. xvii. 14. « Thou hast neither part tion out, i. e., fortuitously : it answers to the Greek nor lot. in this matter;" Acts viii. 21. A lot in the k].npos, which some think comes from klaw, to break ; promised land was evidently typical of a place in eterbecause the lot, being a sort of appeal to God, (“Thenal glory. “That they may receive forgiveness of lot is cast into the lap, but the whole disposing thereof sins, and an inheritance (Kanpov, a lot) among them is of the Lord,” Prov. xvi. 33,) broke off all conten- that are sanctified;" Acts xxvi. 18. “Who hath made tions and litigations relative to the matter in dispute. us meet to be partakers of the inheritance (kampov, of From this original division of the promised land by lot the-lot) of the saints in light;" Col. i. 12: "Which to the children of Israel, all portions, appointments, is the earnest of our inheritance, (kampovoulaç, of our offices, shares, or divisions in spiritual and ecclesiasti- allotted porlion ;') Eph. i. 14. " What is the riches cal matters, were termed lots.
So in the New Tes of the glory of his inheritance," (Kanpovoulas, allotted tament, the word kanpos, lot, is used to signify a por portion ;) Eph. i. 18.". As therefore the promised land tion of spiritual blessedness, and kampovoula, a division was divided by lot to the believing Israelites, God deby lot, an inheritance; and kanpoi, the lotted or ap- termining the lot as he saw good, none of the people pointed persons to different works, shares, &c.; hence having any claim on or right to it; so the kingdom of our word clergy, kanpoi, persons appointed by lot to a heaven is a lot given by the mere good will of God to lot, portion, or inheritance ;, see the case of Matthias, them that believe and obey him; for as unbelief and Acts i. 26. Persons thus appointed were by accom- disobedience threw 600,000 people out of the inheritmodation termed inheritors, because originally, when ance of the promised land; so none who disbelieve there could be no claims of exclusive right, all lands God's word, and rebel against his authority, shall ever where a wandering tribe chose to take up its residence enter into the kingdom of heaven. --See Ainsworth. were divided by lot, as the promised land in the case These things happened unto them for examples : see before us. So Judah says to Simeon his brother, Judg. then, reader, that thou fall not after the same example i. 3: “Come up with me into my lot.” And as God of unbelief.
CHAPTER XXVII: The daughters of Zelophehad claim their inheritance, 1-4. Moses brings - their case before the Lord, 5.
He allows their claim, 6, 7; and a law is made to regulate the inheritance of daughters, 8–11. Moses is commanded to go up to Mount Abarim, and view the promised land, 12; is apprised of his death, 13; and because he did not sanctify. God at the waters of Meribah, he shall not enter into it, 14. Moses VOL. I. ( 46 )
B. C. 1451.
The case of the
daughters of Zelophehad. requests the Lord to appoint a person to supply his place as leader of the Israelites, 15–17. God appoints Joshua, commands Moses to lay his hands upon him, to set him before Eleazar the priest, and give him a charge in the sight of the people, 18-20. Eleazar shall ask counsel for him by Urim, and at his command shall the Israelites go out and come in, 21. Moses does as the Lord commanded him, and consa. crates Joshua, 22, 23. A. M. 2553. THEN
came the daughters of | 5 And Moses brought their A. M. 2553. An. Exod, Isr. Zelophehad, the son of cause before the LORD.
An. Exod. Isr. Hepher, the son of Gilead, the 6 And the LORD spake unto son of Machir, the soņ of Manasseh, of the Moses, saying, families of Manasseh the son of Joseph : and 7 The daughters of Zelophehad speak right : these are the names of his daughters ; Mahlah, 5 thou shalt surely give them a possession of Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah. an inheritance among their father's brethren ;
2 And they stood before Moses, and before and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and father to pass unto them. all the congregation, by the door of the taber- 8 And thou shalt speak unto the children of nacle.of the congregation, saying,
Israel, saying, If a man die, and have no son, 3 Our father died in the wilderness, and he then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto was not in the company of them that gathered his daughter. themselves together against the LORD in the 9 And if he have no daughter, then ye shall company of Korah ; but died in his own sin, give his inheritance unto his brethren.. and had no sons.
10. And if he have no brethren, then ye shall 4. Why should the name of our father be give his inheritance unto his father's brethren. d done away from among his family, because 11 And if his father have no brethren, then he hath no son ? • Give unto us therefore a ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman possession among the brethren of our father. that is next to him of his family, and he shall * Chap. xxvi. 33 ; xxxvi. 1,11; Josh. xvii. 3.- -6 Chap. xiv. 35 ; d Heb. diminished.- Josh, xvii. 4.- Exod. xviii. 15, 19. xxvi. 64, 65. Chap. xvi. 1, 2.
& Chap. xxxvi. 2; Jer. xlix. 11; Gal. iii. 28. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVII.
to them, and '07'3x abihem, their fathers, masculine, Verse 1. The daughters of Zelophehad] The sin- are found in the present text, instead of job lahen and gular case of these women caused an additional law 10'IN abihen, feminine. Interpreters have sought for to be made to the civil code of Israel, which satisfac- a hidden meaning here, and they have found several, torily ascertained and amply secured the right of suc- whether hidden here or not. One says, “ the mascucession in cases of inheritance. The law, which' is as line gender is used because these daughters are treated reasonable as it is just, stands thus : 1. On the demise as if they were heirs male.” Another, “that it is beof the father the estate goes to the sons; 2. If there cause of their faith and conscientious regard to the be no son, the daughters succeed; 3. If there be no ancient customs, and to keep the memory of their fadaughter, the brothers of the deceased inherit; 4. If ther in being, which might well befit men. .” Another, there be no brethren or paternal uncles, the estate goes “ that it signifies the free gift of God in Christ, where to the brothers of his father ; 5. If there be no grand there is neither male nor female, bond or free, for all uncles or brothers of the father of the deceased, then are one in. Christ ;” and so on, for where there is no the nearest akin succeeds to the inheritance. Beyond rule there is no end to conjecture. Now the plain this fifth degree the law does not proceed, because as truth is, that the masculine is in the present printed the families of the Israelites were kept distinct in text a mistake for the feminine. The Samaritan, their respective tribes, there must always be some who which many think by far the most authentic copy of could be called kinsmen, and were really such, having the Pentateuch, has the feminine gender in both descended without interruption from the patriarch of places ; so also have upwards of fourscore of the the tribe.
MSS. collated by Kennicott and De Rossi. ThereVerse 7. Thou shall surely give them—an inherit- fore all the curious reasons for this anomaly offered ance among their father's brethren] There is a curious by interpreters are only serious trifling on the blunder anomaly here in the Hebrew text which cannot be of some heedless copyists. seen in our translation. In Hebrew they, them, and While on the subject of mysterious reasons and their, you, ye, and your, are both of the masculine and meanings, some might think it unpardonable if I passfeminine genders, according as the nouns are to which ed by the mystery of the fall, recovery, and full salthey are affixed; but these words are of no gender in vation of man, signified; as some will have it, by the English. In this verse, speaking of the brethren of names of Zelophehad and his daughters. “1. Zelothe father of those women, the masculine termination phehad's daughters, claiming a portion in the promised on hem, THEIR, is used instead of the feminine, qn hen, land, may represent believers in Christ claiming an governed by nua benoth, daughters.' So onb'lahem, I inheritance among the saints in light. 2. These five 706
( 46* )
A. M. 2553.
1 rebelled against my command- 20 And · thou shalt put some of thine honour
49; xxxiv. 1.
Joshua is appointed to be
the successor of Moses, A. M. 2553. possess it : and it shall be unto lead them out, and which may B. C. 1451.
B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. the children of Israel h a statute bring them in ; that the congrega- An. Exod. Isr.
of judgment, as the LORD com- tion of the LORD be not Pas sheep manded Moses.
which have no shepherd. 12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Get thee 18 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take up into this Mount Abarim, and see the land thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man-9 in whom which I have given unto the children of Israel. is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him ;
13 And when thou hast seen it, thou also 19 And set him before Eleazar the priest, k shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron and before all the congregation, and give thy brother was gathered.
him a charge in their sight. . 14 For ye ' ment in the desert of Zin, in the strife of the upon him, that all the congregation of the congregation, to sanctify me at the water be- children of Israel " may be obedient. fore their eyes : that is the m water of Meri- 21 And he shall stand before Eleazar the bah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.' priest, who shall ask counsel for him w after
15 And Moses spake unto the Lord, saying, the judgment of Urim before the LORD: * at his
16 Let the Lord, a the God of the spirits of word shall they go out, and at his word they all flesh, set a man over the congregation, shall come in, both he, and all the children of
17 • Which may go out before them, and Israel with him, even all the congregation. which may go in before them, and which may 22 And Moses did as the LORD commanded * Chap. xxxv. 29.- Chap. xxxiii. 47; Deut. iii. 27; xxxii. 9 Gen. xli. 38 ; Judy. iii. 10; xi. 29 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 13, 18.
« Chap. xx. 24, 28 ; xxxi. 2; Deut. x. 6. Deut. xxxiv. 9. Deut. xxxi 7.— See chap. xi. 17, 28; I Chap. xx. 12,24 ; Deut. i. 37 ; xxxii. 51; Psa. cvi. 32. - Exod. 1 Sam. x. 6, 9; 2 Kings ii. 15.--" Josh. i. 16, 17. - See xvii. 7.- - Chap. xvi. 22; Heb. xii. 9. Deut. xxxi. 2; 1 Josh. ix. 14 ; Judg. i. 1; xx. 18, 23, 26; 1 Sam. xxiii. 9; Sam, viii. 20; xviii. 13; 2 Chron. i. 10. -P 1 Kings xxii: 17 ; xxx. 7.--" Exod. xxviii. 30,- - Joshua ix. 14; 1 Samuel Zech, x. 2; Matt. ix. 36 ; Mark vi. 34:
xxii. 10, 13, 15. virgins may be considered as the five wise virgins, The mountains of Abarim, aceording to Dr. Shaw, are (Matt. xxv. 1-10,) who took oil in their vessels with a long ridge of frightful, rocky, precipitous hills, which their lamps, and consequently are types of those who are continued all along the eastern coast of the Dead: make a wise provision for their eternal state. 3. They Sea, as far as the eye can reach. As in Hebrew 73y are examples of encouragement to weak and destilule abar signifies to pass over, Abarim here probably sigbelievers, who, though they are orphans in this world, nifies passages; and the ridge in this place had its shall not be deprived of their heavenly inheritance. name in all likelihood from the passage of the Israel. 4. Their names are mysterious; for Zelophehad, thosites, as it was opposite to these that they passed the TseloPHCHAD, signifies the shadow of fear or dread. Jordan into the promised land, His first daughter, obna Machlau, infirmily; the se- Verse 14. Ye rebelled against my commandment] cond, jy, Noah, wandering; the third, ohin CHOG- See the notes on chap. xx. 8. LAH, lurning about or dancing for joy; the fourth, Verse 16. The Lord, the God of the spirits of all naha Milcah, a queen; the fifth, ynn Tirtsay, well-flesh] See the notes on chap. xvi. 22.* pleasing or acceptable. By these names we may ob- Verse 17: That the congregation of the Lord be not serve our reviving by grace in Christ; for we are all as sheep which have no shepherd.] This is a beautiful born of the shadow of fear, (Tselophchad,) being expression, and shows us in what light Moses viewed brought forth in sin, and through fear of death being himself among his people. He was their shepherd; all our life time subject to bondage, Heb. ii. 15. This he sought. no higher place; he fed and guided the begets (Machlan) infirmity or sickness-grief of heart flock of God under the direction of the Divine Spirit, for our estate. After which (Noah) wandering about and was faithful in all his Master's house. To this for help and comfort we find it in Christ, by whom our saying of Moses our Lord alludes, Matt. ix. 36.sorrow is turned into joy (Choglah.) He.communi- Verse 18. In whom is the spirit] This must cercates of his royalty (Milcah) to us, making us kings stainly mean the Spirit of God; and because he was and priests unto God and his Father, Rev. i. 6. So endued with this Spirit, therefore he was capable of we shall at last be presented unto him glorious and leading the people. How miserably qualified is that without blemish, being (Tirtsah) well-pleasing and ac- man for the work of God who is not guided and influceplable in his sight.” This is a specimen of pious enced by the Holy Ghost! God never chooses INGENUITY, which has been endeavouring to do the to accomplish his designs but that one whom he himwork of an Evangelist in the Church of God from self has qualified for the work, the time of Origen to the present day.
Verse 20. And thou shalt put, fc.) grind mehodecha, Verse 12. Get thee up into this Mount Abarim) of thine honour or authority upon him. Thou shalt The mountain which Moses was commanded to ascend show to the whole congregation that thou hast assowas certainly Mount Nebo, see Deut. xxxii. 49, &c., ciated him with thyself in the government of the people. which was the same as Pisgah, see Deut. xxxiv. 1. Verse 21. Eleazar the priest-shall ask counsel for
All offerings to be observed
in their due season.
before Eleazar the him, Y and gave him a charge,
priest, and before all the con- as the LORD commanded by the gregation :
hand of Moses.
A. M. 2553.
B. C. 1451. An. Exod. Isr.
A: M. 2553.
B. C. 145).
y Deut. iii. 28; xxxi. 7.
him] Here was a remarkable difference between him salvation ; and to this circumstance of the appointment and Moses. God talked with Moses face to face ; of Joshua to this work, and his receiving of Moses's but to Joshua only through the medium of the high honour and glory, St. Peter seems to refer in these priest.
words, 2. Epist. i. 16, 17: “We were eye-witnesses Verse 23. He laid his hands upon him) · As a proof of his majesty ; for he received from God the Father of his being appointed to and qualified for the work. honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him So at the word of Joshua they were to go out, and at from the excellent glory : This is my beloved Son, in his word to come in, ver. 21. And thus he was a whom I am well pleased ; HEAR HIM." See Matt. xvii. type of our blessed Lord as to his mediatorial office, 5. But one infinitely greater that either Moses or and Divine appointment as man to the work of our Joshua is here.
All the offerings of God to be offered in their due season, 1, 2. The continual burnt-offering for the morn
ing, 3-6 ; and its drink-offering, 7. The continual burnt-offering for the evening, 8. The offerings for the Sabbath, 9, 10. The offerings for the beginning of each month, 11-15. Repetition of the ordinances concerning the
Ordinances concerning the day of first-fruits or pentecost, 26-31. 4. M. cir. 253. AND the Lord spake unto Mo- 4 The one lamb shalt thou offer A. M. cir. 2553.
B. C. cir. 1451. An. Exod. Isr. ses, saying,
in the morning, and the other lamb An. Exod. Isr. cir. 40. 2 Command the children of Is- shalt thou offer o at even ;
cir. 40. rael, and say unto them, My offering, and 5 And sa tenth part of an ephah of four for * my bread for my sacrifices made by fire, for a & meat-offering, mingled with the fourth part
a sweet savour unto me, shall ye observe to of a h hin of beaten oil. offer unto me in their due season.
*6 It is ia continual burnt-offering, which was 3 And thou shalt say unto them, - This is ordained in Mount Sinai for a sweet savour, a the offering made by fire which ye shall offer sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD. unto the Lord; two lambs of the first year 7 And the drink-offering thereof shall be the without spot d day by day, for a continual fourth part of a hin for the one lamb: " in the burnt-offering.
holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to
a Lev. ii. 11; xxi. 6, 8; Mal. i. 7, 12. Heb. a savour of 1 Exodus xvi. 36; chap. xv. 4. -5 Lev. ii. 1.- Erodos my rest. - Exod. xxix. 38. d Heb. in a day- Le Heb. xxix. 40.- Exodus xxix. 42; see Amo3 v. 25.—Exod. between the two evenings ; Exod. xii. 6.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXVIII.
2. WEEKLY. · The Sabbath offerings, two lambs of Verse 2. Command the children of Israel, &c.] It a year old, ver. 9, &c. is not easy to account for the reason of the introduc- 3. MONTALY. At the beginning of each month two tion of these precepts here, which had been so circum- young bullocks, one, ram, and seven lambs of a year stantially delivered before in different- parts of the old, and a kid for a sin-offering, ver. 11, &c.
1. The passover to last seven days; daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly services had been the offerings, two young bullocks, one ram, seven lambs considerably interrupted for several years, owing to of a year old, and a he-goat for a sin-offering, ver. 16, the unsettled state of the people in the wilderness, &c. 2. The day of FIRST-FRUITS. The sacrifices, and that it was necessary to repeat these laws for two the same as on the beginning of the month, ver. 26, reasons : 1. Because they were now about to enter &c. With these sacrifices were offered libations, or into the promised land, where these services must be drink-offerings of strong wine, ver. 7, 14, and minestablished and constant. 2. Because the former ge- chahs, or meat-offerings, composed of fine flour minnerations being all dead, multitudes of the present gled with oil, ver. 8, 12, &c. For an ample account might be ignorant of these ordinances.
of all these offerings, see the notes on Lev. vii., and In their due season) Moses divides these offerings into Exod. xii.
1. Daily. The morning and evening sacrifices : a Verse 7. Strong wine] Sikera; see the note on "amb each time, ver. 3, 4.
chap. x. 9, where this is largely explained.