תמונות בעמוד

Lamech the first bigamist.

GENESIS. Invention of musical instruments.
A. M. cir. 129. 17 And Cain knew his wife; and 20 And Adah bare Jabal : he A. M. cir. 194.
B. C. cir. 3875.

B. C. cir. 3810.
she conceived, and bare ? Enoch : was the father of such as dwell
and he builded a city, 4 and called the name in tents, and of such as have cattle.
of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. 21 And his brother's name was A. M. cir. 500.

B. C. cir. 3504.
A. M. cir. 194. 18 And unto Enoch was born Jubal: he was the father of all
B. C. cir. 3810.

Irad : and Irad begat Mehujael : such as handle the harp and organ.
and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael 22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubal-cain,
begat Lamech.

and instructer of every artificer in brass and
19 And Lamech took unto him two wives: iron: and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah,
the name of the one was Adah, and the name 23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah
of the other Zillah.

and Zillah, hear my voice; ye wives of

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Verse 17. She-bare Enoch] As yun Chanoch them, bears a near resemblance to the hissing sound signifies instructed, dedicated, or initiated, and espe- of one isillah, the mother of Tubal-cain ; and 563 cially in sacred things, it may be considered some tsalal signifies to tinkle or make a sound like a bell, proof of Cain's repentance, that he appears to have 1 Sam. iii. 11; 2 King3 xxi. 12. 4. Vulcan is said dedicated this son to God, who, in his father's stead, to have been lame ; M. De Lavaur thinks that this might minister in the sacerdotal office, from which notion was taken from the noun ubis tsela, which sig. Cain, by his crime, was for ever excluded.

nifies a halting or lameness. 5. Vulcan had to wife Verse 19. Lamech took--Iwo wives] He was the Venus, the goddess of beauty; Naamah, the sister of first who dared to reverse the order of God by intro- Tubal-cain, he thinks, may have given rise to this part ducing polygamy; and from him it has been relained, of the fable, as her name in Hebrew signifies beautiful practised, and defended to the present day.

or gracious. 6. Vulcan is reported to have been jealous
Verse 20. Jabalwas the father] The inventor or of his wife, and to have forged nets in which he took
teacher, for so the word is understood, 1 Sam. x. 12. Mars and her, and exposed them to the view of the
He was the first who invented tent-making, and whole celestial court : this idea he thinks was derived
the breeding and managing of cattle-; or he was, in from the literal import of the name Tubal-cain ; san
these respects, the most eminent in that time. Though tebel signifies an incestuous mixture of relatives, Lev.
Abel was a shepherd, it is not likely he was such on xx. 12 ; and xjp kana, to burn with jealousy; from
an extensive scale.

these and concomitant circumstances the case of the
Verse 21. Jubalthe father) i. e. The inventor of detected adultery of Mars and Venus might be easily
musical instruments, such as the 100 kinnor, which we deduced. He is of opinion that a tradition of this
translate harp, and the law ugab, which we render kind might have readily found its way from the Egyp-
organ ; it is very likely that both words are generic, tians to the Greeks, as the former had frequent inter-
the former including under it all stringed instruments, course with the Hebrews.
and the latter, all wind instruments.

Of Naamah nothing more is spoken in the Scrip-
Verse 22. Tubal-cain] The first smith on record, tures; but the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel makes
who taught how to make warlike instruments and do- her the inventress of funeral songs and lamentations.
mestic utensils out of brass and iron. Agricultural R. S. Jarchi says she was the wife of Noah, and quotes
instruments must have been in use long before, for Bereshith Rabba in support of the opinion. Some of the
Cain was a tiller of the ground, and so was Adam, Jewish doctors say her name is recorded in Scripture be-
and they could not have cultivated the ground without cause she was an upright and chaste woman; but others
spades, hooks, &c. Some of these arts were useless affirm that the whole world wandered after her, and that
to man while innocent and upright, but after his fall of her evil spirits were born into the world. This latter
they became necessary. Thus is the saying verified : opinion gives some countenance to that of M. De Lavaur.
God made man upright, but they have sought out many

Verse 23. And Lamech said unto his wives) The
inventions. As the power to get wealth is from God, speech of Lamech to his wives is in hemistichs in the
so also is the invention of useful arts.

original, and consequently, as nothing of this kind oc-
M. De Lavaur, in his Conference de la Fable avec curs before this time, it is very probably the oldest
l'Histoire Sainte, supposes that the Greeks and Romans piece of poetry in the world.
took their smith-god Vulcan from Tubal-cain, the son The following is, as nearly as possible, a literal
of Lamech. The probability of this will appear, 1. translation ;
From the name, which, by the omission of the Tu and " And Lamech said unto his wives,
turning the b into v, a change frequently made among Adah and Tsillah, hear ye my voice;
the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, makes Vulcain or Wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech ;
Vulcan. 2. From his occupation he was an artificer, For I have slain a man for wounding me,
a master smith in brass and iron. 3. He thinks this And a young man for having bruised me.
farther probable from the names and sounds in this If Cain shall be avenged seven-fold,
verse. The melting metals in the fire, and hammering Also Lamech seventy and seven.”

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Lamecl's speech to his wives.


The birth of Seth and Enos. A. M. cir. 500 Lamech,

hearken unto my | For God, said she, hath appointed A. M. 130. B. C. cir. 3504.

speech : for • I have slain a man me another seed instead of Abel, to my wounding, and a young man fto my hurt. whom Cain slew.

24 : If Cain shall be avenged seven-fold, 26 And to Seth, 'to him also there truly Lamech seventy and seven-fold. was born a son; and he called his 25 And Adam knew his wife again ; and name m Enos : then began men call

upon she bare a son, and called his name i Seth k: the name of the Lord.

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A. M. 235, B. C. 3769.

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• Or, I would slay a man in my wound, &c.; chap. xlix. Or, to call themselves by the name of the LORD.- _0 1 Kings 6.- Or, in my hurt. Ver. 15.- h Chap. v. 3. - Heb. xviii. 24 ; Psa. cxvi. 17; Isa. xliv. 5; xlviii. 1 ; lxiii. 19; Joel ii. Sheth. k That is, appointed or put:

Chap. v. 6. _m Heb. 32; Zeph. iii. 9 ; Acts xi. 26; Rom. x, 13; 1 Cor. i. 2; Eph. Enosh.

iii. 14, 15.

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It is supposed that Lamech had slain a man in his Lamech having killed Cain by accident, &c. ; and after own defence, and that his wives being alarmed lest the what I have already said, I must leave the passage, I kindred of the deceased should seek his life in return, fear, among those which are inscrutable. to quiet their fears he makes this speech, in which he

Verse 25. God-hath appointed me another seed endeavours to prove that there was no room for fear instead of Abel] Eve must have received on this on this account; for if the slayer of the wilful mur- occasion some Divine communication, else how could derer, Cain, should suffer a seven-fold punishment, she have known that this son was appointed in the surely he, who should kill Lamech for having slain a

place of Abel, to continue that holy line by which the man in self-defence, might expect a seventy seven-fold Messiah was to come ? From this we see that the punishment.

line of the Messiah was determined from the beginning, This speech is very dark, and has given rise to a

and that it was not first. fixed in the days of Abraham; great variety of very strange conjectures. Dr. Shuck- for the promise was then only renewed, and that branch ford supposes there is an ellipsis of some preceding of his family designated by which the sacred line was speech or circumstance which, if known, would cast a to be continued. And it is worthy of remark, that light on the subject. In the antediluvian times, the Seth's posterity alone continued after the food, when nearest of kin to a murdered person had a right to re- all the other families of the earth were destroyed, venge his death by taking away the life of the mur- Noah being the tenth descendant from Adam through derer. This, as we have already seen, appears to have

Seth. contributed not a little to Cain's horror, verse 14.

Thongh all these persons are mentioned in the folNow we may suppose that tiie descendants of Cain lowing chapter, I shall produce them here in the order were in continual alarms, lest some of the other family of their succession : 1. Adam ; 2. Seth ; 3. Enos ; 4. should attempt to avenge the death of Abel on them, Cainan ; 5. Mahalaleel; 6. Jared ; 7. Enoch ; 8. Meas they were not permitted to do it on Cain ; and that thuselah ; 9. Lamech, (the second ;) 10. Noah. In in order to dismiss those fears, Lamech, the seventh order to keep this line distinct, we find particular care descendant from Adam, spoke to this effect to his was taken that, where there were two or more sons in wives: “ Why should you render yourselves miserable

a family, the one through whom God particularly deby such ill-founded fears? We have slain no person ; signed to bring his Son into the world was, by some we have not done the least wrong to our brethren of

especial providence, pointed out. Thus in the family the other family; surely then reason should dictate to of Adam, Seth was chosen ; in the family of Noah, you that they have no right to injure us. It is true Shem ; in the family of Abraham, Isaac ; and in that that Cain, one of our ancestors, killed his brother Abel ; of David, Solomon and Nathan. All these things God but God, willing to pardon his sin, and give him space watched over by an especial providence from the beto repent, threatened to punish those with a seven-fold ginning, that when Jesus Christ should come it might punishment who should dare to kill him. If this be be clearly seen that he came by the promise, through so, then those who should have the boldness to kill any

grace, and not by nature.
of us who are innocent, may expect a punishment still
more rigorous. For if Cain should be avenged seven-

Verse 26. Then began men to call upon the name fold on the person who should slay him, surely Lamech of the Lord.) The marginal reading is, Then began or any of his innocent family should be avenged seven- men to call themselves by the name of the Lord ; which ty-seven-fold on those who should injure them.” . The words are supposed to signify that in the time of Enos Targums give nearly the same meaning, and it makes the true followers of God began to distinguish thema good sense ; but who can say it is the true sense ? selves, and to be distinguished by others, by the appelIf the words be read interrogatively, as they certainly lation of sons of God; those of the other branch of may, the sense will be much clearer, and some of the Adam's family, among whom the Divine worship was difficulties will be removed :

not observed, being distinguished by the name, children

of men. It must not be dissembled that many emi“ Have I slain a man, that I should be wounded ?

nent men have contended that brin huchal, which we Or a young man, that I should be bruised ?"

translate began, should be rendered began profanely, But even this still supposes some previous reason or or then profanation began, and from this time they date conversation. I shall not trouble my readers with a the origin of idolatry. Most of the Jewish doctors ridiculous Jewish fable, followed by St. Jerome, of I were of this opinion, and Maimonides has discussed it Farther account of


the creation of Adam. at some length in his Treatise on Idolatry; as this and spheres, for whose sake and in whose likeness they piece is curious, and gives the most probable account had made these images ; but as for the Rock everof the origin and progress of idolatry, I shall insert it lasting, there was no man that acknowledged him or here.

knew him save a few persons in the world, as Enoch, “In the days of Enos the sons of Adam erred with Methuselah, Noah, Shem, and Heber. And in this great error, and the counsel of the wise men of that way did the world walk and converse till that pillar of age became brutish, and Enos himself was (one) of the world, Abraham onr father, was born." Maim. in them that erred ; and their error was this : they said, Mishn. and Ainsworth in loco. Forasmuch as God hath created these stars and spheres to govern the world, and set them on high, and im- 1. We see here the vast importance of worshipping parted honour unto them, and they are ministers that God according to his own mind ; no sincerity, no upminister before him ; it is meet that men should laud, rightness of intention, can atone for the neglect of and glorify, and give them honour. For this is the will positive commands delivered in Divine revelation, when of God, that we magnify and honour whomsoever he this revelation is known. He who will bring a euehamagnifieth and honoureth ; even as a king would have ristic offering instead of a sacrifice, while a sin-offerthem honoured that stand before him, and this is the ing lieth at the door, as he copies Cain's conduct, may honour of the king himself. When this thing was expect to be treated in the same manner. Reader, come up into their hearts they began to build temples remember that thou hast an entrance unto the holiest unto the stars, and to offer sacrifice unto them, and to through the veil, that is to say his flesh; and those laud and glorify them with words, and to worship be- who come in this way, God will in nowise cast out. fore them, that they might in their evil opinion obtain 2. We see the horrible nature of envy : its eye is favour of the Creator; and this was the root of idola- evil merely because. God is good; it easily begets ha

And in process of time there stood up false tred; hatred, deep-settled malice; and malice, murder ! prophets among the sons of Adam, which said that Watch against the first appearance of this most deGod had commanded and said unto them, Worship such structive passion, the prime characteristic of which is a star, or all the stars, and do sacrifice unto them thus to seek the destruction of the object of its malevolence, and thus ; and build a temple for it, and make an image and finally to ruin its possessor. of it, that all the people, women, and children may 3. Be thankful to God that, as weakness increased worship it. And the false prophet showed them the and wants became multiplied, God enabled man to find image which he had feigned out of his own heart, and out useful inventions, so as to lessen excessive labour, said it was the image of such a star, which was made and provide every thing indispensably necessary for known unto him by prophecy. And they began after the support of life. He who carefully attends to the this manner to make images in temples, and under dictates of honest, sober industry, is never likely to trees, and on tops of mountains and hills, and assem- perish for lack of the necessaries of life, bled together and worshipped them, &c. And this 4. As the followers of God at this early period thing was spread through all the world, to serve images found it indispensably necessary to separate themselves with services different one from another, and to sacri- from all those who were irreligious and profane, and fice unto and worship them. So, in process of time, to make a public profession of their attachment to the the glorious and fearful name (of God) was forgotten truth, so it should be now. There are still men of out of the mouth of all living, and out of their know- profane minds, whose spirit and conduct are destrucledge, and they acknowledged him not. And there tive to godliness; and in reference to such the permawas found no people on the earth that knew aught, save nent order of God is, Come out from among them, images of wood and stone, and temples of stone, which touch not the unclean thing, and I will receive you. they had been trained up from their childhood to wor- He who is not determined to be a Christian at all ship and serve, and to swear by their names. And events, is not far from being an infidel. Those only the wise men that were among them, as the priests who confess Christ among men shall be acknowledged and such like, thought there was no God save the stars before his Father and the angels of God.

try, &c.


A recapitulation of the account of the creation of man, 1, 2 ; and of the birth of Seth, 3. Genealogy of the

ten antediluvian patriarchs, 3-31. Enoch's extraordinary piety, 22 ; his translation to heaven without seeing death, 24. The birth of Noah, and the reason of his name, 29; his age at the birth of Japheth, 32.

A. M.). B.C. 4004. THIS is the book of the gene-, that God created man, in the

B. C. 4004.
rations of Adam. In the day likeness of God made he him ;
• 1 Chron. i. 1 ;.Matt. i. 1; Luke iii. 36, 38.

Chap. i. 26 ; Wisd. ii. 23; Eph. iv. 24; Col. iši. 10.

leller, such as the bill of divorce. Here it means the Verse 1. The book of the generations) 190 sepher, account or register of the generations of Adam or his in Hebrew, which we generally translate book, signifies descendants to the five hundredth year of the life of a register, an account, any kind of writing, even a Noah.

Genealogy of the


antediluvian patriarchs.

A. M. 1. B. C. 4004.

B. C. 3769.

B. C. 2962.

A. M. 130. B. C. 3874.

A. M. 325.
B. C. 3679.

2 • Male and female created he 7 And Seth lived after he begat A. M. 235.

them; and blessed them, and called Enos eight hundred and seven years, their name Adam, in the day when they were and begat sons and daughters : created.

8 And all the days of Seth were A. M. 1042. 3 And Adam lived a hundred and nine hundred and twelve years :

thirty years, and begat a son in his and he died. own likeness, after his image ; and d called 9 And Enos lived ninety years, his name Seth :

and begat i Cainan: 4 And the days of Adam after he had be- 10 And Enos lived after he begat Cainan gotten Seth were eight hundred years ; fand eight hundred and fifteen years, and begat he begat sons and daughters :

sons and daughters : 5 And all the days that Adam lived 11 And all the days of Enos A. M. 1140.

B. C. 2864. were nine hundred and thirty years : were nine hundred and five years : & and he died.

and he died. 6 And Seth lived a hundred and 12 And Cainan lived seventy A. M. 395. five years, and begat Enos :

years, and begat k Mahalaleel :

A. M. 930. B. C. 3074.

A. M. 235. B. C. 3769.

B. C. 3609.

• Chap. i. 27.

-1 Chap. iv. 25.

- 1 Chron. i. !, &c. « Chap. ii. 19; Heb. ix. 27.- Chap. iv. 26. -i Heb. Kenan. Chap. i. 28.

kGr. Maleleel.

In the likeness of God made he him] This account Verse 3. And Adam lived a hundred and thirty is again introduced to keep man in remembrance of the years, fc.} The Scripture chronology, especially in heights of glory whence he had fallen ; and to prove the ages of some of the antediluvian and postdiluvian to him that the miseries and death consequent on his patriarchs, has exceedingly puzzled chronologists, present state were produced by his transgression, and critics, and divines. The printed Hebrew text, the did not flow from his original state. For, as he was Samaritan, the Septuagint, and Josephus, are all difcreated in the image of God, he was created free from ferent, and have their respective vouchers and denatural and moral evil. As the deaths of the patri- fenders. The following tables of the genealogies of archs are now to be mentioned, it was necessary to in the patriarchs before and after the flood, according to troduce them by this observation, in order to justify the the Hebrew, Samaritan, and Septuagini, will at once ways of God to man..

exhibit the discordances.

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Gen. v. 3. 130 130

230 Shem begot Arphaxad Seth,


105 205 after the flood, Gen. 2 2 2 Enos,

9. 90 90 190 xi. 10. Cainan, 12. 70 70 170

Arphaxad, Gen. xi. 12. 35 135 135 Mahalaleel,


65 165 Cainan (2d) mentioned Jared, 18. 162 62 162

only by the LXX. and 0 0 130 Enoch,

21. 65 65 165 Luke iii. 36. Methuselah,

25. 187 67 167 Salah, Gen. xi, 14. 30 130 130 Lamech, 28. 182 53 188 Eber,


34 134 134 Noah, at the



18. Gen. vij. 6.

130 130 600 600 600 flood,


20. 32 132 132 Serug,

22. 30 130 130 Total before the flood, 1656 1307 2242* Nahor,

24. 29 79 179 Terah,

26. 70 70 70 In this first period the sum in Josephus is 2256,

Total to the 70th year which is also adopted by Dr. Hales in his New

of Terah,

292 942 1172* Analysis of Chronology.

In this second period the sum in Josephus is 1002.


* The Septuagint account of the ages of the antediluvian and postdiluvian patriarchs in the above tables, is taken from Nie VATICAN copy; but if we follow the ALEXANDRIAN MS., we shall have in the first period the whole sum of 2262 instead of 2242 ; and in the second period, 1072 instead of 1172. On this subject the different MSS. of the Septuagint abound with various readings.

For much satisfactory information on this subject Il And begat a son in his own likeness, after his image] inust refer to A New Analysis of Chronology, by the Words nearly the same with those chap. i. 26 : Let Rev. William Hales, D. D., 3 vols. 4to., London, 1809. I us make man in our image, after our likeness. What

A. M. 395. B. C. 3609.

A. M. 622. B. C. 3382.

A. M. 1235.
B. C. 2769.

Genealogy of the patriarchs.


Enoch walks with God. 13 And Cainan lived after her 18 And Jared lived a hundred

begat Mahalaleel eight hundred and sixty and two years, and he begat forty years, and begat sons and daughters : m Enoch :

14 And all the days of Cainan 19 And Jared lived after he begat Enoch

were nine hundred and ten years : eight hundred years, and begat sons and and he died.

daughters : 15 And Mahalaleel lived sixty 20 And all the days of Jared A. M. 1422.

and five years, and begat Jared : were nine hundred sixty and two 16 And Mahalaleel lived after he begat years : and he died. . Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and 21 And Enoch lived sixty and begat sons and daughters :

five years, and begat Methuselah : 17 And all the days of Mahala- 22 And Enoch walked with God after he

leel were eight hundred ninety and begat Methuselah three hundred years, and five years : and he died.

begat sons and daughters :

A. M. 460. B. C. 3544.

B. C. 2582

A. M. 687. B. C. 3317.

A. W. 1290.
B. C. 2714.

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this image and likeness of God were, we have already upon himself : here we may consider Enoch receiving seen, and we may rest assured that the same image a pious education, and the Divine influence through it ; and likeness are not meant here. The body of Adam in consequence of which he determines to be a worker was created provisionally immortal, i. e. while he con- with God, and therefore takes up the resolution to walk tinued obedient he could not die ; but his obedience with his Maker, that he might not receive the grace was voluntary, and his state a probationary one. The of God in vain. soul of Adam was created in the moral image of God, 3. The circumstances in which he was placed. He in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness. He was a patriarch; the king, the priest, and the prophet had now sinned, and consequently had lost this moral of a numerous family, to whom he was to administer resemblance to his Maker ; -he had also become mortal justice, among whom he was to perform all the rites through his breach of the law. His image and like and ceremonies of religion, and teach, both by precept ness were therefore widely different at this time from and example, the way of truth and righteousness. Add what they were before ; and his begetting children in to this, he was a married man, he had a numerous this image and likeness plainly implies that they were family of his own, independently of the collateral imperfect like himself, mortal like himself, sinful and branches over which he was obliged, as patriarch, to corrupt like himself.

For it is impossible that he, preside ; he walked three hundred years with God, and being impure, fallen from the Divine image, could be begat sons and daughters ; therefore marriage is no get a pure and holy offspring, unless we could suppose hinderance even to the perfection of piety ; much less it possible that a bitter fountain could send forth sweet inconsistent with it, as some have injudiciously taught. waters, or that a cause could produce effects totally 4. The astonishing height of piety to which he had dissimilar from itself. What is said here. of Seth arrived ; being cleansed from all filthiness of the flesh might have been said of all the other children of Adam, and of the spirit, and having perfected holiness in the as they were all begotten after his fall; but the sacred fear of God, we find not only his soul but his body writer has thought proper to mark it only in this instance. purified, so that, without being obliged to visit the em

Verse 22. And Enoch walked with Godthree hun- pire of death, he was capable of immediate translation dred years] There are several things worthy of our to the paradise of God. There are few cases of this most particular notice in this account:

kind on record ; but probably there might be more, 1. The name of this patriarch; Enoch, from 70 many more, were the followers of God more faithful to chanack, which signifies to instruct, to initiate, to dedi- the grace they receive. cale. From his subsequent conduct we are authorized 5. Enoch attained this state of religious and spirito believe he was early instructed in the things of God, tual excellence in a time when, comparatively speakinitiated into the worship of his Maker, and dedicated ing, there were few helps, and no written revelation. to his service. By these means, under the influence Here then we cannot but see and admire, how mighty of the Divine Spirit, which will ever attend pious pa- the grace of God is, and what wonders it works in the rental instructions, his mind got that sacred bias which behalf of those who are faithful, who set themselves to led him to act a part so distinguished through the walk with God. It is not the want of grace nor of course of a long life.

the means of grace that is the cause of the decay of 2. His religious conduct. He walked with God; this primitive piety, but the want of faithfulness in 7507 yithhallech, he set himself to walk, he was fixedly those who have the light, and yet will not walk as purposed and determined to live to God. Those who children of the light. are acquainted with the original will at once see that 6. If the grace of God could work such a mighty it has this force. A verb in the conjugation called hith- change in those primitive times, when life and immorpael signifies a reciprocal act, that which a man does / tality were not brought to light by the Gospel, what

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