תמונות בעמוד
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A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490.

unto you.

unto you.

unto you.

d Isa.

Unclean.quadrupeds

CHAP. XI.

and fish forbilden. A. M. 2514. 4 Nevertheless these shall ye carcass shall ye not touch ; d they

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. not eat of them that chew the are unclean to you.

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. cud, or of them that divide the

9 . These shall ye eat of all Abib or Nisan. hoof : as the camel, because he cheweth the that are in the waters :· whatsoever hath fins cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in

the rivers, them shall ye eat. 5 And the coney, because he cheweth the 10 And all that have not fins and scales in the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the

waters, and of any living thing which is in the 6 And the hare, because he cheweth the waters, they shall be an fabomination unto you: cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean 11 They shall be even an abomination unto

you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye 7 And the swine, though he divide the shall have their carcasses in abomination. · hoof, and be cloven-footed, yet he cheweth 12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the not the cud; c he is unclean to you.

waters, that shall be an abomination unto you. 8 Of their fesh shall ye not eat, and their 13 & And these are they which ye shall have

02 Mac. vi. 18; vii. 1.- _c Isa. Ixv, 4; lxvi. 3, 17. lii. 11 ; see Matt. xv. 11, 20; Mark vii. 2, 15, 18; Acts x. 14, Heb. ix. 10.- e Deut. xiv. 9. - Chap. vii. 18; Deut. xiv. 3. 15; xv. 29; Rom. xiv. 14, 17; I Cor. viii. 8; Col. ii. 16, 21; Deut. xiv. 12; Job xxxix. 27–30. being masticated, the grass, &c., being received into rather a creature nearly resembling it, which abounds it as the beast crops it from the earth. The food, by in Judea, Palestine, and Arabia, and is called by Dr. the force of the muscular coats of this stomach, and Shaw daman Israel, and by Mr. Bruce ashkoko. As the liquors poured in, is sufficiently macerated ; after this creature nearly resembles the rabbit, with which which, formed into small balls, it is thrown up by the Spain anciently abounded, Bochart supposes that the esophagus into the mouth, where it is made very small Phænicians might have given it the name of 17°399 by mastication or chewing, and then sent down into spaniah, from the multitude of D'IDV shephanim, (or the second stomach, into which the æsophagus or gul-spanim, as others pronounce it) which were found there, let opens, as well as into the first, ending exactly where Hence the emblem of Spain is a woman sitting with the two stomachs meet. This is what is termed chew- a rabbit at her feet. See a coin of Hadrian in ing the cud. The second stomach, which is called the Seheuchzer. reticulum, honey-comb, bonnet, or king's hood, has “a Verse 6. The hare] 1037 arnebeth, as Bochart great number of small shallow cells on its inward sur- and others suppose, from 179arah, to crop, and 3') face, of a pentagonal or five-sided form, exactly like nib, the produce of the ground, these animals being the cells in a honey-comb; in this the food is farther remarkable for destroying the fruits of the earth. That macerated, and then pushed onward into the third sto- they are notorious for destroying the tender blade of mach, called the omasum or manyplies, because its in- the young corn, is well known. . It is very likely that ward surface is covered with a great number of thin different species of these animals are included under membraneous partitions. From this the food passes the general terms pov shaphan, and n3378 arnebeth, into the fourth stomach, called the abomasum, or reed. for some travellers have observed that there are four In this stomach it is digested, and from the digested or five sorts of these animals, which are used for food mass the chyle is formed, which, being absorbed by the in the present day in those countries. See Harmer, lacteal vessels, is afterwards thrown into the mass of vol. iii., p. 331, edit. 1808. Some think the mounblood, and becomes the principle of nutrition to all the tain rat, marmot, squirrel, and hedgehog, may be - insolids and fluids of the body. The intention of rumi- tended under the word shaphan. nation, or chewing the cud, seems to be, that the food Verse 7. And the swine) 99 chazir, one of the may be sufficiently comminuted, that, being more fully most gluttonous, libidinous, and filthy quadrupeds in acted on by the stomachs, it may afford the greatest the universe ; and, because of these qualities, sacred possible portion of nutritive juices.

to the Venus of the Greeks and Romans, and the Friga The word 'cud is probably not originally Saxon, of our Saxon ancestors ; and perhaps on these accounts though found in that language in the same signification forbidden, as well as on account of its flesh being in which it is still used. Junius, with great show of strong and difficult to digest, affording a very gross probability, derives it from the Cambro-British chwyd, kind of aliment, apt to produce cutaneous, scorbutic, a vomit, as it is the ball of food vomited, or thrown up, and scrofulous disorders, especially in hot climates. from the first stomach or paunch through the esopha

Verse 9. Whatsoever hath fins and scales] Because gus into the mouth, which is called by this name. these, of all the fish tribe, are the most nourishing ; Those who prefer a Saxon derivation may have it in the others which are without scales, or whose bodies the verb ceopan, whence our word chew; and so cud are covered with a thick glutinous matter, being in might be considered a contraction of chewed, but this general very difficult of digestion. is not so likely as the preceding.

Verse 13. And these among the fowls--the eagle] Verse 5. The coney] jov shaphan, not the rabbit, but I 101 nesher, from nashar, to lacerale, cut, or tear to

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Different fowls which

LEVITICUS.

are to be reputed unclean. A. M. 2514. in abomination among the fowls ; 15 Every raven after his kind; A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. they shall not be eaten, they are 16 And the owl, and the night An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. an abomination : the eagle, and hawk, and the cuckoo, and the

Abib or Nisan the ossifrage, and the ospray,

hawk after his kind, 14 And the vulture, and the kite after 17 And the little bowl, and the cormorant, his kind;

and the great owl,

Isaiah, chap. xxxiv. 11. pieces; hence the eagle, a most rapacious bird of prey, cient reason, were others wanting, why such a fowl from its tearing the flesh of the animals it feeds on; should be reputed to be unclean, and its use as an and for this purpose birds of prey have, in general, article of diet prohibited. strong, erooked talons and a hooked beak. The eagle - The night hawk] dann tachmas, from Don chamas, is a cruel bird, exceedingly ravenous, and almost in- to force away, act violenily and unjustly; supposed by satiable.

Bochart and Scheuchzer to signify the male ostrich, The ossifrage]. Or bone-breaker, from os, a bone, from its cruelty towards its young; (see Job xxxix. and frango, I break, because it not only strips off the 17–19:) but others, with more reason, suppose it to flesh, but breaks the bone in order to extract the mar- be the bird described by Hasselquist, which he calls

In Hebrew it is called on peres, from paras, the strir Orientalis, or Oriental owl." It is of the to break or divide in two, and probably signifies that size of the common owl, living in the ruins and old species. of the eagle anciently known by the name of deserted houses of Egypt and Syria ; and sometimes ossifraga, and which we render ossifrage.

in inhabited houses. The Arabs in Egypt call it Ospray] 1731y ozniyah, from 12V azan, to be strong, Massasa, the Syrians Bana. It is very ravenous in vigorous ; generally supposed to mean the black eagle, Syria, and in the evenings, if the windows be leû open, such as that described by Homer, Iliad. lib. xxi., it flies into the house and kills infants, unless they are ver 252.

carefully watched; wherefore the women are much Αιετου οιματεχων μελανος, του θηρητηρος,

afraid of it."— Travels, p. 196. "Ος θ' αμα καρτιστος τε και ωκιστος πετεηνων.

If this be the foul intended, this is a sufficient réa“ Having the rapidity of the black eagle, that bird son why it should be considered an abomination. of prey, at once the swiftest and the strongest of the The cuckoo] po shachaph, supposed rather to feathered race.”

mean the sea mew; called shachaph, from nonu shaAmong the Greeks and Romans the eagle was held chepheth, a wasting distemper, or atrophy, (mentioned sacred, and is represented as carrying the thunder-chap. xxvi. 16 ; Deut. xxviii

. 22,) because its body is bolts of Jupiter. This occurs so frequently, and is so the leanest, in proportion to its bones and feathers, of well known, that references are almost needless.

most other birds, always appearing as if under the Scheuchzer.

influence of a wasting distemper. A foul which, Verse 14. The' vulture] 787 daah, from the root from its natural constitution or manner of life, is incato fly, and therefore more probably the kile or glede, pable of becoming plump or fleshy, must always be from its remarkable property of gliding or sailing with unwholesome; and this is reason sufficient why such expanded wings through the air. The 7x7 daah is a

should be prohibited. different bird from the 17'7 daiyah, which signifies the And the hawk] pi nets, from the root 778) nalsah, vulture. See Bochart, vol. iii., col. 195.

to shoot forth or spring forward, because of the rapiThe kite] 778 aiyah, thought by some to be the dity and length of its flight, the, hawk being remarkable vulture, by others, the merlin. Parkhurst thinks it for both.

As this is a bird of prey, it is forbidden, has its name from the root mis quah, to covet, because and all others of its kind. meant. That it is a species of the hawk, most learned raven, or night-ow!, according to most interpreters. men allow... See Bachart, vol. iii., col. 192.

Some think the onocrotalus or pelican may be intended; Verse 15. Every raven] 21 oreb, a general term for' as the word did cos signifies a cup in Hebrew, and comprehending the raven, crow, rook, jackdaw, and the pelican is remarkable for a pouch or bag under the magpie.

lower jaw, it might have had its Hebrew name from Verse 16. The owl] 17ayan na bath haiyaanah, the this circumstance; but the kaath in the following daughter of vociferation, the female ostrich, probably verse is rather supposed to mean this fowl, and the so called from the noise they make, “ In the lone- cos some species of the bubo or owl. See Bochart, some part of the night,” says Dr. Shaw, “the ostriches vol. iii., col. 272. frequently make a very doleful, and hideous noise, The cormorant] 778 shalach, from the root which sometimes resembling the roar of the lion; at other signifies to cast down; hence the Septuagint katap times; the hoarser voice of the bull or ox." He adds, parins, the cataract, or bird which falls precipitately “I have heard them groan as if in the deepest ago- down upon its prey. It probably signifies the plungeon nies.”—Travels, 4to edition, p. 455. The ostrich is or diver, a sea fowl, which I have seen at sea dart a very unclean animal, and eats its own ordure as down as swift as an arrow into the water, and sieze soon as it voids it, and of this Dr. Shaw observes, the fish which it had discovered while even flying, or (see above,) it is remarkably fond ! This is a suffi- . rather soaring, at a very great height.

See

of its rapaciousness ; some, contend that the kite is Verse 17. The little owl] dia cos, the bittern, night

B. C. 1490.

Fowls and insects which may,

CHAP. XI.

and which may not, be eaten. A. M. 2514. 18 And the i swan, and the creeping thing that goeth upon all A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. * pelican, and the gier eagle, four, which have legs above their An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. 19 And the stork, the heron feet, to leap withal upon the earth; after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat. 22 Even these of them ye may eat; m the

20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, locust after his kind, and the bald locust after shall be an abomination unto you.

his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and 21 Yet these may ye eat, of every flying the grasshopper after his kind. · Deut. xiv. 16. * Psa. cii. 6 ; Deut. xiv. 17.- Deut. xiv. 18. Psa. civ. 17; Jer. vri. 7; Zech. v. 9. m Matt. iii. 4 ; Mark i. 6

The great owl] 9121' yanshuph, according to the losing his life by the stroke of a heron's bill, near the Septuagint and the Vulgate, signifies the ibis, a bird eye, who had climbed up into a high tree to take its well known and held sacred in Egypt.. Some critics, nest. Bochart sopposes a species of the eagle to be with our translation, think it means a species of owl or meant, vol. iii., col. 335. night bird, because the word may be derived from 903 The lapwing) no 217 duchiphath, the upupa, hoopoe, nesheph, which signifies the twilight, the time in which or hoop, a crested bird, with beautiful plumage, but orols chiefly fly about. See Bochart, vol. iii., col. 281. very unclean. See Bochart and Scheuchzer. Con

Verse 18. The swan] npoin tinshemeth. The Sep-cerning the genuine meaning of the original, there is tuagint translate the word by toppuplwva, the porphy- little agreement among interpreters. rion, purple or scarlet bird. Could we depend on this The bat] ghoy atalleph, so called, according to translation, we might suppose the flamingo or some. Parkhurst, from oy at, to Ay, and 759 alaph, darknesssuch bird to be intended. Some suppose the goose to or obscurily, because it flies about in the dusk of the be meant, but this is by no means likely, as it cannot evening, and in the night : so the Septuagint vvktepus, be classed either among ravenous or unclean' fowls. from vvs, the night ; and the Vulgate vespertilio, from Bochart thinks the owl is meant. See on ver. 30. vesper, the evening. This being a sort of monster

The pelican] nxp kaath. As-nxp kaah signifies to partaking of the nature of both a bird and beast, it vomit up, the name 'is supposed to be very descriptive might well be classed among unclean animals, or aniof the pelican, who receives its food into the pouch mals the use of which in food should be avoided. under its lower jaw, and, by pressing it on its breast Verse 20. All fowls that creep] Such as the bat, with its bill, throws it up for the nourishment of its already mentioned, which has claws attached to its young. Hence the fable which represents the pelican leathern wings, and which serve in place of feet to wounding her breast with her bill, that she might feed crawl by, the feet and legs not being distinct ; but her young with her own blood ; a fiction which has no this may also include all the different kinds of insects, foundation but in the above circumstance. Bochart with the exceptions in the following verse. thinks the bittern is meant, vol iii. col. 292.

Going upon all four] May signify no more than The gier eagle) on7 racham. As the root of this walking regularly or progressively, foot after fool as word signifies tenderness and affection, it is supposed quadrupeds do; for it cannot be applied to insects liteto refer to some bird remarkable for its attachment to rally, as they have in general six feet, many of them its young; hence some have thought that the pelican more, some reputed to have a hundred, hence called is to be understood. Bochart endeavours to prove that centipedes ; and some a thousand, hence called milliit means the vulture, probably that species called the pedes; words which often signify no more than that golden vulture.Bochart, vol. iii., col. 303.

such insects have a great number of feel. Verse 19. The stork) 77*0n chasidah, from yon Verse 21. Which have legs above their feet) This chasad, which signifies to be abundant in kindness, or appears to refer to the different kinds of locusts and exuberant in acts of beneficence ; hence applied to the grasshoppers, which have very remarkable hind legs, slork, because of its affection to ils young, and its kind- long, and with high joints, projecting above their backs, ness in tending and feeding its parents when old; facts by which they are enabled to spring up from the ground, attested by the best informed and most judicious of the and leap high and far. Greek and Latin natural historians. See Bocharl, Verse 22. The locust) nans arbeh, either from Scheuchzer, and Parkhurst, under the word 700 cha-298 arab, to lie in wait or in ambush, because often sad. It is remarkable for destroying and eating immense flights of them suddenly alight upon the serpents, and on this account might be reckoned by fields, vineyards, &c., and destroy all the produce of Moses among unclean birds.

the earth ; or from 7701 rabah, he multiplied, because The heron JM anaphah. This word has been of their prodigious swarms. See a particular account variously understood : some have rendered it the kite, of these insects in the notes on Exod. x. 4. others the woodcock, others the curlew, some the pea- The bald. locust] by ho solam, compounded, says cock, others the parrot, and others the crane. The Mr. Parkhurst, from who sala, to cut, break, and by root 73x anaph, signifies to breathe short through the am, contiguity; a kind of locust, probably so called nostrils, to snuff, as in anger; hence to be angry: and from its rugged, craggy form. See the first of it is supposed that the word is sufficiently descriptive Scheuchzer's plates, vol. iii., p. 100. of the heron, from its very irritable disposition. It The beetle] chargol. · The Hebrew name will attack even a man in defence of its nest; and I seems a derivative from 115 charag, to shake, and son have known a case where a man was in danger of | regel, the foot; and so to denote the nimbleness of its

B. C. 1490.

Farther directions relative

LEVITICUS. to unclean beasts and reptiles. A. M. 2514. 23 But all other flying creep-toucheth their carcass shall be A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490.
An. Exod. Isr: 2. ing things, which have four feet, unclean until the even.

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. shall be an abomination unto you.

Abib or Nisan.

28 And he that beareth the car24 And for these ye shall be unclean : who- cass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unsoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be clean until the even : they are unclean unto you. unclean until the even.

29 These also shall be unclean unto you 25 And whosoever beareth aught of the car- among the creeping things that creep upon the cass of them, " shall wash his clothes, and be earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the unclean until the even.

tortoise after his kind, 26 The carcasses of every beast which di- 30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and videth the hoof, and is not cloven-footed, nor the lizard, and the P snail, and the mole. cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every

31 These are unclean to you among all that one that toucheth them shall be unclean. creep: - whosoever doth touch them, when they

27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, be dead, shall be unclean until the even. among all manner of beasts that go on all 32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when four, those are unclean unto you: whoso they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean ; Chap. xiv. 8; xv. 5; Num. xix. 10. 22 ; xxxi. 24.

Isa. lvi. 17. -P Psa. Iviii. 8. motions. Thus in English we call an animal of the The mouse by achbar. Probably the large locust kind a grasshopper; the French name of which field ral, or what is called by the Germans the hamis sauterelle, from the verb sauter; to leap.”-- Park- ster, though every species of the anus genus may be hurst. This word occurs only in this place. The here prohibited. beetle never can be intended here, as that insect never The tortoise] 38 tsab. Most critics allow that the was eaten by man, perhaps, in any country of the tortoise is not intended here, but rather the crocodile, universe.

the frog, or the road. The frog is most probably the The grasshopper) Jin chagab. Bochart supposes animal meant, and all other creatures of its kind. that this species of locust has its name from the Arabic Verse 30. The ferret] opex anakah, from pux verb ges hajaba to veil ; because when they fly, as anak, to'groan, to.ery out : a species of lizard, which they often do, in great swarms, they eclipse even the derives its name from its piercing, doleful cry. See light of the sun. See the notes on Exod. x. 4, and Bochart, vol: ii., col. 1066. the description of ten kinds of locusts in Bocharl, vol. The chameleon) no coach. Bochart contends that iii., col. 441. And see the figures in Scheuchzer, in this is the Jyo waril or guaril, another species of whose plates 20 different species are represented, vol. lizard, which derives its name from its remarkable iii., p. 100, And see Dr. Shaw on the animals men- strength and vigour in destroying serpents, the Hetioned in this chapter, Travels; p. 419, &c., 4to. edi- brew nə cack signifying to be strong, firm, vigorous ; tion ; and when all these are consulted, the reader will it is probably the same with the mongoose, a creature see how little dependence can be placed on the most still well known in India, where it is often domestilearned conjectures relative to these and the other cated in order to keep the houses free from snakes, animals mentioned in Scripture. One thing however rats, mice, &c. is fully evident, viz., that the locust was eaten, not The lizard] risuh lelaah. Bochart contends that only in those ancient times, in the time of John Bap- this also is a species of lizard, called by the Arabs tist, Matt. iii. 4, but also in the present day. Dr. & wahara, which creeps close to the ground, and Shảw ate of them in Barbary “ fried and salted,” and is poisonous. tells us that “they tasted very like crayfish.” They

The snail] bon chomet, another species of lizard, have been eaten in Africa, Greece, Syria, Persia, and according to Bochart, called Wa kuluka by the throughout Asia ; and whole tribes seem to have lived Arabians, which lives chiefly in the sand.-Vol. ii., on them, and were hence called acridophagoi, or col. 1075. locust-eaters, by the Greeks. See Strabo, lib. xvi.,

The mole.) novin.linshameth, from bu) nasham, and Pliny, Hist. Nat., l. xvii., c. 30.

to breathe. Bochart seems to have proved that this Verse 27. Whatsoever goeth upon his paws) 193 is the chameleon, which has its Hebrew name from its cappaiv, his palms or hands, probably referring to those wide gaping mouth, very large lungs, and its deriving. animals whose feet resemble the hands and feet of the its nourishment from small animals which float in the human being, such as apes, monkeys, and all creatures air, so that it has been conjectured by some to feed on of that genus ; together with bears, frog's, &c. the air itself.-Vol. ij., col. 1078. A bird of the same

Verse 29. The weasel] 1597 choled, from chalad, name is mentioned ver. 13, which Bochart supposes Syr., to creep in. Bochart conjectures, with great to be the night-owl.-Vol. iii., col. 286. propriety, that the mole, not the weasel, is intended by Verse 32. Any vessel of wood) Such as the wooden the Hebrew word : its property of digging into the bowls still in use among the Arabs. Or raiment, or earth, and creeping or burrowing under the surface, skin—any trunks or baskets covered with skins, another is well known.

part of the furniture of an Arab tent; the goal-skins,

A. M. 2514.
B. .

God : ye

How persons and utensils

CHAP: XI.

are defiled by touching these. A. M. 2514. whether it be any vessel of wood, 39 And if any beast, of which

B. C. 1490.
An Exod. Isr. 2. or raiment, or skin, or sack, ye may eat, die; he that toucheth An Exod. Isr: 2.
Abib or Nisan. whatsoever vessel it be, wherein the carcass thereof shall be un-

Abib or Nisan. any work is done, a it must be put into water, clean until the even. and it shall be unclean until the even; so it 40 And. he that eateth of the carcass of it shall be cleansed.

shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the 33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any even: he also that beareth the carcass of it shall of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be wash his clothes and be unclean until the even. unclean; and ye shall break it.

41 And every creeping thing, that creepeth 34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on upon the earth, shall be an abomination ; it which such water cometh shall be unclean: shall not be eaten. and all drink that may be drunk in every such 42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and vessel shall be unclean.

whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever 35' And every thing whereupon any part " hath more feet among all creeping things of their carcass falleth shall be unclean; that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they eat; for they are an abomination. shall be broken down: for they are unclean, 43 Ye shall not make yourselves abomiand shall be unclean unto you.

nable with any creeping thing that creepeth, 36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, • wherein neither shall ye make yourselves. unclean with there is plenty of water, shall be clean : but them, that ye should be defiled thereby. that which toucheth their carcass shall be 44 For I am the LORD

your

shall unclean.

therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be 37 And if any part of their carcass fall holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye

defile upon any sowmg seed, which is to be sown, yourselves with any manner of creeping thing it shall be clean.

that creepeth upon the earth. 38 But if any water be put upon the seed, | 45. » For I am the LORD that bringeth you and any part of their carcass fall thereon, it up ont of the land of Egypt, to be your God : shall be unclean unto you.

2 ye shall therefore be holy; for I am holy. 9 Chap. xv. 12.-Chap. vi. 28; xv. 12. - Heb. a gather- u Heb. doth multiply feet.- - Chap. xx. 25. w Heb. souls. ing Ingelher of waters. - Chap. xvii. 15; xxii. 8; Deut. xiv. Exod. xix. 6; chap. xix. 2; xx. 7, 26; 1 Thess. iv. 7; 1 Pet. 21; Ezek. iv, 14 ; xliv. 31.

i. 15, 16. in which they churn their milk, may be also intended. touched the unelean thing, being considered as impure, Or sack—any hair-cloth used for the purpose of trans- the rest of the water being clean. porting goods from place to place.

Verse 37. Any sowing seed] · If any part of an imVerse 33. And every earthen vessel] Such-pitchers pure carcass fall accidentally on seed about to be sown, as are commonly used for drinking out of, and for it shall not on that account be deemed unclean ; but holding liquids. M. De la Roque observes that hair- if the water put to the seed to prepare it for being sacks, trunks,.and baskels, covered with skin, are used sown, shall be touched by such impure carcass, the among the travelling Arabs to carry their household seed shall be considered as unclean, ver. 38: Probautensils in, which are kettles or pots, great wooden bly this may be the meaning of these passages. bools, hand-mills, and pitchers. It is very likely that Verse 42. Whatsoever goeth upon the belly) In the these are nearly the same with those used by the word 1100 gahOn, the rau holem, in most Hebrew Israelites in their journeyings in the wilderness, for Bibles, is much larger than the other letters; and a the customs of these people do not change.

Masoretic note is added in the margin, which states Verse 35. Ranges for pots] To understand this, that this is the middle letter of the law; and conscwe must observe that the Arabs dig a hole in their quently this verse is the middle verse of the Pentateuch. tent, about a foot and a half deep; three-fourths of Whatsoever hath more feet) Than four; that is, all this, says Rauwolff, they lay about with stones, and the many-footed reptiles, as well as those which go upon fourth part is left open for the purpose of throwing in the belly having no feet, such as serpents; besides the their fuel. This little temporary building is probably four-footed smaller animals mentioned above. what is here designed by ranges for pots; and this Verse 44. Ye shall--sanctify yourselves] . Yeshall was to be broken down when any unclean thing had keep yourselves separate from all the people of the it. See Harmer, vol. i., p. 464.

earth, that ye may be holy; for I am holy. And this Verse 36. A fountain or pit, fc.) This must either was the grand design of God in all these prohibitions refer to running water, the stream of which soon car- and commands; for these external sanctifications were ries off all impurities, or to large reservoirs where the only the emblems of that internal purity which the howater soon purifies itself; the water in either which liness of God requires here, and without which nono

y Exod. vi. 7. Ver. 44.

fallen upon

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