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A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490

The reason for the laws

LEVITICUS.

concerning unclean animals. 46 This is the law of the 47 a To make a difference An. Exod. Isr. 2. beasts, and of the fowl, and of between the unclean and the An. Exod. Isr. 2. every living creature that moveth clean, and between the beast

Abib or Nisan. in the waters, and of every creature that that may be eaten, and the beast that

may creepeth upon the earth :

be eaten.

Abib or Nisan.

not

a Leviticus, chap. x. 10.

can dwell with him in glory hereafter. See at the fit for food. The animals which do not ruminale do conclusion of this chapter.

not concoct their food so well, and hence they abound

with gross animal juices, which yield a comparatively The contents of this chapter must furnish many unwholesome nutriment to the human system. Even profitable reflections to a pious mind.

the animals which have bifid hoofs but do not chew 1. From the great difficulty of ascertaining what the cud, such as the swine, and those which chew the animals are meant in this part of the law, we may at cud but are not bifid, such as the hare and rabbit, are once see that the law itself must be considered as ab- by Him who knows all things forbidden, because he rogated ; for there is not a Jew in the universe who knew them to be comparatively innutritive. In all knows what the animals are, a very few excepted, this God shows himself as the tender Father of a nuwhich are intended by these Hebrew words; and there merous family, pointing out to his inexperienced, frofore he may be repeatedly breaking this law by touch- ward, and ignorant children, those kinds of aliments ing and being touched either by the animals themselves which he knows will be injurious to their health and or their produce, such as hair, wool, fur, skin, intes- domestic happiness, and prohibiting them on pain of tines, differently manufactured, &c., &c. It therefore his highest displeasure. On the same ground he forappears that this people have as little law as they bade all fish that have not both fins and scales, such have gospel.

as the conger, eel, &c., which abound in gross juices 2. While God keeps the eternal interests of man and fat which very few stomachs are able to digest. steadily in view, he does not forget his earthly com- Who, for instance, that lives solely on swine's fesh, fort; he is at once solicitous both for the health of has pure blood and healthy juices? And is it not his body and his soul. He has not forbidden certain evident, in many cases, that the man partakes conaliments because he is a Sovereign, but because he siderably of the nature of the brute on which he excluknew they would be injurious to the health and morals sively feeds? I'could pursue this inquiry much farther, of his people. The close connection that subsists be- and bring many proofs founded on indisputable facts, tween the body and the soul we cannot fully compre- but I forbear; for he who might stand most in need hend ; and as little can we comprehend the influence of caution, would be the first to take offence. they have on each other. Many moral alterations take 3. As the body exists only for the sake of the soul, place in the mind in consequence of the influence of and God feeds and nourishes it through the day of the bodily organs; and these latter are greatly influ- probation, that the soul may, here be prepared for the enced by the kind of aliment which the body receives. kingdom of heaven ; therefore he shows in the concluGod knows what is in man, and he knows what is sion of these ordinances, that the grand scope and dein all creatures; he has therefore graciously forbid- sign of all was that they might be a holy people, and den what would injure both body and mind, and com- that they might resemble him who is a holy God.manded what is best calculated to be useful to both. GOD IS HOLY'; and this is the eternal reason why all Solid-footed animals, such as the horse, and many-toed his people should be holy--should be purified from all animals, such as the cat, &c., are here prohibited. filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in Beasts which have bifid or cloven hoofs, such as the the fear of God. No faith in any particular creed, no ox and sheep, are considered as proper for food, and religious observance, no acts of benevolence and chatherefore commanded. The former are unclean, i. e., rity, no mortificalion, attrition, or contrition, can be a unwholesome, affording a gross nutriment, often the substitute for this.. We must be made partakers of parent of scorbutic and scrofulous disorders; the latter the Divine nature. We must be saved from our sins clean, i. e., affording a copious and wholesome nutri- —from the corruption that is in the world, and be ment, and not laying the foundation of any disease. made holy within and righteous without, or never see Ruminating animals, i. e., those which chew the cud, God. For this very purpose Jesus Christ lived, died, concoct their food better than the others which swal- and revived, that he might purify us unto himself; that low it with little mastication, and therefore their flesh through faith in his blood our sins might be blotted contains more of the nutritious juices, and is more easy out, and our souls restored to the image of God.of digestion, and consequently of assimilation to the Reader, art thou hungering and thirsting after rightsolids and fluids of the human body; on this account eousness ? Then blessed art thou, for thou shalt they are termed clean, i. e., peculiarly wholesome, and be filled.

544

Ordinances concerning the

CHAP. XII.

purification of women.

CHAPTER XII.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2.

B. C. 1490.

year.

Ordinances concerning the purification of women after child-birth, 1; after the birth of a son, who is to be

circumcised the eighth day, 2, 3. The mother to be considered unclean for forty days, 4. - After the birth ; of a daughter, fourscore days, 5. When the days of her purifying were ended, she was to bring a lamb

for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon or a turtle dove for a sin-offering, 6, 7. If poor, and not able to bring a lamb, she was to bring either two turlle-doves or two young pigeons, 8. A. M. 2514. AND the LORD spake unto the sanctuary, until the days of

A. M. 2514. Moses, saying, her purifying be fulfilled..

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.. 2 Speak unto the children of 5 But if she bear a maid child,

Abib or Nisan. Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived then she shall be. unclean two weeks, as in seed, and borne a man child: then she shall, her separation :, and she shall continue in be unclean seven'days ; according to the days the blood of her purifying threescore and of the separation for her infirmity, shall she six days. be unclean.

6. And when the days of her purifying are 3. And in the d eighth day, the flesh' of his fulfilled, for a-son, or for a daughter, she shall foreskin shall be circumcised.

bring a lamb ' of the first year for a burnt4° And she shall then continue in the blood offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, of her. purifying three and thirty days ; 'she for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tabershall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into nacle of the congregation, unto the priest : a Chap. xv. 19.—Luke ii. 22. Chap, xv. 19.-- Gen.

e Lake ii. 22.
xvii. 12; Luke i. 59; ii. 21 ; Johu vii. 22, 23.

Heb. a son of his
NOTES ON CHAP. XII.

5. In pregnancy, that which was formerly evacuated is Verse 2. If a woman have conceived] In the ex- retained for the formation and growth of the fetus, or tent mentioned here the ordinances of this chapter the general strengthening of the system during the time have little relation to us; and to inquire into their of pregnancy. 6. After the birth of the child, for pliysical reasons, as far as they related to the Jews, seven or fourteen days, more or less according to cercould afford but little edification; and to make such a tain circumstances, that superabundance, no longer nesubject sufficiently plain would require such 'minute cessary for the growth of the child as before, continues examination and circumstantial detail as could scarcely to be evacuated : this was called the time of the febe proper for general readers.. All that is necessary male's purification among the Jews. 7. When the to be said the reader will find on ver. 4.

lacerated vessels are rejoined, this superfluity of blood Verse 3. And in the eighth day) Before this time is returned into the general circulation, and, by a wise the child could scarcely be considered as having strength law of the Creator, becomes principally useful to the sufficient to bear the operation; after this time it was breasts, and helps in the production of milk for the not necessary to delay it, as the child was not consi- nourishment of the new-born infant. 8. And thus it dered to be in covenant with God, and consequently continues till the 'weaning of the child, or renewed not under the especial protection of the Divine provi- pregnancy takes place. Here is a series of mercies dence and grace, till this rite had been performed. On and wise providential regulations which cannot be known circumcision see the note on Gen. xvii.. 10. ; Cireum- without being admired, and which should be known that cision was to every man à constant, evident sign of the great Creator and Preserver may have that praise the covenant into which he had entered with God, and from his creatures which his wonderful working deman of the moral obligations under which he was thereby The term purifying here does not imply that there laid. It was also a means of purity, and, was espe- is any thing impure in the blood at this or the other cialy necessary among a people naturally incontinent, times referred to above; on the contrary, the blood is and in a climate not peculiarly favourable to chastity pure, perfectly so, as to its quality, but is excessive in This is a light in which this subject should ever be quantity for the reasons above assigned. The idle viewed, and in which we see the reasonableness, pro- fales found in certain works relative to the infectious priety, expediency, and moral tendency of the ceremony. nature of this fluid, and of the female in such times

Verse 4. The blood of her purifying] A few words are as impious as they are irrational and absurd. will make this subject sufficiently plain. 1. God de- Verse 6. When the days of her purifying] It is not signs that the human female should bring forth chil. easy to account for the difference in the times of pudren. 2. That children should derive, under his pro- rification, after the birth of a male and female child. vídence, their being, all their solids and all their fluids, After the birth of a boy the mother was considered in a word, the whole mass of their bodies, from the unclean för forty days; after the birth of.a girl, foursubstance of the mother. 3. For this parpose he score days. There is probably no physical reason for has given to the body of the female an extra quantity this difference, and it is difficult to assign a political of blood and natritious juices. 4. Before pregnancy one. Some of the ancient physicians'assert that a this superabundance is evacuated at periodical times. woman is in the order of nature much longer in comVOL. I. ( 36 )

545

Laws and ordinances

LEVITICUS.

relative to the leprosy.

>

A. M. 2514. 7 Who shall offer it before 8 And if h she be not able to A. N. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. . An. Exod. Isr. 2. the LORD, and make an atone- bring a lamb, then she shall bring An. Exod. Isr: 2. Abib or Nisan. ment for her ; and she shall be two turtles, or two young pigeons;

Abib or Nisan. cleansed from the issue of her blood. This is the one for the burnt-offering, and the other for the law for her that hath borne a male or a a sin-offering i and the priest shall make an female.

atonement for her, and she shall be clean. 6 Chap. v. 7; Luke ii. 24.

h Heb. her hand find not sufficiency of. Chap. iv. 26. pletely recovering after the birth of a female than after The priest shall make an atonement for her] Every the birth of a male child. This assertion is not jus- act of man is sinful, but such as proceed from the intified either by observation or matter of fact. Others fluence of the grace and mercy of God.

Her sorrow · think that the difference in the time of purification after in conception, and her pain in bringing forth children, the birth of a male and female is intended to mark the reminded the woman of her original affence; an ofinferiority of the female sex. This is a miserable fence which deserved death, an offence which she could reason, and pitifully supported.

not expiate, and for which a sacrifice must be offered : She shall bring-a burnt-offering, andmä sin-of- and in reference to better things the life of an animal fering] It is likely that all these ordinances were must be offered as a ransom for her life. And being intended to show inan's natural impurity and original saved in childbed, though she deserved to die, she is defilement by sin, and the necessity of an atonement required, as soon as the days of her separation, were to cleanse the soul from unrighteousness.

ended, to bring a sacrifice'according to her ability to Verse 8. And if she be not able to bring a lamb, then the priest, that he might offer it to God as an atoneshe shall bring two turtles, or two young pigeons] As ment for her. Thus, wherever God keeps up the rethe Virgin Mary brought only the latter, hence it is membrance of sin, he keeps up also the memorial of evident that she was not able, i. e., she was not rich sacrifice, to show that the state of a sinner, howsoever enough to provide the former ; for such a holy woman deplorable, is not hopeless, for that he himself has found would not have brought the less offering had she been out a ransom. Every where, in the law and in the capable of bringing the greater. How astonishing is Gospel, in every ordinance and in every ceremony, we this! The only heir to the throne of Dávid was not may see both the justice and the mercy of God. Hence, able to bring a lamb to offer in sacrifice to God! How while we have the knowledge of our sin we have also abominable must sin be when it'required him who was the knowledge of our cure. in the form of God thus to empty and to humble him-. Reader, whilst thou art confessing thy own misery self, yea, even to the death of the cross, in order to do not forget the Lord's mercy; and remember, he make an atonement for it, and to purify the soul from saves to the uttermost all that come through Christ all defilement!

unto him.

CHAPTER XII.

Laws relative to the leprosy. It is to be known by a rising in the flesh, a scab, on a bright spot, 1, 2. When

the priest secs these signs he shall pronounce the man unclean, infected with the leprosy, and unfit for society, 3. Dubious or equivocal signs of this disorder, and how the person is to be treated in whom they appear, 4-8. In what state of this disorder the priest may pronounce a man clean or unclean, 9-13. Of the raw flesh, the sign of the unclean leprosy, 14, 15. Of the white flesh, the sign of the leprosy called . clean, 16, 17. Of the leprosy which succeeds a boil, 18-20. Equivocal marks relative to this kind of leprosy, 21, 22. Of. the burning boil, 23. Of the. leprosy arising out of the burning boil, 24, 25. Equivocal marks relative to this kind of leprosy, 26–28. of the plague on the head or in the beard, 29. Of the scall, and how it is to be treated, 30–37. Of the plague of the bright white spots, 38, 39. of the bald head, 40, 41. Of the white reddish sore in the bald head, 42–44. The leper shall rend his clothes, put a palch on his upper lip, and cry unclean, 45. He shall be obliged to avoid society, and live by. himself without the camp, 46. Of the garments infected by the leprosy, and the signs of this infection, 47–52. Equivocal marks relative to this infection, and how the garment is to be treated, by washing or by burning, 53–58. Conclusion relative to the foregoing particulars, 59. "

A. M: 2514 AND the LORD spake unto the skin of his flesh a “ rising, B, C - 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2.

,

ba scab, or bright spot, and it an. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

2 When a man, shall have in be in the skin of his flesh like. Abib or Nisan. ,. Or, swelling.

• Deut. xxviii. 27; Isa. iii. 17. NOTES ON CHAP. XIII.

from hetis, ą scale, because in this disease the body Verse 2. The plague of leprosy) This dreadful was often 'covered with thin white scales, so as to give disorder has its name leprosy, from the Greek hempa, l it the appearance of snow: Hence it is said of the 546

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A. M. 2514.

a

A. M. 2514.

Abib or Nisan.

The manner of discerning

CHAP. XIII.

different kinds of leprosy. the plague of leprosy; then he his sight be at’ a stay, and the A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. shall be brought unto Aaron the plague spread not in the skin; An Exod. Isr

. 2. Abib or Nisan.

priest, or unto one of his sons then the priest shall shut him the priests :

up seven days more: 3 And the priest shall look on the plague in 6 And the priest shall-look on him again the the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be the plague is turned white, and the plague in somewhat dark, and the plague spread not in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look it is but a scab : and hé d'shall wash his on him, and pronounce him unclean.

clothes, and be clean. 4 If the bright spot be white in the skin of 7 But if the scab spread much abroad in the his flesh, and in sight be not-deeper than the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; før his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest 'then the priest shall shut up him that hath the again : plague seven days:

8 And if the priest see that, behold, the scab 5 And the priest shall look on him the spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall seventh day : and, behold, if the plague in pronounce him unclean : it is a leprosy. « Deut. xvii. 8, 9; xxiv. 8; Luke xvii. 14.

a Chap. xi. 25; xiv. 8. hand' of Moses, Exod. iv. 6,' that it was leprous as and odiousness of vice."— Maundrell's Travels. Letsnow.; and of Míriam, Num. xii. 10, that she became ters at the end. The reader will do well to collate leprous, as white as snow ; and of Gehazi, 2 Kings v. this account with that given from Dr. Mead in the note 27, that, being judicially struck with the disease, of on Exod. iv, 6. Naaman, he went out from Elisha's presence a leper as Verse 3. The priest shall--pronounce him unclean.) white as snow.

See the hote on Exod. iv. 6. inx xoor vetimme otho; literally, shall pollute him, i. e., * In Hebrew this disease is termed nyny isaraath, in the Hebrew idiom, shall declare or pronounce him from yox tsara, to smite or strike; But the root. in polluted ; and in ver. 23 it is said, the priest shall Arabic signifies to cast down or prostrate, and in Æthi- pronounce him clean, jozan 1179. vetiharo haccohen, opic, to cause to cease, because, says Stockius,;" it the priest shall cleanse him, i. e., declare him clean, prostrates the strength of man, and obliges him to cease In this phrase we have the proper meaning of Matt. from all work and labour.

xvi. 19: Whatsoever ye bind on earth shall be bound .There were three signs by which the leprosy was in heaven ; and whatsoever ye loose on earth shall be known. 1. A bright spot. 2. A rising (enamelling) | loosed in heaven. By which our Lord intimates that of the surface. 3. A scab; the enamelled placé pro- the disciples, from having the keys, i. e., the true knowducing a variety of layers, or stratum super stratum, ledge of the doctrine, of the kingdom of heaven, should, of these scales. · The account giren by Mr. Maundrell from particular evidences, be at all times able to disof the appearance of several persons whom he saw. in- tinguish between the clean and the unclean, the sincere fected with this disorder in Palestine, will serve to show, and the hypocrite ; and pronounce a judgment as infalin the clearest light, its horrible nature and tendency. lible as the priest did in the case of the leprosy, from

“ When I was in the Holy Land,”. says he; in his the tokens already specified. And as this binding and letter to the Rev..Mr. Osborn, Fellow of Exeter Col- loosing, or pronouncing fit or unfit for fellowship with lege,I saw several that laboured under Gehazi's dis- the members of Christ, must in the case of the distemper; particularly at Sichein, (now Naplosu,) there ciples be always according to the doctrine of the kinga were no less than ien that came begging to us at one dom of heaven, the sentence should be considered as time. · Their manner is to come with small buckets in proceeding immediately from thence, and consequently their hands, to receive the álms of the charitable; their as Divinely ratified: The priest polluted or cleansed, touch being still held infectious, or at least unclean. i. e., declared the man clean or unclean, according to The distemper, as I saw it on them, was quite different signs well known and infallible. · The disciples or from what I have seen it in England; for it not only ministers of Christ bind or loose, declare to be fit or defiles the whole surface of the body with a foul scurs, unfit for Church fellowship, according to unequivocal but also deforms the joints of the body, particularly evidences of innocence or guilt. In the former case, those of the wrists and ankles, making them swell with the priest declared the person fit or unfit for civil soa gouty scrofulous substance, very loathsome to look ciety ; in the latter, the ministers of Christ declare on. I thought their legs like those of old. battered the person against whom the suspicion of guilt is laid, horses, such as are often seen in drays in England. fil or unfit for continued association with the Church The whole distemper, indeed, as it there appeared, was of God. The office was the same in both, a declara80 noisome, that it might well pass for the utmost cor- tion of the truth, not from any power that they posruption of the human body on this side the grave. And sessed of cleansing or polluting, of binding or of loosing, certainly the inspired penman-could not have found out but by the knowledge they gained from the infallible a fitter emblem, whereby tp express the uncleanness ( signs and evidences produced on the respective cases.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Various signs whereby the

LEVITICUS.

leprosy may be discerned. 9 When the plague of leprosy white rising, or .a bright spot, An. Exod. Isr: 2. is in a man, then he shall be white, and somewhat reddish, An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. brought unto the priest ; and it be showed to the priest ;

Abib or Nisan. 10 . And the priest shall see him : and, 20 And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair it have turned the hair white, and there be thereof be turned white; the priest shall proquick raw flesh in the rising;

nounce him unclean ; it is a plague of leprosy 11 It is an old leprosy in the skin of his broken out of the boil. · flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him un-21 But if the priest look on it, and, behold, clean, and shall not shut him up: for he is there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not unclean.

lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark ; 12 And if a leprosy break out abroad in the then the priest shall shut him up seven days: skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him 22. And if it spread much abroad in the skin, that hath the plague, from his head even to then the priest shall pronounce him unclean : his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh ; . it is a plague.

13 Then the priest shall consider : and, be- . 23 But if the bright spot stay in his place, hold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, and spread not, it is a burning boil: and the he shall pronounce him clean that hath the priest shall pronounce him clean. plague : it is all turned white : he is clean. | 24 Or if there be any flesh, in the skin,

14 But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he whereof there is ha hot burning, and the quick shall be unclean.

flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, 15 And the priest shall see the raw flesh, somewhat reddish or white; and pronounce him to be unclean : for the 25 Then the priest shall look upon it: and, raw flesh is unclean : it is a leprosy. - behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned

16 Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin; changed into white, he shall come unto the it is a leprosy broken out of the burning : priest;

wherefore the priest shall pronounce him un17 And the priest shall see him : and, be- clean: it is the plague of leprosy. hold, if the plague be turned into white; then 26 But if the priest look on it, and, behold, the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath there be no white hair ið the bright spot, and the plague: he is clean.

it be no lower than the other skin, but be 18 The Aesh also, in which, even in the somewhat dark , then the priest shall shut him skin thereof, was a & boil, and is healed; up seven days :

19 And in the place of the boil there be a 27 And the priest shall look upon him the • Numbers xii. 10, 12;. 2 Kings v? 27; 2 Chronicles (Hebrew, the quickening of living flesh. $ Exodus ix. 9. xxvi. 20.

h Hcb. a burning of fire. Verse 13. If the leprosy have covered all his flesh, vessels of another person coming in contact with the he shall pronounce himi cleanWhy is it that the diseased man could imbibe nothing, and therefore there parlial leper was pronounced unclean, and the person was comparatively no danger of infection. Hence totally covered with the disease , clean? This was that species or stage of the disease that exhibited the probably owing to a different species or stage of the quick raw rising was capable of conveying the infecdisease ; the partial disease was contagious, the total tion for the reasons already assigned, when the other not contagious. That there are two different species was not. Dr. Mead thus accounts for the circumor degrees of the same disease described here, is suffi- stance mentioned in the text. See on ver. 18. As. .ciently evident. In one, the body was all covered the leprosy infected bodies, clothes, and even the walls with a white enamelled scurf ; in the other, there was of houses, is it not rational to suppose that it was a quick raw flesh in the risings. On this account the occasioned by a species of aramalcula or vermin burone might be deemed unclean, i: 'e., contagious, ihe rowing under the skin? Of tliis opinion there are other not ; for contact with the quick raw flesh would some learned supporters. be more likely to communicate the disease than the Verse 18. In the skin thereof, was a boil] Scheuchtouch of the hard dry scurf. The ichor proceeding zer supposes this and the following verse to speak of from the former, when - brought into contact with the phlegmonic, erysipelatous, gangrenous, and phagedenic Aesh of another, would soon be taken into the consti- ulcers, all of which were subjected to the examination tution by means of the absorbent vessels ; but where of the priest, to see whether they wete. infections, or the whole - surface was perfectly dry, the absorbent whether the leprosy might not take its origin from

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