« הקודםהמשך »
B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1420.
The Lord sends quails.
A plague smiles the people. A. M. 2514. people were prophets, and that gathered the quails : he that gath- A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. the Lord would put his Spirit ered least gathered ten b homers; An. Exod. Isr.
and they spread them all abroad 30 And Moses gat him into the camp, he for themselves round about the camp. and the elders of Israel.
33. And while the flesh was yet between 31 And there went forth a ? wind from the their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath of the Lord, and brought quails from the sea, and let Lord was kindled against the people, and the them fall by the camp, as it were a day's LORD smote the people with a very great plague. journey on this side, and as it were a day's 34 And he called the name of that place journey on the other side, round about the Kibroth-hattaavah: because there they buried camp; and as it were two cubits high upon the people that lusted. the face of the earth.
35 . And the people journeyed from Kibroth 32 And the people stood up all that day, and hattaavah unto Hazeroth; and fabode at all that night, and all the next day, and they Hazeroth. 2 Exod. xvi. 13; Psa. lxxviii. 26, 27, 28 ; cv. 40.- Heb. as it Psa. lxxviii. 30, 31.- d That is, the graves of lust; Deut. in. were the way of a day. —Exod. xvi. 36; Ezek. xlv. 11.
Le Chap. xxxiii. 17.—Heb. they were in, &c. We do not our own spirit know,
camp, and fell there in such multitudes as to lie two Who wish to see suppress'd
feet thick upon the ground ; but the Hebrew will not The men that Jesu's spirit show,
bear this version. The Vulgate has expressed the The men whom God hath bless'd.
sense, Volabantque in aere duobus cubitis altitudine Would God that all the Lord's people were prophets]: super terram. “And they flew in the air, two cubits SHALL we the Spirit's course restrain,
high above the ground.” Or quench the heavenly fire ?
Verse 32. The people stood up, fc. While these Let God his messengers ordain,
immense flocks were flying at this short distance from And whom he will inspire.
the ground, fatigued with the strong wind and the Blow as he list, the Spirit's choice
distance they had come, they were easily taken by the Of instruments we bless;
people ; and as various flocks continued to succeed We will; if Christ be preached, rejoice;
each other for two days and a night, enough for a And wish the word success.
month's provision might be collected in that time. If Can all be prophets then ? are all
the quails had fallen about the tents, there was no Commission'd from above?
need to have stood up two days and a night in gatherNo: but whome'er the Lord shall call
ing them; but if they were on the wing, as the text We joyfully approve.
seems to suppose, it was necessary for them to use O that the Church might all receivě
despatch, and avail themselves of the passing of these The spirit of prophecy,
birds whilst it continued. See Harmer, and see the And all in Christ accepted live,
note on Exod. xvi. 13. And all in Jesus die!
And they spread them all abroad] Maillet observes
that birds of all kinds come to Egypt for refuge from Short Hymns on Select Passages of the Holy the cold of a northern winter; and that the people
Scriptures, by Charles Wesley, M. A., and catch them, pluck, and bury them in the burning sand Presbyter of the Church of England. Bristol, for a few minutes, and thus prepare them for use. 1762. 2 vols. 12mo. ,:
This is probably what is meant by spreading them all These sentiments are the more particularly remark- abroad round the camp. able as they come from one who was sufficiently - Some authors think that the word dusco salvim, bigoted to what was called ecclesiastical orders and rendered quails in our translation, should be rendered regularity.
locusts. There is no need of this conjecture ; all difVerse 31. A wind from the Lord] An extraor- ficulties are easily resolved without it. The reader is dinary one, not the effect of a natural cause. And particularly referred to the note on Exod. xvi. 13. brought quails, a bird which in great companies visits Verse_33. The wrath of the Lord was kindled) In Egypt about the time of the year, March or April, at what way, and with what effects, we cannot precisely which the circumstance marked here took place. Mr. determine. Some heavy judgment fell upon these Hasselquistert
orthe friend and pupil of the famous Lin. murmurers and complainers, but of what kind the sanæus, saw many of them about this time of the year, cred writer says 'nothing. when he was in Egypt. See his Travels, p. 209. Verse 34. Kibroth-haltaavah] The graves of lust;
Two cubits high upon the face of the earth.) · We and thus their scandalous crime was perpetuated by may consider the quails as flying within two cubits of the name of the place. the ground; so that the Israelites could easily take as many of them as they wished, while flying within 1. St. Jude speaks of persons who were murmurers the reach of their hands or their clubs. The common and complainers, walking after their own lusts, ver. notion is, that the quails were brought round about the '16, and seems to have this people particularly in view.
The sedition of Miriam
and Aaron against Moses.
whom the sacred text calls peus YpLoLpol, complainers murmuring, and the death of multitudes of these murof their lot. They could never be satisfied ; even murers was the consequence! We hear of such punGod himself could not please them, because they were ishments, and yet walk in the same way, presuming ever preferring their own wisdom to his. God will on God's mercy, while we continue to provoke his save us in his own way, or not at all; because that justice. Let us settle it in our minds as an indisway, being the plan of infinite wisdom, it is impossible putable truth, that God is better acquainted with our that we can be saved in any other. How often have wants than we are ourselves; that he knows infinitely we professed to pray, “ Thy will be done!" And how better what we need ; and that he is ever more ready seldom, very seldom, have our hearts and lips corres- | to hear than we are to pray, and is wont to give more ponded! How careful should we be in all our prayers than we can desire or deserve.' to ask nothing but what is perfectly consistent with 2. In no case has God at any time withheld from the will of God! Many times our prayers and desires his meanest followers any of the spiritual or temporal are such that, were they answered, our ruin would be mercies they needed. Were he to call us to travel inevitable. “Thy will be done !" is the greatest of through a wilderness, he would send us bread from all prayers ; and he who would pray safely and suc- heaven, or cause the wilderness to smile and blossom cessfully, must at least have the spirit of these words as the rose. How strange is it that we will neither in all his petitions. . The Israelites asked flesh when believe that God has worked, or will work, unless we they should not have asked for it; God yields to their see him working!
CHAPTER XII. Miriam and Aaron raise a sedition against Moses, because of the Ethiopian woman he had married, l, and
through jealousy of his increasing power and authority, 2. The character of Moses, 3. Moses, Aaron, · and Miriam, are suddenly called to the tabernacle, 4. The Lord appears in the pillar of the cloud, and converses with them, 5. - Declares his purpose to communicate his will to Moses only, 6–8.' His anger is kindled against. Miriam, and she is smilten with the leprosy, I, 10. · Aaron deplores his transgression, and entreats for Miriam, 11, 12. Moses intercedes for her, 13. The Lord requires that she be shut out of the camp for seven days, 14. The people rest till she is restored, 15, and afterwards leave Hazeroth, and pilch in the wilderness of Paran, 16. 4. M. 2514. AND Miriam and Aaron spake above all the men which were
A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. against Moses because of upon the face of the earth.) An. Exod. Isr.
the a Ethiopian woman whom he 4. 8. And the Lord spake sud-, had married : for b'he had married an Ethiò- denly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto pian woman.
Miriam, Come out ye three unto the taber2 And they said, Hạth the Lord indeed spoken nacle of the congregation. And they three only by Moses? d hath he not spoken also by came out: us? And the LORD heard it.
5 h And the Lord came down in the pillar 3 (Now the man Moses was very meek, of the cloud, and stood in the door of the
B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490.
_ Ecclus. xlv. 4.
2 Or,'Cushite. • Exod. ii. 21. Heb. taken, - Exod. xix. 4; Isa. xxxvii. 4; Ezek. xxxv. 12, 13.Iv. 20; Mic. vi. 4. Gen. xxix. 33 ; chap. xi. 1; 2 Kings 5 Psa. Lxxvi. 9.- -hChap. xi. 25 ; xvi. 19.
NOTES ON CHAP. XII.
Verse 3. Now the man Moses was very, meek] How Verse 1. Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses] could Moses, who certainly was as humble and modest It appears that jealousy of the power and influence of as he was meek, write this encomium upon himself? Moses was the real cause of their complaint, ihough his I think the word is not rightly understood ; 1Jy anav, having married an Ethiopian woman-van ons which we translate meek, comes from này anah, to act haishshah haccushith—THAT WOMAN, the Cushile, pro- | upon, to humble, depress, afflict, and is translated so bably meaning Zipporah, who was an Arab born in the in many places in the Old Testament; and in this land of Midian-was the ostensible cause. «
sense it should be understood here : “Now this man Verse 2. Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses was depressed or afflicted more than any man Moses?] It is certain that both Aaron and Miriam 0907x7 haadamah, of that land.” And why was he so ? had received a portion of the prophetic spirit, (see Because of the great- burden he had to bear in the Exod. iv. 15, and xv. 20, and therefore they thought care and government of this people, and because of they might have a share in the government; for though their ingratitude and rebellion both against God and there was no kind of gain attached to this government, himself; of this depression and affliction, soe the full, and no honour but such as came from God, yet the est proof in the preceding chapter. The very power love of power is natural to the human mind; and in they envied was oppressive to its possessor, and was many instances 'men will sacrifice even honour, plea- more than either of their shoulders could sustain. sure, and profil to the lust of power.
Verse 4. And the Lord spake suddenly). The sud
Miriam is smitten with leprosy,
and slut out of the camp. A. M. 2514. tabernacle, and called Aaron and white as snow : and Aaron looked A, M.2514.
. An. Exod. Isr. Miriam: and they both came forth. upon Miriam, and, behold, she An Exod. Isi.
2. 6 And he said, Hear. now my, was leprous. words : If there be a prophet among you, I the 11 And Aaron said unto Moses, Alas, my Lord will make myself known unto him i in a lord, I beseech thee, "lay not the sin upon us, vision, and will speak unto him * in a dream. wherein we have done foolishly, and wherein
7 ? My servant Moses is not so, m who is we have sinned. faithful in all " mine house.
-12 Let her not be as one dead, of whom 8 With him will I speak • mouth to mouth, the flesh is half consumed when he cometh even Papparently, and not in dark speeches ; out of his mother's womb. and the similitude of the LORD shall he be- 13 And Moses cried into the LORD, saying, hold: wherefore then 'were ye not afraid to Heal her now, O God, I beseech thee. speak against my servant Moses?
14 And the LORD said unto Moses, If her 9 And the anger of the LORD was kindled father had but spit in her face, should she not against them; and he departed.
be ashamed seven days ? let her be shut out 10 And the cloud departed from off the taber- from the camp seven days, and after that let nacle; and, behold, Miriam became i leprous, her be received in again. · Gen. xv. I; xlvi, 9; Job xxxiii. 15; Exek. i. 1 ; Dan. viii. P 1 Cor. xii. 12.—Exod. xxxiii. 19.2 Pet. ii. 10; 2 ; x. 8, 16, 17; Luke i. 11, 22 ; Acts x. II, II; xxii. 17, 18. Jude 8.- Deut. xxiv. 9. - 2 Kings v.27 ; sv.5; 2 Chron. k Gen. xxxi. 10, 11 ; 1 Kings ini. 5; Matt. i. 20, e Psa.cv. 26. xxvi. 19, 20. — 2 Sam. xix. 19; xxiv. 10; Prov. IX. 32. m Heb. ii. 2, 5.- --n1 Tin. li. 15. - Exod. xxxiii. 11; Deut. Psa. lxxxviii. . See Heb. xii. 9 - Lev. N 46; xxxiv. 10.
chap. v. 2, 3. den interference of God in this business shows at once priesthood itself have fallen into contempt. How the importance of the case and his displeasure. many priests and preachers who deserved to be ex
Verse 6. If there be a prophet] We see here the posed to reproach and infamy, have been spared for different ways in which God usually made himself the sake of the holy character they bore, that the minknown to the prophets, viz., by visions-emblematic istry might not be blamed! But the just God will appearances, and by dreams, in which the future was visit their transgressions in some other way, if they do announced by dark speeches, ni'na bechidoth, by not deeply deplore them and find mercy through Christ. enigmas or figurative representations, ver. 8. But to Nothing tends to discredit the work of God so much Moses God had communicated bimself in a different as the transgressions and 'miscarriages of those who way-he spoke to him face to face, apparently, show- minister in holy things. ing him his glory: not in dark or enigmatical speeches; Verse 14. If her father had but spit in her face) this could not be admitted in the case in wbich Moses This appears to have been done only in cases of great was engaged, for he was to receive laws by Divine provocation on the part of the child, and strong irriinspiration, the precepts and expressions of which must tation on the side of the parent. Spitting in the face all be ad captum vulgi, within the reach of the mean- was a sign of the deepest contempt. See Job xxx. 10; est capacity. As Moses, therefore, was chosen of Isa. I. 6; Mark xiv. 65, In a case where a parent God to be the lawgiver, so was he chosen to see these was obliged by the disobedient conduct of his child to laws duly enforced for the benefit of the people among treat him in this way, it appears he was banished from whom he presided.
the father's presence for seven, days. If then this Verse 7. Moses—is faithful] 7x) neeman, a pre-was an allowed and judged case in matters of high fect or superintendent. So Samuel is termed, 1 Sam. provocation on the part of a child, should not the ii. 35 ; iii. 20 ; David is so called, 1 Sam. xviii: 27, punishment be equally severe -where the creature has Neeman, and son-in-law of the king.' Job, xii. 20, rebelled against the Creator ? Therefore Miriam was speaks of the Neemanim as a name of dignity. It shut out of the camp for seven days, and thus debarseems also to have been a title of respect given to red from coming into the presence of God her father, ambassadors, Prov. xii. 17 ; xxv. 13. Calmet well who is represented as dwelling among the people. observes that the word fidelity is often used for an To a soul who knows the value and inexpressible employ, office, or dignity, and refers to 1 Chron. ix. blessedness of communion with God, how intolerable 22, 26, 31; 2 Chron. xxxi. 12, 15; xxxiv. 13, &c. must seven days of spiritual darkness be! But how Moses was a faithful, well-tried servant in the house indescribably wretched must their case be who are of God, and therefore he uses him as a familiar, and cast out into outer darkness, where the light of God puts confidence in him.
no more shines, and where his approbation can no Verse 10. Miriam became leprous] It is likely more be felt for ever! Reader, God save thee from Miriam was chief in this mutiny; and it is probable so great a curse! that it was on this ground she is mentioned first, (see Several of the fathers suppose there is a great Ver. 1,) and punished here, while Aaron is spared. mystery hidden in the quarrel of Miriam and Aaron Had he been smitten with the leprosy, his sacred with Moses and Zipporah. Origen (and after him secharacter must have greatly suffered, and perhaps the ! veral athers) speaks of it in the following manner :
Twelve men are sent to
search the land of Canaan.
A. M. 2514. 15. y And Miriam was shut out 16 And afterward the people
B. C. 1490.
the people journeyed not till pitched in the wilderness of Miriam was brought in again.
A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr.
y Deut. xxiv. 9; 2 Chron. xxvi. 20, 21.
2 Chap. xi. 35; xxxiii. 18.
"1. Zipporah, a Cushite espoused by Moses, evi- those vast fields--not as many as the exuberance of dently points out the choice which Jesus Christ has those fields afford, but only such as by their odour he made of the Gentiles for his spouse and Church. was led to select from the rest." Licebat tamen ex 2, The jealousy of Aaron and Miriam against Móses and ingentibus campis paucos flosculos legere, et Zipporah signifies the hatred and envy of the Jews quantum ager exuberet, sed quantum odoratui suffiagainst Christ and the apostles, when they saw that ciat, carpere. the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven had been Verse 16. The wilderness of Paran.) This could opened to the Gentiles, of which they had rendered not be the same Paran with that mentioned Deut. i. 1, themselves unworthy. 3. The leprosy with which for that was on the borders of the promised land, see Miriam was smitten shows the gross ignorance of the the note on Deut. i. 1, 2; they were long near the Jews, and the ruinous, disordered state of their reli- borders of Canaan, and might have speedily entered gion, in which there is neither a head, a temple, nor into it, had it not been for their provocations and inia sacrifice. 4. Of none but Jesus Christ can it be quities. They spent thirty-eight years in a journey said that he was the most 'meek and patient of men; which might have been accomplished in a few weeks ! that he saw God face to face; that he had every thing How many through their unfaithfulness have been clearly revealed without enigmatical representations; many years in gaining that for which, in the ordinary and that he was faithful in all the house of God." procedure of Divine grace, a few days had been suffiThis, and much more, Origen states in the sixth and cient! How much ground may a man lose in the Divine seventh homilies on the book of Numbers, and yet all life by one'act of unfaithfulness or transgression! Israel this he considers as little in comparison of the vast wandered in the wilderness because Israel despised the mysteries that lie - hidden in these accounts; for the pleasant land, and did not give credence to the word shortness of the time, and the magnitude of the mys- of the Lord. They would have a golden calf, and they teries, only permit him “ to pluck a few flowers from I had nothing but tribulation and wo in return.
Twelve men, one out of every tribe, are sent to examine the nature and state of the land of Canaan, 1-3.
Their names, 4-16. Moses gives them particular directions, 17-20. They proceed on their journey, 21, 22. Come to Eshcol, and cut down a branch with a cluster of grapes, which they bear between two of them úpon a staff, 23, 24. After forty days they return to Paran, from searching the land, and show lo Moses and the people the fruit they had brðught will them, 25, 26. Their report——they acknowledge that the land is good, but that the inhabitants are such as the Israelites cannot hope to conquer, 27-29. Caleb endeavours to do away the bad impression made, by the report of his fellows, upon the minds of the people, 30. But the others persist in their former statement, 31; and greatly amplify the difficulties of conquest, 32, 33. 6. M.: 2594 · AND the Lord spake unto 3 And Moses by the commandMoses, saying,
ment of the LORD sent them An. Exod. Isr. 2 Send thou men, that they from the wilderness of Paran : may search the land of Canaan, which I give all those men were heads of the children of unto the children of Israel : of every tribe of Israel. their fathers shall ye send a man, every one a
4 And these were their names: of the tribe ruler among them.
of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur.
A. M. 2514.
An. Exod. Isr.
Chap. xxxii. 8; Deut. i. 22.
• Chap. xii. 16; xxxii. 8; Deut. i. 19; ix. 23.
NOTES ON CHAP. XHI.
the Amorites, which the Lord our God doth give unto Verse 2. Send thou men, that they may search] It us. Behold the Lord thy God hath set the land beappears from Deut. i. 19-24 that this was done in con- fore thee: go up and possess it, as the Lord God of sequence of the request of the people, after the follow- thy fathers hath said unto thee ; fear not, neither be ing address of Moses : “ And when we departed from discouraged. And ye came near unto me every one Horeb, we went through all that great and terrible of you, and said : WE WILL SEND "BEN BEFORE US, AND wilderness and we came unto Kadesh-Barnea; and THEY SHALL SEARCH US OUT THE LAND, and bring us I said unto you, Ye are come unto the mountain of word again, by what, way we must go up, and into Vol. I. ( 43 )
A. M. 2514.
A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr.
The names of the spies.
Moses instructs them. 5 Of the tribe of Simeon, Sha- | Moses sent to spy out the land. An. Exod. Isr. phat the son of Hori.
And Moses called 'Oshea the son 6. Of the tribe of Judah, a Ca- of Nun, Jehoshua. leb the son of Jephunneh.
17 And Moses sent them to spy out the land ng Of the tribe of Issachar, Igal the son of of Canaan, and said unto them, Get you up Joseph.
this way s southward, and go up into the 8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, e Oshea the son mountain : of Nun.
18 And see the land, what it is; and the 9 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of people that dwelleth therein, whether they be Raphu.
strong or weak, few or many; 10 Of the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the son 19. And what the land is that they dwell in, of Sodi.
whether it be good or bad; and what cities 11 Of the tribe of Joseph, namely, of the they be that they dwell in, whether in tenţs, or tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi the son of Susi. in strong holds;
12 Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of : 20 And what the land is, whether it'be i fat Gemalli.
or lean, whether there be wood therein or not. 13 Of the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son of And " be ye of good courage, and bring of the Michael.
fruit of the land. (Now the lime was the time 14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi the son of the first-ripe grapes.) of Vophsi.
21 So they went up, and searched the land * 15 Of the tribe of Gad, Gouel the son of from the wilderness of Zin unto m Rehob, as Machi.
men come to Harnath. 16 These are the names of the men which
22 And they ascended by the 'sonth, and
Chap. xxxiv. 19; 1 Chron. iv. 15.- _d Ver. 30; chap. xiy. Gen. xiv.-10; Judg. i. 9, 19.- i Neh. ix. 25, 35; Ezek. 6, 30; Josh. xiv. 6, 7, 13, 14 ; Judg. i. 12.-- Ver. 16. Ver. xxxiv. 14. - k Deut. xxxi-6, 7, 23. Chap. xxxiv.3; Josh. 8; Exod. xvii. 9; chap. xiv. 6, 30. - Ver. 21.
xv. 1. m Josh. xix. 28.
what cities we shall come. And the saying pleased And the people whether they be strong or weak] me well, and I took twelve men of you, one of a tribe," Healthy, robust, hardy men; or little, weak, and pusil&c., &c. Nearly the whole of these verses is added | lanimous, here by the Samaritan.
Verse 20. The land-whether it be fal or lean] Every one 'a ruler]" Not any of the princes of the Whether the soil be rich or poor; 'which might be people, (see chap. i.,) for these names are different known by its being well wooded, and by the fruits it from those ; but these now sent were men of conside- produced ; and therefore they were desired to examine ration and iraportance in their respective tribes. it as to the trees, &c., and to bring some of the fruils
Verse 13. Sethur, the son of Michael.] It would | with them. have been strange had the numerous searches after Verse 21. From the wilderness of Zin] The place the explanation of the mystical number 666, Rev. xiii. called y3 Tsin, here, is different from that called .;'5 18; xvii. 5, met with nothing to their purpose in the Sin or Seen, Exod. xvi. 1; the latter was nigh to name of this son of Michael. nino Sethur, from no Egypt, but the former was near Kadesh Barnea, not salhar, 'to hide or conceal, signifies hidden or myste- far from the borders of the promised land. rious, and includes in it the numerical letters of the “The spies having left Kadesh Barnea, which was No..666 : 0 60, +7 400, +16, +4200, 666.) in the desert of Paran, see ver, 26, they proceeded But of what utility can such expositions be to any sub- to the desert of Tsin, all along the land of Canaan, ject of history or theology ?
nearly-following the course of the river Jordan, till Verse 16. And. Moses called Oshea-Jehoshua.) they came to Rehob, a city situated near Mount LiOshea, Heb. yvin, should be written Hoshea : the banus, at the northern extremity of the Holy Land, word signifies saved, or a saviour, or salvalion ; but towards the road that leads to Hamath. Thence they y017, he shall save, or the salvation of God; a letter, returned through the midst of the same land by the says-Calmet, of the incommunicable name of God, be- borders of the idonians and Philistines, and passing ing added to his former name. This was not the first by Mount Hebron, rendered famous by the residence lime in which he had the name Joshua ; see Exod. of Abraham formerly, and by the gigantic descendants xvii. 9, and the note there. Some suppose. he had of Anak at that time, they passed through the valley this change of name in consequence of his victory over of the brook of Eshcol, where they eut down the bunch Amalek; see Exod. xvii. 13, 14.
of grapes mentioned ver. 23, and returned to the IsVerse 18. See the land, what it is? What sort of a raelitish camp after an absence of forty days,” ver. 25. COUNTRY it is; how situated ; its natural advantages Şee Calmet on this place. or disadvantages.
Verse 22. Hebron was built seven years before Zoan 658
( 43* )