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B. C. 1490.

The Levites are to serve from

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twenty-five years old till fifty A. M. 2514. 19 And u I have given the Le- 22 z And after that went the A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr: 2. vites as "a gift to Aaron and to Levites' in to do their service in An. Exod. Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif. his sons from among the children the tabernacle of the congrega

Ijar or Zif. of Israel, to do the service of the children of tion before Aaron, and before his sons : * as Israel in the tabernacle of the congregation, and the LORD had commanded Moses concerning to make an atonement for the children of Israel: the Levites, so did they unto them. w that there be no plague among the children 23 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, of Israel, when the children of Israel 'come 24 This is it that belongeth unto the Levites: nigh unto the sanctuary.

from twenty and five years old and upward, 20 And Moses, and Aaron, and all the con- they shall go in o to wait upon the service of gregation of the children of Israel, did to the the tabernacle of the congregation: Levites according unto all that the LORD com- 25 And from the age of fifty years they shall manded Moses concerning the Levites, so did d cease waiting upon the service thereof, and the children of Israel unto them.

shall serve no more : 21 - And the Levites were purified, and they 26. But shall minister with their brethren in washed their clothes ; Y and Aaron offered them the tabernacle of the congregation, to keep the as an offering before the LORD"; and Aaron charge, and shall do no service. Thus shalt made an atonement for them to cleanse them. thou do unto the Levites touching their charge.

Chap. ij. 9. - Heb. given. * Chap. i. 53; xvi. 46; o See. chap. iv. 3; 1 Chron. xxñi. 3, 24, 27.-e.Heb. to war xviii. 5.-2 Chron. xxvi. 16-Ver. 7. y Ver. 11, 12. the warfare of, &c. ; 1 Tim i. 18.- -d Heb. Teturn from the war. z Ver. 15. Ver. 5, &c.

fare of the service. - Chap. i. 53. the

manner of redeeming the first-born, chap. pose that it requires less spiritual purity to fit ministers xvii. 6.

of the Gospel to proclaim the righteousness of the Most Verse 21. And Aaron made an atonement for them] High, and administer the sacred ordinances of ChrisThough the Levites had been most solemnly conse- tianity to the flock of Christ? If these must be withcrated to the Lord's service, and though all legal out spot, as the priests before without blemish, and washings and purifications were duly performed on the these were only typical men, we may rest assured that occasion, yet they could not approach God till an a Christian minister requires no ordinary measures of alonement had been made for them. How strange is holiness to prepare him for an acceptable and profitable it, after all these significations, of the will and purpose discharge of his office. of God relative to man, that any priest or any people 2. If the Christian ministry be established to prewill attempt to draw nigh to God without an atone- pare men for the kingdom of God, of the holiness of ment! As sure as God hath spoken it, there is 'no which the purity of the camp was but a faint emblem, entrance into the holiest but through the blood of how can any man expect to enter that place of blessed Jesus, Heb. x. 19, 20.

ness, who has not his' heart sprinkled from an evil '- Verse 24. From twenty and five years old] See the conscience, and his body washed with pure water ; note on chap. iv. 47, where the two terms of twenty- his life and conversation agreeable to the sacred prefive and thirty years are reconciled.

cepts laid down in the Gospel of Christ? If the law Verse 26. To keep the charge, and shall dono service.] of Moses were more read in reference to the Gospel, They shall no longer be obliged to perform any labo- the Gospel itself and its requisitions would be much rious service, but act as general directors and coun- better understood. Reader, however it may be with sellors ; therefore they were to be near the camp, sing thee, Antinomianism is more general among religious praises to God, and see that no stranger or unclean people than is usually imagined. What multitudes of person was permitted to enter. So the Jews' and all denominations are expecting to enter into the kingmany other persons have understood this place. dom of God without any proper preparation for the

place! Without holiness none shall see the Lord; 1. If it required so much legal purity to fit the and from this decision of the Divine justice there shall Levites for their work in the tabernacle, can we sup- never be any appeal.

CHAPTER IX. The Israelites are reminded of the law that required them to keep the passover at its proper time, and with

all its rites, 1-3. They kept the passover on the fourteenth day of the first month, 4, 5. The case of the men who, being unclean through touching a dead body, could not keep the passover, 6, 7.`Moses inquires at the Lord concerning them, 8; and the Lord appoints the fourteenth day of the second month for all those who through any accidental uncleanness, or by being absent on a journey, oould not keep it at the usual time, 9-12. Those who neglect to keep this solemn feast to be cut off from among his people, 13.

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B. C. 1490.

v. 10.

1, 2.

The stranger who wishes to keep the passover is at liberty to do it, 14. The cloud covers the tabernacle both by day and night, from the time of its dedication, 15, 16. This cloud regulates all the encampments and marchings of the Israelites through the wilderness, 17-22. Their journeyings and restings were all directed by the commandment of the Lord, 23. A. M. 2514. AND the Lord spake unto 6. And there were certain men A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2.

Moses in the wilderness of who were a defiled by the dead an. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. Sinai, in the first month of the body of a man, that they could Abib or Nisan. second

year after they were come out of the not keep the passover on that day : 4 and they land of Egypt, saying,

carne before Moses and before Aaron on 2 Let the children of Israel also keep the that day, passover at his appointed season.

7 And those men said unto him, We are 3 In the fourteenth day of this month, bat defiled by the dead body of a man : whereeven, ye shall keep it in his appointed season: fore are we kept back, that we may not offer according to all the rites of it, and according an offering of the Lord in his appointed seato all the ceremonies thereof, shall ye keep it. son, among the children of Israel ?

4 And Moses spake unto the children of 8 And Moses said unto them, Stand still, and Israel, that they should keep the passover.. I will hear what the LORD will command con.

5 And · they kept the passover on the four- cerning you. teenth day of the first month at even in the 9 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, wilderness of Sinai ; according to all that the 10 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Lord commanded Moses, so did the children If any man of you or of your posterity shall be of Israel,

unclean by reason of a dead body, or be in a a Exod. xii. 1&c. ; Lev. xxiii. 5; chap. xxvii. 16 ; Deut. xvi.

d Ch. v. 2 ; xix. 11, 16; see John xviii. 29. Exod. - Heb. between the two evenings ; Exod. xii. 6. -c Josh. xviii. 15, 19, 26; chap. xxvii. 2. -'Chap. xxvii. 5. NOTES ON CHAP. IX.

any other part of the sacred writings. Houbigant, who Verse 1. The Lord spake unto Moses) The four- grants the existence of such transpositions, thinks that teen first verses of this chapter certainly refer to trans- this is no sufficient reason why the present order of · actions that took place at the time of those inentioned narration should be changed : “ It is enough," says he, in the commencement of this book, before the number- non ignorare libros eos Mosis esse acta rerum suo ing of the people, and several learned men are of opi- tempore gestarum, non historiam filo perpetuo elabonion that these fourteen verses should be referred back' ratam, “ to know that these books contain an account to that place. We have already met with instances of things transacted in the days of Moses, though not where transpositions have very probably taken place, in their regular or chronological order." and it is not difficult to account for them. As in very Verse 3. According to all the rites of it) See all early times writing was generally on leaves of the those rites and ceremonies largely explained in the Egyptian flag papyrus, or on thin laminæ of different notes on Exod. xii. substances, facts and transactions thus entered were Verse-7. We are defiled by the dead body of a man] very liable to be deranged; so that when afterwards It is probable that the defilement mentioned here was a series was made up into a book, many transactions occasioned by assisting at the burial of some personmight be inserted in wrong places, and thus the exact a work both of necessity and mercy. This circumchronology of the facts be greatly disturbed. MSS. stance however gave rise to the ordinance delivered written on leaves of trees, having a hole in each, in verses 10-14, so that on particular occasions the through whịch a cord is passed to keep them all in passover might be twice celebrated : 1. At its regular their places, are frequently to be met with in the cabi- time, the 14th of the first month ; 2. An extra time, nets of the curious, and many such are now before me, the 14th of the second month.' But the man who had especially in Singalese, Pali, and Burman. Should no legal hinderance, and did not celebrate it on one or the cord break, or be accidentally unloosed, it would other of these times, was to be cut off from the people be exceedingly difficult to string them all in their pro- | of God; and the reason given for this cutting off is, per places ; accidents of this kind I have often met that he brought nol'the offering of God in his appointed with to my very great perplexity, and in some cases etherefore that man shall bear his sin, ver. 13. found it almost impossible to restore each individual We have already seen, from the authority of St. Paul, leaf to its own place; for it should be observed that that Christ, our Passover, is sacrificed for us; and these separate pieces of oriental writing are not always that it was his sacrifice that was pointed out by the paged like the leaves of our printed books; nor are paschal lamb : on this, therefore, we may observe, there frequently any catch-words or signatures at the that, those who do not sooner or later eat the true bottom to connect the series. This one consideration Passover, and get the salvation procured by the sprinkwill account for several transpositions, especially in the ling of his blood, shall be cut off from among those that Pentateuch, where they oocur more frequently than in' shall enter into the rest prepared for the people of God;

season

A. M. 2514.

A cloud regulates all the

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movements of the сатр. journey afar off, yet he shall keep cloud abode, there the children of A M. 2514 B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. the passover unto the Lord, Israel pitched their tents.

An. Exod. Isr, 2. Abib or Nisan. 11 . The fourteenth day of the 18 At the commandment of the

Abib or Ninn second month at even they shall keep it, and Lord the children of Israel journeyed, and at h eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. the commandment of the LORD they pitched :

12 i They shall leave none of it unto the as long as the cloud abode upon the tabermorning, nor break any bone of it: 'ac- nacle they rested in their tents. cording to all the ordinances of the passover 19 And when the cloud - tarried long upon they shall keep it..

the tabernacle many days, theri •the children 13 But the man that is clean, and is not in of Israel kept the charge of the LORD, and a journey, and forbeareth to keep the pass- journeyed not. over, even the same soul m shall be cut off from 20 And so it was, when the cloud was a few among his people because he brought not days upon the tabernacle ; according to the the offering of the Lord in his appointed commandment of the LORD they abode in season, that man shall • bear his sîn..

their tents, and according to the commandment 14 And if a stranger shall sojourn among of the Lord they journeyed. you, and will keep the passover unto the 21 And so it was, when the cloud wabode LORD; according to the ordinance of the pass- from even unto the morning, and that the cloud over, and according to the manner thereof, so was taken up in the morning, then they jourshall he do: ye shall have one ordinance, neyed : whether it was by day or by night that both for the stranger, and for him that was the cloud was taken up, they journeyed. born in the land,

22 Or whether it were two days, or a month, 15 And 4 on the day that the tabernacle was or a year, that the cloud tarried upon the reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle, tabernacle, remaining, thereon, the children namely, the tent of the testimony : and ' at of Israel * abode in their tents, and joureven there was upon the tabernacle as it were neyed not: but when it was taken up, they the appearance of fire, until the morning. journeyed.

16 So it was alway: the cloud covered it by 23 At the commandment of the Lord they day, and the appearance of fire by night. rested in the tents, and at the commandment

17 And when the cloud was taken up from of the LORD they journeyed : they kept the the tabernacle, then after that the children of charge of the Lord, at the commandment of Israel journeyed ; and in the place where the the Lord by the hand of Moses.

82 Chron. xxx. 2, 15.- h Exod. xü. 8. i Exod. xii. 10. 9 Exod. xl. 34 ; Neh. ix. 12, 19; Psa. lxxviii. 14. * Exod. xii. 46; John xix. 36.

m Gen. xvii. xii. 21 ; -xl. 38.-Exod. xl. 36; chap. x. 11, 33, 34; Psa. 14; Exod. xii. 15.- Ver. 7.- Chap. v. 31. Exod. lxxx. 1.

_Heb. prolonged. - Chap. i. 53; xii. 49.

iii. 8. -w Heb. was.- Exod. xl. 36, 37. Ver. 19. and for the same reason too; they bring not the of- we see that their times of larrying at different stations fering of God in its appointed season, and therefore were very unequal. they shall bear their sin.

Verse 23. Kepl the charge of the Lord] When we Verse 15. The cloud covered the tabernacle} See consider the strong disposition which this people ever the whole account of this supernatural cloud largely testined to follow their own will in all things, we may explained, Exod. xiii. 21; and xl. 34-38.

be well surprised to find them, in these journeyings, Çalmet observes that the 15th verse, beginning a so implicitly following the direction of God. There new subject, should begin a new chapter, as it has no could be no trick or imposture here. Moses, had he connection with what goes before ; and he thinks this been the most cunning of men, never could have imichapter, begun with the 15th verse, should end with tated the appearances referred to in this chapter. The the 28th verse of the following.

cloud, and every thing in its motion, was so evidently Verse 21. Whetherby day or by night] As supernatural, that the people had no doubt of its being the heat of the day is very severe in that same the symbol of the Divine presence, desert, the night season is sometimes chosen for the performance of a journey ; though it is very likely God chose to keep this people so dependent upon that in the case of the Israelites this was seldom re- himself, and so submissive to the decisions of his own sorted to.

will, that he would not even give them regular times Verse 32. Two daysa month. year] It was of marching or resting; they were to do both when by the Divine counsel alone that they were directed and where God saw best. Thus they were ever kept in all their poregrinations; and from the above words ready for their march, though perfectly ignorant of the

Exod.

Exod. xii. 43.

] Cor. x. 1.

Moses is commanded to

CHAP. X.

make two silver trumpets.

time when they should commence it. But this was this uncertainty cannot perplex thee, if thou be properly all well; they had the presence of God with them; subject to the will of God, ever willing to lose thy own the cloud by day and the fire by night demonstrated in it. But thou canst not be thus subject, unless thou that God was amongst them. Reader, thou art here have the testimony of the presence and approbation of a tenant at will to God Almighty. How soon, in what God. How awful to be obliged to walk into the valley place, or in what circumstances, he may call thee to of the shadow of death without this ! Reader, prepare march into the eternal world, thou knowest not. But to meet thy God.

CHAPTER X.

Moses is commanded to make two silver trumpets for calling the assembly, 1, 2. On what occasions these trum

pets should be sounded. First, for calling the assembly to the door of the tabernacle, 3. Secondly, to summon the princes and captains of the thousands of Israel, 4. Thirdly, to make the eastern camps strike their tents, 5. Fourthly, to make those on the south do the like, -6. No alarm to be sounded when the congregation only is to be assembled, 7. The sons of Aaron alone shall sound these trumpets, it shall be a perpetual ordinance, 8. Fifthly, the trumpets are to be sounded in the time of war, 9. Sixthly, on festival occasions, 10. On the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, the Israelites began their journey from the wilderness of Sinai, and came to the wilderness of Paran, 11, 12. By the commandment of God to Moses the first division, at the head of which was the standard of JUDAH, marched, first, 13; 14. Under him followed the tribe of Issachar, 15; and after them the tribe of ZeBULUN, 16. Then the Gershonites and Merarites followed with the tabernacle, 17. At the head of the second division was the standard and camp. of REUBEN, 18; and under him were that of Simeon, 19 ; and that of Gad, 20. Next followed the Kohathites, bearing the sanctuary, 21. Then followed the third division, at the head of which was the standard of the camp of EPHRAIM, 22 ; and under him MANASSEH, 23 ; and BENJAMIN, 24. At the head of the fourth division was the standard of the camp of DAN, 25; and under him ASHER, 26 ; and NAPHTALI, 27. This was their ordinary method of marching in the wilderness, 28. Moses entreats Hobab the Midianite to accompany them through the wilderness, 29. He refuses, 30!! Moses continues and strengthens his entreaties with reasonings and promises, 31, 32. They depart from Sinai three days' journey, 33. The cloud accompanies them by day and night, 34. The words used by Moses when the ark set forward, 35, and when it rested, 36. . A. M. 2514. AND the Lord spake unto | at the door of the tabernacle of A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses, saying, the congregation.

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. 2 Make thee-two trumpets of

4 -And if they blow but with Abib or Nisan. . silver ; of a whole piece shalt thou make them : one trumpet, then the princes, which are that thou mayest use them for the calling of heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather the assembly, and for the journeying of the themselves unto thee. eamps.

5 When ye blow an alarm, then the 3 And when they shall blow with them, all camps that lie on the east parts shall go the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee forward. a Isa. i. 13. Jer. iv. 5, Joel ii. 15.

c Exod. xviil. 21 ; chap. i. 16; vii, 2. -d Chap. ii. 3. NOTES ON CHAP. X.

Josephus intimates that one of these trumpets was Verse 2. Make thee. two trumpets of silver] The always used to call the nobles together, the other to necessity of such instruments will at once appear, when assemble the people ; sce ver. 4. It is possible that the amazing extent of this numerous army is consider these trumpets were made of different lengths and wideed; and how even the sound of two trumpets could ness, and consequently they would emit different tones. reach them all is difficult to conceive ; but we may Thus the sound itself would at once show which was suppose that, when they were sounded, the motion of the summons for the congregation, and which for the those that were within reach of that sound caught the princes only. These trumpets were allowed to be others in succession what they should do.

emblematical of the sound of the Gospel, and in this As the trumpets were to be blown by the priests reference they appear to be frequently used. Of the only, the sons of Aaron, there were only two, because fate of the trumpets of the 'sanctuary, see the note on there were only two such persons to use them at this Exod. xxv. 31. time, -Eleazar and Ithamar. In the time of Joshua Verse 5. When ye blow an alarm] Wynn teruah, there were seven trumpets used by the priests, but probably meaning short, broken, sharp tones, terminatthese were made, according to our text, of rams' horns, ing with long ones, blown with both the trumpets at Josh, vi. 4. In the time of Solomon, when the priests once. From the similarity in the words some suppose had greatly increased, there were 120 priests sounding that the Hebrew teruah was similar to the Roman tarawith trumpets, 2 Chron. y. 12,

tantara, or sound of their clarion.

B. C. 1490.

Abib

or

Nisan.

1

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The use of the silver trumpets.

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The Israelites leave Sinai. A. M: 2514. 6 When ye blow an alarm the your months, ye shall blow with A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. second time, then the camps that the trumpets over your burnt- An. Exod. Ist. 2.

lie on the south side shall take offerings, and over the saeri- Abìb or Nisan. their journey ; they shall blow an alarm for fices of your peace-offerings; that they may their journeys.

be to you. " for a memorial before your God : 7 But when the congregation is to be gather- I am the LORD your God. ed together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not 11 And it came to pass, on

A. M. 2514,

B. C. 1490. 8 sound an alarm.

the twentieth day of the second An. Erod. Isr

. 2. 8 h And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall month, in the second year, that

ljar or Zif. blow with the trụmpets; and they shall be to the cloud • was taken up from off the taberyou for an ordinance for ever throughout your nacle of the testimony. generations,

12 And the children of Israel took p their 9 And if ye go to war in your land against journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai ; and the enemy that koppresseth you, then ye shall the cloud' rested in the wilderness of Paran. blow an alarm with the trumpets ; and ye shall 13 And they first took their journey'accordbe ? remembered before the Lord your God, ing to the commandment of the Lord by the and ye shall be saved from your enemies. hand of Moses.

10 Also m in the day of your gladness, and in 14 * In the first place went the standard of your solemn days, and in the beginnings of the camp of the children of Judah, according

e Chap. ii. 10. of Ver. 3. Joel ii. 1. Ch Chap. xxxi. 6.; 24; 2 Chron. v. 12; vii. 6; xxix. 26; Ezra jii. 10; Neh, xii. Josh. vi: 4; I Chron. xv. 24 ; 2 Chron. xvi. 12; 1 Mac. xvi. 8. 35; Psa. Ixxxi. 3.

un Ver. 9.

Chap, ix. 17.-P Exod. xl. Chap. xxxi. 6; Josh. vj. 5; 2Chron. xiii. 14. Lk Judg. ii. 18; 36; chap. ii. 9, 16, 24, 31. - -9 Exod. xix. 1; chap. i. 1; ix. 5. iv.3; vi. 9; x. 8,12; 1 Sam: x. 18; Psa. evi. 42. Gen. viii. Gen. xxi. 21 ; chap. xii. 16; xiii. 3, 26; Deut. i. 1. - Ver. 5, 1; Psa. cxi. 4. Chap. xxix. 1; Lev. Mui, 24; 1 Chron. xv. 6; chap. ii. 34.

Chap, ii. 3, 9. Verse 6. When ye blow an alarm the second time) Verse 9. If ye go to war]These trumpets shall A single alarm, as above stated, was a signal for the be sounded for the purpose of collecting the people toeastward division to march ; two such alarms, the sig-gether, to deliberate about the war, and to implore the nal for the south division; and probably three for the protection of God against their enemies. . west division, and four for the north. It is more likely Ye shall be remembered before the Lord] When that this was the case, than that a single alarm served ye decamp, encamp, make úar, and hold religious fesfor each, with a small interval between them. tivals, according to his appointment, which appoint

The camps, or grand divisions of this great army, ment shall be signified to you by the priests, who at always lay, as we have already seen, to the east, south, the command of God, for such purposes, shall blow the west, and north : and here the east and south camps trumpets, then ye may expect both the presence and alone are mentioned; the first containing Judah, Issa- blessing of Jehovah in all that ye undertake. char, and Zebulun; the second, Reuben, Simeon, and Verse 10. In the day of your gladness} On every Gad. The west and north divisions are not named, festival the people shall be collected by the same. and yet we are sure they marched in consequence of means. express orders or signals, as well as the other two. Verse 11. The twentieth day of the second month] There appears therefore a deficiency here in the He- The Israelites had lain encamped in the wilderness of brew text, which is thus supplied by the Septuagint : Sinai about eleven months and twenty days; compare Και σαλπιειτε σημασιαν τριτην, και εξαρουσιν αι παρεμ- Exod. xix. 1 with this verse, They now received the βολαι αι παρεμβαλλουσαι παρα θαλασσαν και σαλ- | order of God to decamp, and proceed towards the proπιειτε σημασιαν τεταρτην, και εξαρουσιν αι παρεμβολαι mised land; and therefore the Samaritan introduces al Trapeußahhovoal apos Boppav.: ," And when ye blow at this place the words which we find in Deut. i. 6–8: a third alarm or signal, the camps on the west shall “ The Lord our God spake unto us in Horeb, saying: 'march: and when ye blow a fourth alarm or signal, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount, turn and the camps on the north shall march.". This addition, take your journey," &c. however, is not acknowledged by the Samaritan, nor Verse 12. The cloud rested in the wilderness of by any of the other versions but the Coplic.) Nor are Paran.) This was three days' journey from the wil. there any various readings in the collections of Ķenni- derness of Sinai, (see ver. 33,) and the people had cott and De Rossi, which countenance the addition in three stations; the first at Kibroth-hatláavah, the the above versions. Houbigant thinks this addition so second at Hazeroth, chap. xi. 35, and the third in the evidently necessary, that he has inserted the Latin in wilderness of Paran, see chap. xii. 16. But it is, exhis text, and in a note supplied the Hebrew words, tremely difficult to determine these "journeyings with and thinks that these words were originally in the He- any degree of exactness; and we are often at a loss brew text, but happened to be omitted in consequence to know whether the place in question was in a direct of so many similar words occurring so often in the or retrograde position from the place previously mensame verse, which might dazzle and deceive the eye tioned. of a transcriber.

Verse 14. The standard of Judah) See this order

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