« הקודםהמשך »
Concerning the vow
of the Nazarile. It was so much the custom in the middle ages of of the church, at a respectful distance. After the Christianity to respect the cross, even to superstition, iron was taken out of the fire several prayers were that it would have been indeed wonderful if the same said : the accused drank a cup of holy water, and ignorant bigotry had not converted it into an ordeal : sprinkled his hand with it, which might take a consiaccordingly we find it used for this purpose in so many derable time if the priest were indulgent. The space different ways as almost to preclude description. of nine feet was measured by the accused himself,
Another trial of this kind was the Corsned, or the with his own feet, and he would probably give but consecrated bread and cheese : this was the ordeal to scanty measure. He was obliged only to touch one which the clergy commonly appealed when they were of the marks with the toe of his right foot, and allowed accused of any crime. A few concluding observa- to stretch the other foot as far towards the other mark tions from Dr. Henry may not be unacceptable to the as he could, so that the conveyance was almost instanreader :
taneous. His hand was not immediately examined, “If we suppose that few or none escaped convic- but wrapped in a cloth prepared for that purpose three tion who exposed themselves to these fiery trials, we days. May we not then, from all these precautions, shall be very much mistaken. For the histories of suspect that these priests were in possession of some those times contain innumerable examples of persons secret that secured the hand from the impression of plunging their naked arms into boiling water, hand- such a momentary touch of hot iron, or removed all ling red hot balls of iron, and walking upon burning appearances of these impressions in three days; and ploughshares, without receiving the least injury. Many that they made use of this secret when they saw realearned men have been much puzzled to account for son ? Such readers as are curious in matters of this this, and disposed to think that Providence graciously kind may find two different directions for making ointjaterposed in a miraculous manner for the preservation ments that will have this effect, in the work here of injured innocence.
quoted. What greatly strengthens these suspicions is, “But if we examine every circumstance of these that we meet with no example of any champion of the fiery ordeals with due attention, we shall see sufficient Church who suffered the least injury from the touch of reason to suspect that the whole was a gross imposi- hot iron in this ordeal: but where any one was so fooltion on the credulity of mankind. The accused person hardy as to appeal to it, or to that of hot water, with was committed wholly to the priest who was to per- a view to deprive the Church of any of her possesCorm the ceremony three days before the trial, in sions, he never failed to burn his fingers, and lose his which he had time enough to bargain with him for cause." I have made the scanty extract above from his deliverance, and give him instructions how to act a very extensive history of the trial by ordeal, which - I his part. On the day of trial no person was permitted wrote several years ago, but never published. to enter the church but the priest and the accused till All the forms of adjuration for the various ordeals after the iron was heated, when twelve friends of the of hot water, cold water, red hot iron, bread and cheese, accuser, and twelve of the accused, and no more, &c., may be seen in the Codex Legum Anliquarum, were admitted and ranged along the wall on each side Lindenbrogii, fol. Franc. 1613, p. 1299, &c.
The vow of the Nazarite, 1, 2. In what it consisted, 3-8. When accidentally defiled, how he is to be
purified, 9-12. The sacrifices he is to bring, and the rites he is to perform, when the vow of his sepáration is fulfilled, 13–21. The manner in which the priests are to bless the people, 22-26. The name of the Lord is to be put on the children of Israel, whom He promises to bless, 27. A. M. 2514.
AND the Lord spake unto or woman shall - separate b them- A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses, saying,
selves to vow vow of a Nazarite, An. Exod. Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif. 2 Speak unto the children of to separate themselves unto the
Ijar or Zif. Israel, and say unto them, When either man LORD: a Or, make themselves Nazarites.
bLev. xxvii. 2; Judg. xiii. 5; Acts xxi. 23; Rom. i. 1. NOTES ON CHAP. VI.
duced. Our blessed Lord both drank wine and touched Verse 2. When either man or woman shall separate, the dead, which no Nazarite would do: as to his either fc.] The word mij nazir, from 173 nazar, to separate, shaving his hair or letting it grow, we know nothing. signifies merely a separated person, i. e., one pecu- His being called a Nazarene, Matt. ii. 23, is nothing liarly devoted to the service of God by being separated to the purpose, as it can mean no more than either from all servile employments. From the Nazarites that he was an inhabitant of Nazareth, which was a sprang the Rechabites, from the Rechabiles the Es- place of no credit, and therefore used as a term of senes, from the Essenes the Anchoriles or Hermits, reproach ; or that he was in a general sense conseand in imitation of those, the different monaslic orders. crated to the service of God—so were Samson, SaSome contend strongly that the Nazarite was a type muel, Jeremiah, and John Baptist; or rather, that he of our Lord; but neither analogy nor proof can be pro- was tho 787 nelser or BRANCH, Isa. xi. 1, and noy
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The vow of the Nazarite,
and how he is to be purified. 3 ° He shall separate himself 8 All the days of his separation An. Exod Isr. 2. from wine and strong drink; and he is holy unto the Lord. Ijar or Zif. shall drink no vinegar of wine, 9 And if any man die very
Ijar or Zif. or vinegar of strong drink, neither shall he suddenly by him, and he hath defiled the head drink any liquor of grapes, nor eat moist of his consecration ; then he shall * shave his grapes, or dried.
head in the day of his cleansing, on the 4 All the days of his d separation shall he seventh day shall he shave it. eat nothing that is made of the • vine-tree, 10 And 'on the eighth day he shall bring from the kernels even to the husk.
two turtles, or two young pigeons, to the priest, 5 All the days of the vow of his separation to the door of the tabernacle of the congre there shall no frazor come upon his head; gation: until the days be fulfilled, in the which he 11 And the priest shall offer the one for a sin separateth himself unto the Lord, he shall be offering, and the other for a burnt-offering, and holy, and shall let the locks of the hair of his make an atonement for him, for that he sinned
by the dead, and shall hallow his head that 6 All the days that he separateth himself unto same day. the Lord, he shall come at no dead body. 12 And he shall consecrate- unto the Lord
7 h He shall not make himself unclean for the days of his separation, and shall bring a his father, or for his mother, for his brother, lamb of the first year m for a trespass-offering : or for his sister, when they die ; because the but the days that were before shall be lost, consecration of his God is upon his head. because his separation was defiled.
€ Amos ii. 12; Luke i. 15. - Or, Nazariteship. Le Heb. h Lev. xxi. 1, 2, 11; ch. ix. 6.-i Heb. separation.
_n Heb. fall.
k Acts um Lev.
tsemach, Zech. iii. 8; vi. 12, which is quite a different growth of hair to burn in the fire which is under the word; but this title is expressly applied to our blessed sacrifice of the peace-offering, ver. 18. 3. During the Lord by the above prophets ; but in no place do they time of his separation, or nuzarate, he drank no wine or any other prophets call him a Nazarite, in the sense nor strong drink ; nor used any vinegar formed from in which 7i] nazir is used. Indeed it could not in any inebriating liquor, nor ate flesh or dried grapes, truth be applied to him, as the distinguishing marks of nor tasted even the kernels or husks of any thing that a Nazarite never belonged to him. He was, it is true, had grown upon the vine. 4. He never shaved his the 733 netser or branch out of the root of Jesse, the head, but let his hair grow, as the proof of his being genuine heir to the throne of David, whose dominion in this separated state, and under vows of peculiar should extend over the universe, who should be King austerity. 5. He never touched any dead body, nor of kings, and Lord of lords ; but the word Nafwpatos, did any of the last offices, even to his nearest kin; but Matt. ii. 23, signifies merely a Nazorean, or inhabit- was considered as the priests, who were wholly taken ant of Nazareth.
up with the service of God, and regarded nothing else. Verse 3. No vinegar of wine, fc.) yon chomets 6. All the days of his separation he was holy, ver. 8. signifies fermented wine, and is probably 'used here to During the whole time he was to be incessantly emsignify wine of a strong body, or any highly intoxi- ployed in religious acts. cating liquor. Dr. Lightfoot supposes that the LEPER Verse 7. The consecration of his God is upon
his being the most defiled and loathsome of creatures, head.] Literally, The separation of his God is upon was an emblem of the wretched, miserable state of his head ; meaning his hair, which was the proof and man by the fall; and that the NAZARITE was the em-emblem of his separation. Now as the hair of the blem of man in his state of innocence. Wine and grapes Nazarite was a token of his subjection to God through are here particularly forbidden to the Nazarite because, all the peculiarities of his nazarate, a woman, who is as the doctor thinks, being an emblem of man in his married, is considered as a Nazarite for life, i. e., paradisaical state, he was forbidden that free and its separated from all others, and joined to one husband fruits by eating of which Adam fell; for the doctor, as who is her lord; hence St. Paul, probably alluding to well as the Jewish rabbins, believed the tree of know- this circumstance, says, 1 Cor. xi. 10 : The woman ledge to have been none other than the vine.
ought to have power upon her head, i. e., wear her hair Vinegar of strong drink] See the note on Lev. x. 9. and veil; for this hair is a proof of her nazarate, and
Verse 5. There shall no razor come upon his head] of her being in subjection to her husband, as the NaThe vow of the Nazarite consisted in the following zarite was under subjection to the LORD by the rule particulars :-1. He consecrated himself in a very of his order. especial and extraordinary manner to God. 2. This Verse 10. Two turtles, or two young pigeons) The was to continue for a certain season, probably never same kind of offering made by him who had an issue, less than a whole year, that he might have a full | Lev. xv.
The offerings of the Vazarite NUMBERS.
when his vow was fulfilled. A. M. 2514. 13 And this is the law of the of the congregation, and shall A M. 2514 B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr
. 2. Nazarite, ° when the days of his take the hair of the head of his an. Exod. Isr. 2 Tjar or Zif. separation are fulfilled : he shall separation, and put it in the fire
Ijar or Zif. be brought unto the door of the tabernacle of which is under the sacrifice of the peacethe congregation;
offerings. 14 And he shall offer his offering unto the 19 And the priest shall take the sodden Lord, one he-lamb of the first year without shoulder of the ram, and one unleavened cake blemish for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb out of the basket, and one unleavened wafer, of the first year without blemish P for a sin- and shall put
the hands of the offering, and one ram without blemish 4 for Nazarite, after the hair of his separation is peace-offerings ;
shaven : 15 And a basket of unleavened bread, 'cakes 20 And the priest shall wave them for a of fine flour mingled with oil, and wafers of wave-offering before the LORD: * this is holy unleavened bread anointed with oil, and their for the priest, with the wave-breast and heavemeat-offering, and their • drink-offerings. shoulder: and after that the Nazarite may
16 And the priest shall bring them before drink wine. the Lord, and shall offer his sin-offering, and 21 This is the law of the Nazarite who hath his burnt-offering :
vowed, and of his offering unto the LORD for 17 And he shall offer the ram for a sacrifice his separation, beside that that his hand shall of peace-offerings unto the Lord, with the get : according to the vow which he vowed, basket of unleavened bread : the priest shall so he must do after the law of his separation. offer also his meat-offering, and his drink- 22 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, offering.
23 Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, say18 " And the Nazarite shall shave the head ing, On this wise ye shall bless the children of his separation at the door of the tabernacle of Israel, saying unto them,
• Acts xxi. 26.---P Lev. iv. 2, 27, 32.- - Lev. ii. 6. xxi. 24. - 1 Sam. ü. 15. w Exod. xxix, 23, 24. — 1 Exod. Lev. ii. 4.—Exod. xxix. 2. — Chap. xv. 5, 7, 10. — Acts xxix. 27, 28. - Lev. ix. 22 ; 1 Chron. xxiii. 13.
Verse 18. Shall take the hair-and put it in the fire] shaving for cleanness, and may offer them by the hand The hair was permitted to grow for this purpose ; and of what Nazarite he will. If he say, Upon me be half as the Nazarite was a kind of sacrifice, offered to God the oblations of a Nazarite, then he bringeth half the through the whole term of his nazarate or separation, offerings by what Nazarite he will, and that Nazarite and no human flesh or blood could be offered on the payeth his offerings out of that which is his." altar of the Lord, he offered his hair at the conclusion “ By this,” says Mr. Ainsworth, " we may see the of his separation, as a sacrifice that hair which was reason of that which James said to Paul, though he the token of his complete subjection to the Lord, and had no Nazarite's vow upon him : 'We have four men which was now considered as the Lord's properly. who have a vow on them; them take and sanctify
The Hindoos, after a vow, do not cut their hair thyself with them, and be at CHARGES WITH THEM, during the term of their vow; but at the expiration that they may shave their heads, &c. Then Paul took of it they shave it off at the place where the vow was the men, and the next day, sanctifying himself with made.
them, entered into the temple to signify the accomThat the hair of the head was superstitiously used plishment of the days of sanctification, (or Nazariteamong different nations, we have already had occar ship,) until that an offering should be offered for every sion to remark; (see the notes on Lev. xix. 27 ;) and one of them;' see Acts xxi. 23–26. For though Paul that the Gentiles might have learned this from the had not vowed or fulfilled a Nazariteship himself, yet Jews is possible, though some learned men think that might he contribute with them, and partake of their this consecration of the hair to a deity was in use charges about the sacrifices." among the heathens before the time of Moses, and in Verse 23. On this wise ye shall bless the children of nations who had no intercourse or connection with the Israel] The prayer which God makes for his folJews.
lowers, and puts into their mouth, we are sure must Verse 21. This is the law of the Nazarite] We be right; and to it, when sincerely, faithfully, and ferlearn from Maimonides, in his Treatise of the Naza- vently offered, we may confidently expect an answer. rite, that a man might become a Nazarite in behalf of If he condescended to give us a form of blessings or another; that is, might assist him in bearing the ex- a form of prayer, we may rest assured that he will penses of the sacrifices, &c. “A son may fulfil the accept what he himself has made. This consideration vow his deceased father hath made, but did not live to may produce great confidence in them who come with accomplish :-He that saith, upon me be the shaving either prayer or praise to the throne of grace, both of of a Nazarite, he is bound to bring the offerings of which should be, as far as circumstances will admit,
The manner in which the.
CHAP. VII. priests are to bless the people. A. M. 2514. 24 The Lord bless thee, and 26. The LORD lift up his A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. keep thee :
thee, and An. Exod. Isr. 2. ገ ljar or Zif. 25 The LORD a make his face give thee peace.
Ijar or Zis shine upon thee, and obe gracious unto 27 • And they shall put my name upon the thee :
children of Israel; and I will bless them. Psa. cxxi. 7; John xvii. 11. Psa. xxxi. 16; lxvii, 1; iv. 6. d John xiv. 27; 2 Thess. in. 16. Le Deut. xxviii. 10; lxxx. 3, 7, 19; cxix. 135; Dan. ix. 17. Gen. xlii. 29.-_* Psa. 2 Chron. vii. 14; Isa. xlii. 7; Dan. ix. 18, 19.-- Psa. cxv. 12. in the very words of Scripture ; for we can readily 3. May God give thee communion with the Father, attach a consequence to the words of God, which we Son, and Spirit, with a constant sense of his approshall find difficult to attach to the best ordered words bation ; and grant thee prosperity in thy soul, and in of men. Take with you words, and turn unto the all thy secular affairs ! Lord. What words? Why those which God imme- This I suppose to be the spirit and design of this diately puts into their mouths.. Take away all ini- form of benediction. Others will doubtless interpret quily, and receive us graciously ; so will we render it-after their manner. Several wise and learned men the calves of our lips; we shall then give the sacri- believe that the mystery of the Holy Trinity is not fices of which our lips have spoken, when we made obscurely hinted at in it. God the Father blesses our vows unto thee. See Hos. xiv. 2.
and keeps his followers. God the Son is gracious Verse 24. The Lord bless thee) There are three unto sinners in remitting their offences, which he died forms of blessing here, any or all of which the priests to blot out. God the Holy Spirit takes of the things might use on any occasion. The following is a verbal which are Christ's, and shows them unto genuine translation
Christians, and diffuses the peace of God in their 1. May Jehovah bless thee and preserve thee! hearts. In a word, Christ, the gift of the Father by 2. May Jehovah cause his faces to shine upon thee, the energy of the Holy Spirit, came to bless every one and be gracious unto thee!
of us by turning us away from our iniquities. 3. May Jehovah lift up his faces upon thee, and may he put prosperity unto thee !
1. Every genuine Christian is a true Nazarite. He This is a very comprehensive and excellent prayer, is separated from the world, and dedicated solely to and may be paraphrased thus:
the service of God. 2. His life is a life of self-denial; 1. May God speak good unto thee, by giving thee he mortifies and keeps the fesh in obedience to the his excellent promises ! (See the note on Gen. ii. 3.) Spirit. 3. All this enters into the spirit of his bapMay he preserve thee in the possession of all the good tismal vow; for in that he promises to renounce the thou hast, and from all the evil with which thou art devil and all his works, the pomps and vanities of this threatened !
wicked world, and all the sinful lusts of the flesh 2. May the Holy Trinity illuminate thy heart, to keep God's holy word and commandments, and to giving thee the true knowledge of thyself and walk in the same all the days of his life. 4. The perof thy Maker ; and may he show thee his gra- son who is faithful has the blessing of God entailed ciousness in pardoning thy sins, and supporting thy upon him. Thus shall ye bless the children of Israel, soul !
&c., &c. See the notes on ver. 5 and 7.
CHAPTER VII. When the tabernacle was fully set up, it appeared that the princes of the twelve tribes had prepared six covered
wagons, drawn by iwo oren each, one wagon for two tribes, for the service of the tabernacle, 1-3. Moses is commanded to receive this offering, and distribute the whole to the Levites according to their service, 4,5. Moses does so, and gives two wagons and four oven to the sons of Gershon, 6, 7; and four wagons and eight oxen to the sons of Merari, 8. The sons of Kohath have none, because they were to bear the ark, fc., on their shoulders, 9. Each prince is to take a day for presenting his offerings, 10, 11. On the first day Nahshon, of the tribe of Judah, offers a silver charger, a silver bowl, a golden spoon, a young bullock, a ram, a lamb, and a kid, for a sin-OFFERING ; two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, and five lambs, for a PEACE-OFFERING, 12–17. On the second day Nethaneel, of the tribe of Issachar, offers the like, 18-23. On the third day Eliab, of the tribe of ZeBULUN, offers the like, 24-29. On the fourth day Elizur, of the tribe of Reuben, offers the like, 30–35. On the fifth day Shelumiel, of the tribe of SIMEON, made a similar offering, 36-41. On the sixth day Eliasaph, of the tribe of Gad, made his offering, 42-47. On the seventh day Elishama, of the tribe of EPHRAIM, made his offering, 48–53. On the eighth day Gamaliel, of the tribe of MANASSEH, made his offering, 54-59. On the ninth day Abidan, of the tribe of BENJAMIN, made his offering, 60-65. On the tenth day Ahiezer, of the tribe of Dan, made his offer. ing, 66–71. On the eleventh day Pagiel, of the tribe of Asher, made his offering, 72-77. On the twelfth day Ahira, of the tribe of NAPHTALI, made the same kind of offering, 78–83. The sum total of all vessels and cattle which were offered was twelve silver chargers, and twelve silver bowls; twelve golden spoons; twelve bullocks, twelve rams, and twelve kids ; twenty-four bullocks, sixty rams, sixty he-goats, and sixty lambs, 84-88. The offerings being ended, Moses goes into the tabernacle, and hears the voice of the Lord from the mercy-seat, 89.
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Ijar or Zif.
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The princes of the twelve tribes NUMBERS.
make their offerings to God. it came to pass on the because h the service of the sancday that -Moses had fully tuary belonging unto them i was An. Exod. Isr. 2. * set up the tabernacle, and had that they should bear upon their
Ijar or Zif. anointed it, and sanctified it, and all the instru- shoulders. ments thereof, both the altar and all the ves- 10. And the princes offered for dedicating sels thereof, and had anointed them, and sanc- of the altar in the day that it was anointed, tified them ;
even the princes offered their offering before 2 That b the princes of Israel, heads of the the altar. house of their fathers, who were the princes 11 And the LORD said unto Moses, They of the tribes, ° and were over them that were shall offer their offering, each prince on his numbered, offered ;
day, for the dedicating of the altar. 3 And they brought their offering before the 12 And he that offered his offering the first Lord, six covered wagons, and twelve oxen; day was 'Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, of a wagon for two of the princes, and for each the tribe of Judah : one an ox: and they brought them before the 13 And his offering was one silver charger, tabernacle.
the weight thereof was a hundred and thirty 4 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels,
5 d Take it of them, that they may be to do after m the shekel of the sanctuary; both of the service of the tabernacle of the congrega- them were full of fine flour mingled with oil tion; and thou shalt give them unto the Le- for a "meat-offering : vites, to every man according to his service. 14 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of
6 And Moses took the wagons and the oxen, o incense : and gave them unto the Levites.
15 p One young bullock, one ram, one lamb Two wagons and four oxen he gave unto of the first year, for a burnt-offering: the sons of Gershon, according to their service: 16 One kid of the goats for a " sin-offering :
8 And four wagons and eight oxen he gave 17 And for 'a sacrifice of peace-offerings, unto the sons of Merari, according unto their two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five lambs service, 5 under the hand of. Ithamar the son of thc first year: this was the offering of of Aaron the priest.
Nahshon the son of Amminadab. 9 But unto the sons of Kohath he gave none; 18 On the second day Nethaneel; the son of
a Exod. xl. 18; Lev. viii. 10, 11.- Chap. i. 4, &c.---- Hch. k See Deut. xx. 5; 1 Kings viii. 63; 2 Chron. vii. 5, 9; Ezra who stood. d Exod. xxv. 2; XXXV. 5.-e Chap. iv. 25. vi. 16; Neh. xii. 27; Psa. xxx. title. - Chap. i. 3.- Exod. f Chap. iv. 31. 5 Chap. iv. 28, 33.—h Chap. iv. 15.-i Chap. xxx. 13. - Lev. ii. 1.- Exod. XXX. 34. —P Lev. i. 2. iv. 6, 8, 10, 12, 14; 2 Sam. vi. 13.
9 Lev. iv. 23. - Lev. ii. 1.
NOTES ON CHAP. VII.
and hangings, chap. iv. 25. And although this was Verse 1. On the day that Moses had fully set up the a cumbersome carriage, and they needed the wagons, tabernacle] The transactions mentioned in this chap- yet it was not a heavy one. ter took place on the second day of the second month Verse 8. Four wagons—unto the sons of Merari) of the second year after their departure from Egypt; Because they had the boards, bars, pillars, and sockets and the proper place of this account is immediately of the tabernacle to carry, chap. iv. 31, 32, therefore after the tenth chapter of Leviticus.
they had as many more wagons as the Gershonites. Verse 3. Six covered wagons] 38 nbay vv shesh Verse 9. Unto the sons.of Kohath he gave none) egloth tsab, six tilted wagons, the Septuagint translate Because they had the charge of the ark, table, candle¿ç duaçaç hautniekas, with which the Coptic agrees; stick, altars, &c., chap. iv. 5-15, 'which were to be but what lampenic chariots were, no person pretends carried upon their shoulders ; for those sacred things to know.
Covered or tilted is probably the meaning must not be drawn by beasts. of the original. The wagons were given for the more Verse 10. And the princes offered] Every prince convenient exporting of the heavier parts of the taber-or chief offered in the behalf, and doubtless at the exnacle, which could not be conveniently carried on pense, of his whole tribe. men's shoulders.
Verse 13. One silver charger) nup kaarath, a dish, Verse 5. According to his service.) That is, dis- or deep bowl, in which they kneaded the paste. See tribute them among the Levites as they may need Exod. xxv. 29. them, giving most to those who have the heaviest bur
One silver bowl] pria mizrak, a bason, to receive dens to bear.
the blood of the sacrifice in. See on Exod. xxvii. 3. Verse 7. Two wagons—unto the sons of Gershon) Verse 14. One spoon] 90 caph, a censer, on which The Gershonites carried only the curtains, coverings, they put the incense. See Exod. xxv. 29.