« הקודםהמשך »
A. M. 2514.
A. M. 2514.
The feast of the passover,
first-fruits, and pentecost. work therein : it is the Sabbath that ye have brought an offering An. Exod. Isr. 2. of the Lord in all your dwell- unto your God: it shall be a An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. ings. statute for ever throughout your
Abib or Nisan. 4 . These are the feasts of the LORD, even generations, in all your dwellings. holy convocations, which ye shall-proclaim in 15 And ye shall count unto you from the their seasons.
morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that ye 5. In the fourteenth day of the first month brought the sheaf of the wave-offering ; seven at even is the Lord's passover.
Sabbaths shall be complete : 6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month 16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: Sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye seven days ye must eåt unleavened bread, shall offer pa new meat-offering into the
7 In the first day ye shall have a holy con- LORD. vocation : ye shall do no servile work therein, 17 Ye_shall bring out of your 'habitations 8 But ye shall
shall offer an offering made by fire two wave loaves of iwo tenth deals : they unto the LORD seven days ; in the seventh shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with day is a holy convocation: ye shall do mo leaven; they are the first-fruits unto the servile work therein.
LORD. 9 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 18 And ye shall offer with the bread seven
10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and lambs without blemish of the first year, and say unto them, . When ye be come into the one young bullock, and two rams : they shall land which I give unto you, and shall reap be for a burnt-offering unto the LORD, with the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a their meat-offering, and their drink-offerings, b sheaf i of the first-fruits of your harvest even an offering made by fire, of sweet savour unto the priest :
unto the Lord. 11 And he shall I wave the sheaf before the 19 Then ye shall sacrifice. one kid of the Lord, to be accepted for you : on the morrow goats for a sin-offering, and two lambs of the after the Sabbath the priest shall waye it. first year for a sacrifice of peace-offerings.
12 And ye shall offer that day, when ye wave 20 And the priest shall wave them with the the sheaf, a he-lamb without blemish, of the bread of the first-fruits, for a wave-offering befirst year, for a burnt-offering unto the Lord. fore the LORD, with the two lambs : they
13 " And the meat-offering thereof shall be shall be holy to the Lord for the priest. two tenth deals of fine flour mingled with oil, 21 And ye shall proclaim on the selfsame an offering made by fire unto the Lord for a day, that it may be a holy convocation unto sweet savour : and the drink-offering thereof you: ye shall do no servile work therein : it shall be of wine, the fourth part of a hin. shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings
14 And ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched throughout-your generations. corn, nor green ears, until the selfsame day 22 And it when ye reap the harvest of your & Ver. 2, 37; Exod. xxiii. 14.- Le Exod. xii..6, 14, 18; xiii.
m Chap. ii. 14, 15,.16. -- Chap. xxv.8; 3, 10; xxiii. 15; Xxxiv. 18; Num. ix. 2,3; xxviii. 16, 17; Deut. Exod. xxxiv. 22; Deut. xvi. 9.-Acts ii. 1.— Num. xxviii. xvi. 1-8; Josh. v. 10.- _ Exod. xii. 16; Num. xxviii, 18, 25. 26.- -4 Exod. xxiti. 16, 19; xxii. 29 ; xxxiv. 22, 26 ; Num, xv. & Exod. xxiii. 16, 19; xxxiv. 22, 26 ; Num. xv. 2,18; xxviii. 26 ; 17; xxviii. 26 ; Deut. xxvi. 1.- - Ch. iv. 23, 28; Num. xxviii. Deut. xvi. 9; Josh. iii. 15. h Or, handful. Heb. omer. Chapter iii. I. - Numbers xvii. 12; Deut. xvii. 4. k Rom. xi, 16; 1 Cor. xv, 20; James i, 18; Rev, xiv. 4. Chap. xix. 9.
Verse 5. The Lord's passover.) See this largely see the note on Exod. xxii. 29. Parched ears of corn explained in the notes on Exod. xii. 21-27. and green ears, fried, still constitute a part, and not a
Verse 11. He shall wave the sheaf] He shall move disagreeable one, of the food of the Arabs now resiit to and fro before the people, and thereby call their dent in the Holy Land. See Hasselquist. attention to the work of Divine Providence, and excite Verse 15. Ye shall count unto you-seven Sabbaths) their gratitude to God for preserving 'to them. the That is, from the sixteenth of the first month to the kindly fruils of the earth. See the notes on Exod. sixth of the third month. These seven weeks, called xxix. 27, and chap. vij. at the end,
here Sabbaths, were to be complete, i. e., the fortyVerse 14. Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched nine days must be finished, and the next day, the fifcorn, nor green ears] It is right that God, the dis- tieth, is what, from the Septuagint, we call peritecost. penser of every blessing, should be acknowledged as See the note on Luke vi. 1. such, and the first-fruits of the field, &c., dedicated Verse 22. Neither shalt thou gather any gleaning) to him. Concerning the dedication of the first-fruits, See the note on chap. xix. 9,
"Exod. xxix, 24.
B. C. 1490.
Abib or Nisan.
tion : ye
The great day of atonement. CHAP. XXIII.
The feast of tabernacles. A. M. 2514, land, thou shalt not make clean 32 It shall be unto you a Sab- A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.
Abib or Nisan. field when thou reapest, 'neither your souls: in the ninth day of the
Sabbath. the stranger: I am the LORD your God. - 33 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
23. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, 24 Speak unto the children of Israel, say- The fifteenth day of this seventh month shall ing, In the w seventh month, in the first day be the feast of tabernacles, for seven days of the month, shall ye have a Sabbath, ra unto the Lord... memorial of blowing of trumpets, a holy 35 On the first day shall be a holy convocaconvocation.
shall do no servile work therein. 25 Ye shall do no servile work therein : but 36 Seven days .ye shall offer an offering ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the made by fire unto the LORD: d on the eighth LORD.
day shall be a holy convocation unto you ; 26 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto
27 y Also on the tenth day of this sevenih the LORD: it is a solemn assembly; fand month there shall be a day of atonement: it ye shall do no servile work therein. shall be a holy convocation unto you ; and ye 3 37 8. These are the feasts of the LORD, which shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to made by fire unto the Lord.
offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, 28 And ye shall do no work in that same a burnt-offering, and a meat-offering, a sacriday: for it is a day of atonement, to make an fice, and drink-offerings, every thing upon his atonement for you before the LORD your God. day :
29 For whatsoever soul it be that shall not 38 - Beside the Sabbaths of the Lord, and be afflicted in that same day, ? he shall be cut beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, off from among his people.
and beside all your freewill-offerings, which 30. And whatsoever soul it be that doeth any ye give unto the LORD. work in that same day, a the same soul will I 39 'Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh destroy from among his people.
month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of 31 Ye shall do no manner of work : it shall the land, ye shall
, keep a feast unto the Lord be a statute for ever throughout your genera- seven days : on the first day shall be a Sabtions, in all your dwellings.
bath, and on the eighth day shall be a Sabbath. Deut. xxiv. 19. Num. xxix. 1. * Chap. xxv. 9.1 v. 51 ; John vii. 2. d Num. xxix. 35; Neh. viii. 18; John vii. y Chap. xvi. 30; Num. xxix. 7.- -7 Gen. xvii. 14. - Chap. | 37. Heb. day of restraint. f Deut. xvi. 8 ; 2 Chron. vii. XX. 3, 5, 6.
_b Heb. rest. - Exod, xxiii. 16; Num. xxix. 12; 9; Neh. viii. 18; Joel i. 14; ii. 15.- -6 Ver. 2, 4. ch Num. Deut. xvi. 13; Ezra iii. 4; Neh. viii. 14; Zech. xiv. 16; 1 Esd. xxix. 39.- Li Exod. xxiii. 16; Deut. xvi. 13.
Verse 24. A memorial of bloiving of trumpets] This menoration of their forty years' sojourning and dwelling is generally called the feast of trumpels; and as it took in tents in the wilderness while destitute of any fixed place on the first day of the seventh month, Tisri, habitations. In imitation of this feast among the peowhich answers to September, which month was the ple of God, the Gentiles had their feasts of tents. commencement of what was called the civil year, the Plutarch speaks particularly of feasts of this kind in feast probably had no other design than to celebrate honour of Bacchus, and thinks from the custom of the the commencement of that year, if indeed such a dis- Jews in celebrating the feast of tabernacles, that they tinction obtained among the ancient Jews. See the worshipped the god Bacchus, “ because he had a feast note on Exod. xii. 2. Some think creation began at exactly of the same kind called the feast of tabernathis time.
cles, Ernun, which they celebrated in the time of vinVerse 28. A day of atonement] See the note on tage, bringing tables out into the open air furnished chapter xvi. 3, &c., where this subject is largely ex- with all kinds of fruit, and sitting under tents made of plained.
vine branches and ivy.”—Plut. Symp., lib. iv., Q. 6. Verse 34. The feast of tabernacles) In this solem- According to Ovid the feast of Anna Perenna was nity the people left their houses, and dwelt in booths celebrated much in the same way. Some remained or tents made of the branches of goodly trees and in the open air, others formed to themselves tents and thick trees, (of what kind the text does not specify,) booths made of branches of trees, over which they together with palm-trees and willows of the brook, ver. spread garments, and kept the festival with great re40. And in these they dwelt seven days, in com- joicings.
B. C. 1490.
Directions concerning the
lamps and the shew-bread A. M. 2514. 40 And ye shall take you on 42 • Ye shall dwell in booths A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 2. the first day the 1 boughs of seven days; all that are Is- An Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. goodly trees, branches of palm- raelites born shall dwell
shall dwell in Abib or Nisan. trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and wil- booths : lows of the brook; mand ye shall rejoice before 43 p That your generations may know that I the Lord your God seven days.
made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, 41 And ye shall keep it a feast unto the when I brought them out of the land of Egypt : LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a I am the LORD your God. statute for ever in your generations : ye shall 44 And Moses 4 declared unto the children celebrate it in the seventh month.
of Israel the feasts of the LORD. k Neh. viii. 15. Heb. fruit. Im Deut. xvi. 14, 15. • Neh. viii. 14, 15, 16.- Deut. xxxi. 13 ; Psa. lxxviii. 5, 6.
Num. xxix. 12; Neh. viii. 18. “ Sub Jove pars durat ; pauci tentoria ponunt ; of Egypt, and in preserving them in the wilderness.
Sunt, quibus e ramis frondea facta casa est. 2. To excite and maintain in them a spirit of gratitude Pars sibi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis; and obedience, by leading them to consider deeply the Desuper extentas imposuere togas.".
greatness of the favours which they had received from
Ovid, Fast., lib. iii. his most merciful hands. Concerning this feast of tabernacles, see the note on John vii. 37, 38; and for the various feasts among the Signal displays of the mercy, kindness, and proviJews, see the note on Exod. xxiii. 14.
dential care of God, should be particularly rememVerse 40. Boughs of goodly trees] The Jews and bered. When we recollect that we deserve nothing many critics imagine the citron-tree to be intended, and at his hands, and that the debt of gratitude is all the by boughs of thick trees the myrtle.
debt we can pay, in it we should be cheerful, fervent, Verse 43. That your generations may know, fc.) and frequent. An ungrateful heart is an unfeeling, By the institution of this feast God had two great unloving, unbelieving, and disobedient heart. Reader, objects in view : 1. To perpetuate the wonderful dis- pray to God that he may deliver thee from its influplay of his providence and grace in bringing them out ence and its curse.
4 Ver. 2.
B. C. 1490.
CHAPTER XXIV. Pure olive oil must be provided for the lamps, 1, 2. Aaron is to take care that the lamps be lighted from
evening to morning continually, 3, 4. How the shew-bread is to be made and ordered, 5-8. Aaron and his sons shall eat this bread in the holy place, 9. Of the son of Shelomith, an Israelitish woman, who blasphemed the name, 10, 11. He is imprisoned till the mind of the Lord should be known, 12. He is commanded to be stoned lo death, 13, 14. The ordinance concerning cursing and blaspheming the Lord, 15, 16. The law against murder, 17., The lex talionis, or law of like for like, repeated, 18-21. This law to be equally binding both on themselves and on strangers, 22. The Blasphemer is stoned, 23. A. M. 2514. AND the Lord spake unto
4. He shall order the lamps upon A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses, saying,
• the pure candlestick, before the An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. 2 Command the children of Lord continually.
Abib or Nisan. Israel, that they bring unto thee pure oil olive 5 And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake beaten for the light, b.to cause the lamps 10 twelve cakes thereof: iwo tenth deals shall burn continually.
be in one .cake. 3 Without the veil of the testimony, in the 6 And thou shalt set them in two rows, six tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron on a row; • upon the půre table before the order it from the evening unto the morning, LORD. before the Lord continually.: it shall be a 7 And thou shalt put pure
7 frankincense upon statute for ever in your generations. each row, that it may be on the bread for a a Exod. xxvii. 20, 21.- - Heb. to cause to ascend.Exod. Exod. xXy, 30. l Kings vii. 48; 2 Chron. iv. 19; xiii. 11; xxxi. 8; xxxix. 37.
Heb. ix, 2.
of the shew-bread in the notes on Exod. xxv. 30; and Verse 2. Pure oil olive) See every thing relative relative to the table on which they stood, the golden to this ordinance explained on Exod. xxvii. 20, 21. candlestick and silver trumpels carried in triumph to Verse 5. Bake twelve cakes] See the whole account | Rome, see the note on Exod. xxv. 31,
B. C. 1490.
Of Shelomith's son, who
blasphemed the name. A. M. 2514. memorial, even an offering made 11 And the Israelitish woman's A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.
son i blasphemed the name of the An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.
Abib or Nisan. 8 f Every Sabbath he shall set LORD, and k cursed. And they it in order before the LORD continually, being brought him unto Moses : (and his mother's taken from the children of Israel by an ever- name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, lasting covenant.
of the tribe of Dan :) 9 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons'; 12 And they m put him in ward, - that "the band they shall eat it in the holy place : for mind of the Lord might be showed them. it is most holy unto him, of the offerings of 13 And the LORD spake unto Moses, the Lord made by fire by a perpetual ştatute. saying,
10 And the son of an Israelitish woman, 14 Bring forth him that haih cursed without whose father was an Egyptian, went out among the camp; and let all that heard him play the children of Israel: and this son of the their hands upon his head, and let all the conIsraelitish woman and a man of Israel strove gregation stone him. together in the.camp;
15 And thou shalt speak unto the children I Num. iv. 7 ; 1 Chron. ix. 32; 2 Chron. ii. 4.- -51 Samuel 1 Exod. xviii. 22, 26. m Num. xv. 34. un Heb. to expound xxi. 6; Matt. xii. 4; Mark ii. 26; Luke vi. 4—h Exod. xxix. unto them according to the mouth of the LORD.- O Exodus 33 ; chap. viii. 3; xxi. 22.- i Ver. 16, * Job i. 5, 11, 22; ii. xviii. 15, 16; Numbers xxvii. 5; xxxvi. 5, 6.- -p Deut. xiii. 9; 5, 9, 10; Isa. viji. 21.
xvii. 7. Verse 10. The son of an Israelitish woman, whose and certainly expose to the punishment mentioned in father was an Egyptian, fe.] This is a very obscure ver: 14. 8. Probably the word ovn hashshem was account, and is encumbered with many difficulties. the proper name of some Egyptian deity. 9. The 1. It seems strange that a person proceeding from fifteenth verse seems to countenance the supposition such an illegal mixture should have been incorporated that the god whose name was produced on this occawith the Israelites. 2. What the cause of the strife sion was not the true God, for it is there said, whosobetween this mongrel person and the Israelitish man ever curseth his god, 107bis elohaiv, shall bear his sin, was is not even hinted at. The rabbins, it is true, shall have the punishment due to him as an idolaler ; supply in their way this deficiency; they say he was but he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, 17177' DU the son of the Egyptian whom Moses slew, and that shem Yehovah, shall surely be put to death—when he attempting to pitch his tent among those of the tribe blasphemeth the name (ov shem) he shall die, ver. 16. of Dan, to which he belonged by his mother's side, 10. The verb apa nakab, which we translate blaspheme, ver. 11, he was prevented by a person of that tribe as signifies to pierce, bore, make hollow; also to EXPRESS having no right to a station among them who were or DISTINGUISH by NAME; see Isa. Ixii. 2 ; Num. i. true Israelites both by father and mother, In conse- 17; 1 Chron. xii. 31; xvi. 41; xxviii. 15 ; or, as the quence of this they say he blasphemed the name of Persian translator has it, the Lord. But, 3. The sacred text does not tell us sherah kerd, mir`an nam, he erpounded or interpreted whal name he blasphemed; it is simply said nx ap!) the name. Hence all that we term blasphemy here may Dun vaiyikkob eth hashshem, he pierced through, distin- only signify the particularizing some false god, i. e., guished, explained, or expressed the name: (See.below, naming him by his name, or imploring his aid as a article 10.) As the Jews hold it impious to pronounce helper, and when spoken of the true God it may sigthe name 710' Yehovah, they always put either 978 nify using that sacred name as the idolaters did the Adonai, Lord, or vn? hashshem, THENAME, in the place names of their idols.: On blaspheming God, and the of it; but in this sense hashshem was never used prior nature of blasphemy, see the notes on Matt. ix. 3. to the days of rabbinical superstition, and therefore it In whatever point of view we consider the relation cannot be put here for the word Jehovah. 4. Blas- which has been the subject of this long note, one thing pheming the name of the Lord is mentioned in ver. is sufficiently plain, that he who speaks irreverently 16, and there the proper Hebrew term is used av of God, of his works, his perfections, his providence, nin' shem Yehovah, and not the rabbinical dun hash- &c., iş destitute of every moral feeling and of every shem, as in ver. 11. 5. Of all the manuscripts collated religious principle, and consequently so dangerous to both by Kennicott and De Rossi, not one, either of the society that it would be criminal to suffer him to be at Hebrew or Samaritan, has the word Jehovah in this large, though the longsuffering of God may lead him place. 6. Not one of the ancient VERSIONS, Targum to repentance, and therefore it may be consistent with of Onkelos, Hebræo-Samaritan, Samarilan version, mercy to preserve his life. Syriac, Arabic, Septuagint, or Vulgate Latin, has even Verse 14. Lay their hands upon his head] It was attempted to supply the sacred name. 7., Houbi- .by this ceremony that the people who heard him curse gant supposes that the Egypto-Israelitish man did not bore their public testimony in order to his being fully use the name of the true God at all, but had been convicted, for without this his punishment would not swearing by one of his country gods; and if this was have been lawful. By this ceremony also they in effect the case the mention of the name of a strange god in said to the man, Thy blood be upon thy own head. the camp of Israel would constitute a very high crime, Verse 15. Whosoever curseth his God] rahx Supe
The punishment of blasphemy. LEVITICUS.
The law of like for like. A. M. 2514. of Israel, saying, Whosoever 20 Breach for breach, eye for A. M. 2514 B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. curseth his God I shall bear eye, tooth for tooth : as he hath An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. his sin.
caused a blemish in a man, so
Abib or Nisan. 16 And he that ' blasphemeth the name of shall it be done to him again. the Lord, he shall surely be put to death, and 21 - And he that killeth a beast, he shall all the congregation shall certainly stone him: restore.it : Y and he that killeth a man, he as well the stranger as he that is born in the shall be put to death. land, when he blasphemeth the name of the 22 - Ye shall have one manner of law, LORD, shall be put to death.
as well for the stranger as for one of your 17 And he that + killeth any man shall own country: for I
am the LORD your surely be put to death.
God. 18 u And he that killeth a beast shall make 23 And Moses spake to the children of it good; beast for beast.
Israel, a that they should bring forth him that 19 · And if a man cause a blemish in his had cursed out of the camp, and stone him neighbour : as w he hath done, so shall it be with stones. . And the children of Israel did done to him ;
as the LORD commanded Moscs. ! Chap. v. 1; xx. 17; Num. ix. 13.- < 1 Kings xxi. 10, 13.; u Ver. 21. - Heb. life for life. _» Exod. xxi. 24 ; Deut. Psa. lxxiv. 10, 18; Matt. xii. 31 ; Mark iii. 28; James ij. 7. xix. .21 ; Matt., v. 38;
* Exod. xxi. 33; ver. 18. • Exod. xxi, 12; Num. xxxv. 31; Deut. xix. 11, 12.- - Heb. y Ver. 17. - Exod. xii. 49; chap. xix. 34 ; Num. xv. 16. smiteth the life of a man.
a Ver. 14. yekallel Elohaiv, he who makes light of him, who does citizen ; none can do more, none should do less : not treat him and sacred things with due reverence, shall therefore each individual in a welt regulated state must bear his sin—shall have the guilt of this transgression have equal rights and privileges in every thing that imputed to him, and may expect the punishment. relates to the safety of his person, and the security of
Verse 16. Blasphemeth the name of the Lord] spy his property. Reader, such was the Mosaic code ; 7179 DV venokeb shem Yehovah, he who pierces, trans- such IS the. BRITISH CONSTITUTION. fives, or, as some translate it, expounds, the name of. Verse 23. And stone him with stones.] We are not Jehovah; see the note on the tenth verse. This being to suppose that the culprit was exposed to the unthe name by which especially the Divine Essence was bridled fury of the thousands of Israel; this would be pointed out, it should be held peculiarly sacred. We brutality, not justice, for the very worst of. tempers have already seen that the Jews never pronounce this and passions might be produced and fostered by such name, and so long has it been disused among them that a procedure. The Jews themselves tell us that their the true pronunciation is now totally lost; see on the manner of stoning was this : they brought the conword Jehovah, Exod. vi. 3.
demned person without the camp, because his crime Verse 17. He that killeth any man] Blasphemy had rendered him unclean, and whatever was unclean against God, i. e., speaking injuriously of his name, must be put without the camp. When they came his attributes, his government, and his revelation, to- within - four cubits of the place of execution, they gether with murder, is to-be punished with death : he stripped the criminal, if a man, leaving him nothing that blasphemes God is a curse in society, and he who but a eloth about the waist. The place on which he takes away, wilfully and by malicious intent, the life was to be executed was elevated, and the witnesses of any man, should certainly be put to death. ' In this went up with him to it, and laid their hands upon him, respect God has absolutely required that life shall go for the purposes mentioned ver. 14. Then one of the for life.
witnesses struck him with a stone upon the loins ; if Verse 20. Breach for breach) This is a repetition of he was not killed with that blow, then' the witnesses the lex talionis, which see explained Exod. xxi. 24. . took up a great stone, as much as two men could lift,
· Verse 22. Ye shall have one manner of law, as well and threw it upon his breast. This was the coup de for the stranger as for one of your own country] grace, and finished the tragedy. When a man was Equal laws, where each individual receives the same stoned by the mob, then brutal rage armed every man, protection and the same privileges, are the boast only justice was set aside, and the will and fury of the of a sound political constitution. He who respects and people were law, judge, jury, and executioner. Such obeys.the laws has a right to protection and support, disgraceful stonings as these were, no doubt, frequent and his person and property are as sacred in the sight among the Jews. See Calmet's Dict., article STONING, of justice as the person and property of the prince. and Ainsworth on this place. He who does not obey the laws of his country forfeits all right and title to protection and privilege ; his own What the crime of Shelomith's son was, we cannot actions condemn him, and justice takes him up on the distinctly say ; doubtless it was some species of blasevidence of his own transgressions. He who does what phemy: however, we find it was a new and unpreceis right need not fear the power of the civil magistrate, dented case; and as there was no law by which the for he holds the sword only to punish transgressors. quantum of guilt could be ascertaiged, nor consequently Universal obedience to the laws is the duty of every the degree of punishment, it was necessary to consult