« הקודםהמשך »
The fire of the Lord
consumes the sacrifice. A. M. 2514. the Lord appeared unto all the the altar the burnt-offering and A: M. 2514
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. people.
the fat; which when all the peo- An. Exod. Isr. 2 Abib or Nisan. 24 And d there came a fire out ple saw, they shouted, and fell
Abib or Nisan. from before the Lord, and consumed upon on their faces.
B. C. 1490.
& Gen. iv. 4; Judg. vi. 21 : 1 Kings xviii. 38; 2 Chron. vii. 1; e Exod. xxxii. 17; 1 Kings xviii. 39 ; 2 Chron. vii. 3; Ezra
Psa. xx. 3 ; 2 Mac. ii. 10, 11.
were consumed. The heathens, in order to give cre- This celestial fire was carefully preserved among the dit to their worship, imitated this miracle, and pretend- Israelites till the time of Solomon, when it was renewed that Jupiter testified his approbation of the sacri- ed, and continued among them till įhe Babylonish capfices offered to him by thunder and lightning : to this tivity. This Divine fire was the emblem of the Holy VIRGIL soems to allude, though the words have been Spirit. And as no sacrifice could be acceptable to understood differently.
God which was not salted, i. e., seasoned and rendered Audiat hæc genitor, qui fædera fulmine sancit.
pleasing, by this fire, as our Lord says, Mark ix. 49, Æn. xii., ver. 200.
so no soul can offer acceptable sacrifices to God, but “Let Jupiter hear, who sanetions covenants by his the promise of the Spirit under the emblem of fire,
through the influences of the Divine Spirit. Hence thunder.”
Matt. iii. 11, and its actual descent in this similitudo On which words Servius makes this remarkable com
on the day of pentecost, Acts ii. 3,-4. ment :. Quia cum fiunt fædera, si coruscatio fuerit, confirmantur. Vel certe quia apud majores aræ non incendebantur, sed ignem divinum precibus eliciebant The most remarkable circumstance in this chapter qui incendebant altaria. " To sanction the covenant is the manifestation of the presence of God, and the signifies to confirm it; for when a covenant was made, consuming of the rietims by the miraculous fire. We if there were a flash of lightning, it was considered to have already seen that the chief design of these sacribe thereby confirmed : or rather because our ances- ficial rites was to obtain reconciliation to God, that the TORS lighted no fire upon the altars, but obtained by Divine Presence might dwell and be manifested among their supplications divine fire,” &c. The expression them. To encourage the people to make the necesapud majores, "arnong our ancestors,” shows that they sary preparations, to offer the sacrifices in a proper could boast of no such divine fire then ; nor could spirit, and to expect especial mercies from the hand they ever before, as the whole account was borrowed of God, Moses promises, ver. 4, that the Lord would from the Jews. Solinus Polyhistor gives us, an ac- appear unto them on the morrow, and that his glory count to the same effect; for, speaking of the hill of should appear, ver. 6. In hope or expectation of this, Vulcan in Sicily, he says: In quo, qui divinæ rei ope- the priest, the elders, and the people purified themrantu, ligna vitea super aras struunt, nec ignis ap-selves by offering the different sacrifices which God ponitur in hanc congeriem : cum prosicias intulerunt, had appointed ; and when this was done God did apsi adest deus, si sacrum probatur, sarmenta licet pear, and gave the fullest proofs of his approbation, by viridia sponte concipiunt, et nullo inflagrante halitu, ab miraculously consuming the sacrifices which were preipso numine fit accendium, cap. v. in fine. “They pared on the occasion. Does not St. John evidently who perform sacred rițes in this place, put a bundle refer to these circumstances, Ist Epist., chap. iii. 2, 3: of vine-tree wood upon the altar, but put no fire to it; " Beloved, now are we the sons of God; and it doth for when they lay the pieces of the victim upon it, if not yet appear what we shall be; but we know that the deity be present, and he approve the sacrifice, the when he shall appear, we shall be like him, for we bundle, although of green wood, takes fire of itself, shall see him as he is ; and every man that hath this and without any other neans the deity himself kindles hope in him, purifieih himself, even as he is pure.” the flame." These are remarkable instances, and this manifestation of God in the tabernacle was a show how exactly the heathen writers have borrowed type of his presence, first, in the Church militant on from the sacred records.
And in" farther imitation of earth ; and secondly, in the Church triumphant in heathis miracle, they had their perpetual fire in the tem- They who expect to have the presence of God ple of Vesla, which they feigned to have descended at there, must propitiate his throne of justice by the only first from heaven, and which they kept with the most available sacrifice; they who wish to enjoy everlastreligious veneration.
ing felicity, must be purified from all unrighteousness, Verse 24. When all the people saw, they shouted, for without holiness none can see the Lord. If we and fell on their faces.] 1. The miracle was done in hope to see him as he is, we must resemble him. How such a way as gave the fullest conviction to the 'vain is the expectation of glory, where there is no people of its reality. 2. They exulted in the thought meetness for the place ! And how can we enter into . that the God of almighty power and energy had taken the holiest but by the blood of Jesus? Heb. X. 19. up his abode among them. 3. They prostrated them. And of what use can this sacrifice be to those who do selves in his presence, thereby intimating the deep not properly believe in it? And can any faith, even sense they had of his goodness, of their unworthiness, in that sacrifice, be effectual ta salvation, that does not and of the obligation they were under to live in sub- purify the heart? Reader! earnestly pray to God that jection to his authorịty, and obedience to his will, thou hold noţ the truth in unrighteousness,
Nadab and Abihu offer
strange fire, and are destroyed.
CHAPTER X. Nadab and Abihu offer strange fire before the Lord, and are destroyed, 1-5. Aaron and his family forbidden
lo mourn for them, 6, 7. He and his family are forbidden the use of wine, 8-11. Directions to Aaron and his sons concerning the eating of the meat-offerings, fc., 12–15. Moses chides Aaron for not having eaten the sin-offering, 16-18. Aaron excuses himself, and Moses is satisfied, 19, 20. A. M. 2514: ND a Nadab and Abihu, the 2 And there d went out fire A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Jsr. 2. sons of Aaron, took either from the Lord, and devoured An. Exod. Isr. 2.
Abib or Nisan. of them his censer, and put fịre them, and they died before the abib or Nisan. therein, and put incense thereon, and offered LORD. “ strange fire before the LORD, which he com- 3 Then Moses said unto Aaron, This is it inanded them not.
that the LORD spake, saying, I will be sanctia Chap. xvi. I; xxii. 9; Num. v. 3, 4 ; xxvi. 61; 1 Chron. xxiv. 2. c Exod. xxx. 9. — Chap. ix. 24; Num. xvi. 35; 2 Samuel Chap. xvi. 12; Num. xvi. 18.
NOTES ON CHAP. X.
pluck it up from its roots, and the sun which was the Verse 1. And Nadaband Abihu—look either of them cause of its vegetative life and perfection now dries up his censer] The manner of burning incense in the tem- its juices, decomposes its parts, and causes it to moulple service was, according to the Jews, as follows: der into dust. Thus must it be done to those who “ One went and gathered the ashes from off the altar grieve and do despite to the Spirit of God. Reader, into a golden vessel, a second brought a vessel full of hast thou this heavenly fire? Hear then the voice incense, and a third brought a censer with fire, and of God, Quenc# not the Spirit. put coals on the altar, and he whose office it was to Some critics are of opinion that the fire used by the burn the inceuse strewed it on the fire at the com- sons of Aaron was the sacred fire, and that it is only mand of the governor. At the same time all the peo- called strange from the manner of placing the incense ple went out of the temple from between the porch on it. I cannot see the force of this opinion.' and the altar. Each day they burned the weight of Which he commanded them not.] Every part of the a hundred denaries of incense, fifly in the morning, religion of God is Divine. He alone knew what he and fifty in the evening. The hundred denaries designed by its rites and ceremonies, for that which weighed fifty shekels of the sanctuary, each shekel they prefigured—the whole economy of redemption weighing three hundred and twenty barleycorns; and by Christ-was conceived in his own mind, and was when the priest had burned the incense, he bowed him out of the reach of human wisdom and conjecture. -self down and went his way out. See Maimonides' He therefore who allered any part of this representaTreatise of the Daily Service, chap. iii. So when live system, who omitted or added any thing, assumed Zacharias, as his lot fell, burned incense in the tem- a prerogative which belonged to God alone, and was ple, the whole multitude of the people were without at certainly guilty of a very high offence against the wisprayer while the incense was burning, Luke i. 9, 10. dom, justice, and righteousness of his Maker. This By this service God taught them that the prayers of. appears to have been the sin of Nadab and Abihu, and his fajthful people are pleasing to him, whilst our High this at once shows the reason why they were so sePriest, Christ Jesus, by his mediation puts incense to verely punished.. The most awful judgments are their prayers ; (see Psa. cxli. 2 ; Rom. viii. 34; Heb. threatened against those who either add too, or take viii. 1, 2'; ix. 24; Rex. viii. 3, 4;) for the priests un away from, the declarations of God. See Deut. iv. 2; der the law served unto the example and shadow of Prov. xxx. 6; and Rev. xxii. 18, 19. heavenly things ; Heb. viii. 5.” See Ainsworth in loco. Verse 3. And Aaron held his peače.) VOX DT'
In the preceding chapter we have seen how God vaiyiddom Aharon, and Aaron was dumb. How eleintended that every part of his service should be con- gantly expressive is this of his parental affection, his ducted ; - and that every sacrifice might be acceptable deep sense of the presumption of his sons, and his own to him, he sent his own fire as the emblem of his pre- submission to the justice of God! The flower and sence, and the means of consuming the sacrifice.- hope of his family was nipped in the bud and blasted; Here we find Aaron's sons neglecting the Divine ordi- and while he exquisitely feels as a father, he submits nance, and offering incense with strange, that is, com- without murmuring to this awful dispensation of Di. mon fire,-fire not of a celestial origin; and therefore vine justice. It is an awful thing to introduce inno-. the fire of God consumed them. So that very fire vations either into the rites and ceremonies, or into the which, if properly applied, would have sanctified and truths, of the religion of Christ : he who acts thus consumed their gift, become now the very instrument cannot stand guiltless before his God. of their destruction ! How true is the saying, The It has often been remarked that excessive grief Lord is a consuming fire! He will either hallow or stupifies the mind, so that amazement and deep andestroy us : he will purify our souls by the influence guish prevent at once both tears and complaints ; of his Spirit, or consume them with the breath, of his hence that saying of Seneca, Cura leves loquantur ; mouth! The tree which is properly planted in a good graviores silent. “ Slight sorrows are loquacious ; soil is nourished by the genial influences of the sụn : deep anguish has no voice." See on ver. 19,
B. C. 1490.
Abib or Nisan.
held his peace.
Aaron and his sons are
forbidden the use of wine. A. M. 2514. fied in them that come nighthou, nor thy sons, with thee, A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. me, and before all the people I when ye go into the tabernacle An. Exod. Isr: 2. will be ' glorified. & And Aaron of the congregation, lest ye die : Abib or Nisan.
it shall be a statute for ever throughout your 4 And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, generations : the sons of h Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, / -10° And that ye may P put difference between and said unto them, Come near, i carry your holy and unholy, and between unclean and brethren from before the sanctuary out of the clean'; camp.
11. And that ye may teach the children of 5 So they went near, and carried them in Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath their coats out of the camp; as Moses had said. spoken unto them, by the hand of Moses.
6 And Moses said unto. Aaron, and untó 12 And Moses spake unto Aaron, and unto
13 And ye shall eat it in the holy place, 7 m And ye shall not go out from the door of because it is thy due, and thy sons' due, of the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die : the sacrifices of the LORD made by fire : for
e pointing oil of the LORD is upon you.
8 And the Lord spake unto Aaron, saying, shall ye eat in a clean place'; thon, and thy
- Chap: ii. 3; vi. 16. u Exod. xxix. 24, 26, 27; chap. xvi. 22, 46; Josh, vii. 1; xxii, 18, 20; 2 Sam. xxiv. 1.
vii. 31; 34 ; Num. xviii. II. Verse 4. Uzziel the uncle of Aaron] He was brother Strong drink. --The word 70 shechar, from sha. to Amram the father of Aaron; see. Exod. vi. 18–22. char, to inebriate, signifies any kind of fermented liquors.
Verse 5. Carried them in their coats' out of the This is exactly the same prohibition that was given in camp) The modern impropriety of burying the dead. the case of John Baptist, Luke i. 15 : OLvov Kal OLKEPA within towns, cities, or places inhabited, had not yet ov un tim Wine and sikera he shall not drink. Any been introduced ; much less that abomination, at which inebriating liquor, says St. Jerome, (Epist: ad nepot.,) both piety and common sense shudder, burying the is called sicera, whether made of corn, apples, honey, dead about' and even within places dedicated to the dates, or other fruit. One of the four prohibited worship of God!
drinks among the Mohammedans in India is called Verse 6. Uncover not your heads, fc.) They were
wfw sakar, (see the Hedaya, vol. iv., p. 158,) which to use no sign of grief or mourning, 1. Because those who were employed in the service of the sanciuary signifies inebriating drink in general, but especially
date wine or arrack, should avoid every thing that might incapacitate them
From the original word profor that service; and, 2. Because the crime of their bably we have borrowed our term cider or sider, which brethren was so highly provoking to God, and so fully among us exclusively signifies the fermented juice of merited, the punishment which he had inflicted, that. apples. See on Luke i. 15. their mourning might be considered as accusing the
Verse 10. That ye may put difference between holy Divine justice of undue severity.
and unholy) This is a strong reason why they should Verse 7. The anointing oil of the Lord is upon
drink no inebriating liquor, that their understanding you.) They were consecrated to the Divine service, being clear, and their judgment correct, they might and this required their constant attendance, and most be always able to discern between the clean and the. willing and cheerful service.
unclean, and ever pronounce righteous judgment. InVerse 9. Do not drink wine nor strong drink] The junctions similar to this were found among the cabalistical commentator, Baal Hatturim, and others, Egyptians, Carthaginians, and Greeks. Indeed, comhave supposed, from the introduction of this command mon sense itself shows that neither a drunkard nor a here, that Aaron's sons had sinned through excess of sot should ever be suffered to minister in holy things. wine, and that they had attempted to celebrate the Di- Verse 14. Wave-breast and heave-shoulder) See vine service in a state of inebriation.
chap, vii., and on Exod. xxix. 27,
A. M. 2514 B. C. 1490
A. M. 2514.
Abib or Nisan.
Aaron is reproved for
not eating the son-offering. be thy due, and thy sons' due, (holy, and God hath given it you An. Exod. Isr. 2. which are given out of the sacri- to bear the iniquity of the con- an. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. fices of peace-offerings of the gregation, to make atonement children of Israel.
for them before the Lord ? 15 The heave-shoulder and the wave-breast 18 Behold, the blood of it was not brought shall they bring with the offerings made by in within the holy place: ye should indeed fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave-offering have eaten it in the holy place, ? as I combefore the LORD;, and it shall be thine, and manded. thy sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as 19 And Aaron said unto Moses, Behold, the Lord hath commanded.
this day have they offered their sin-offering 16 And Moses diligently sought w the goat and their burnt-offering before the Lord; and of the sin-offering, and, behold, it was burnt : such things have befallen me: and if I had and he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, eaten the sin-offering to-day, 5 should it havé the sons of Aaron which were left alive, saying, been accepted in the sight of the Lord ?
17 Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin- 20 And when Moses heard that, he was offering in the holy place, seeing it, is most content.
Verse 16. Moses diligently sought the goat) The here given us a full proof that he will not suffer human goat which was offered the same day for the sins of institutions to take the place of his own prescribed the priests and the people, (see chap. ix. 15, 16,) and worship. It is true this is frequently done, for by which, through the confusion that happened on account many. what is called natural religion is put in the place of the death of Nadab and Abihu, was burnt instead of Divine revelation ; and God seems not to regard it: of being eaten. See ver. 18.
but thought vengeance is not speedily executed on an Verse 17. To bear the iniquity of the congregation] evil work, and therefore the hearts of the children of See on chap. vi. 26, &c.
men are set to do wickedness, yet God ceases not to Verse 19. And such things have befallen me, fc.] be just ; and those who have taken from or 'added to The excuse which Aaron makes for not feasting on his words, or put their own inventions in their place, the sin-offering according to the law is at once appro- shall be reproved and found liars in the great day. His priate and dignified; as if he had said: “God certainly long-suffering leads to repentance :: būt if men will has commanded me to eat of the sin-offering ; but harden their hearts; and put their oron ceremonies, when such things as these have happened unto me, rites, and creeds, in the place of Divine ordinances could it be good in the sight of the Lord ? Does he and eternal truths, they must expect to give an awful not expect that I should feel as a falher under such account to him who is shortly to judge the quick and. afflicting circumstances ?" With this spirited answer the dead. Moses was satisfied; and God, who knew his situa- Were the religion of Christ stripped of all that state tion, took no notice of the irregularity which had policy, fleshly interest, and gross superstition have addtaken place in the solemn service. To human nature ed to it, how plain and simple, and may we not add, God has given the privilege to weep in times of afflic- how amiable and glorious,.would it appear! Well may tion and distress. In his infinite kindness he has we say of human inventions in Divine worship what. ordained that tears, which are only external evidences one said of the paintings on old cathedral windows, of our grief, shall be the outlets to our sorrows, and Their principal tendency is to prevent the light from tend to exhaust the cause from which they flow. See coming in., Nadab and Abihu would perform the woron ver. 3.
ship of God, not according to his command, but in their Verse 20. When Moses heard that, he was content.] own way; and God not only would not receive the The argument used by, Aaron had in it both good sense sacrifice from their hands, 'but, while encompassing and strong reason, and Moses, as a reasonable man, themselves with their own sparks, and warming themfelt its force; and as God evidenced no kind of dis- selves with their own fire, this had they from the hand pleasure at this irregularity, which was, in a measure of the Lord—they lay down in sorrow, for there went at least, justified by the present necessity, he thought out a fire from the Lord, and devoured them. What proper to urge the matter no farther.
is written above is to be understood of persons who
make a religion for themselves, leaving Divine reveThough the punishment of Nadab and Abihu may lation ; for, being wilfully ignorant of God's righteousappear severe, because the sacred text does not specify. ness, they go about to establish their own. This is a clearly the nature and extent of their crime, we may high offence in the sight of God. Reader, God is a rest assured that it was of such a nature as not only Spirit, and they who worship him must worship him in to justify but to demand such a punishment. God has spirit and truth. Such worshippers the Father seeketh. Laws concerning clean
and unclean animals.
Laws concerning clean and unclean animals, 1, 2. Of QUADRUPEDS, those are clean which divide the hoof
and chew the cud, 3. Those to be reputed unclean which do not divide the hoof, though they chew the cud, 4-6. Those to be reputed unclean also which, though they divide the hoof, do not chew the cud, 7. Whosoerer eats their flesh, or touches their carcasses, shall be reputed unclean, 8. Of fish, those are clean, and may be eaten which have fins and scales; 9. Those which have not fins and scales to be reputed unclean, 10-12. Of Fowls, those which are unclean, 13-21. Of Insects, the following may be ealen : the bald locust, beetle, and grasshopper, 22. All others are unclean and abominable, their flesh not to be eaten, nor their bodies touched, 23-25. Farther directions relative to unclean beasts, 26-28. Of REPTILES, and some small quadrupeds, those which are unclean, 29, 30. All that touch them shall be unclean, 31 ; and the things touched by their dead carcasses are unclean also, 32-35. Large fountains, or pits of water, are not defiled by their carcasses, provided a part of the water be drawn out, 36. Nor do they defile seed by accidentally touching it, provided the water which has touched their flesh do not touch or moisten the seed, 37, 38. A beast that dieth of itself is unclean, and may not be touched or eaten, 39, 40. . All creeping things are abominable, 41-44. The reason given for these laws, 45-47.. A. M. 2514. AND the Lord spake unto: among all the beasts that are
A. M. 2514. * B. C. 1490.
B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses and to Aaron, say- on. the earth.
An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. ing unto them,
3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, Abib or Nisan. 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, and is cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, a These are the beasts which ye shall eat among the beasts, that shall ye eat.
a Deut. xiv. 4; Acts x. 12, 14.
NOTES ON CHAP. XI.
of the Priests and the people, and prescribes the proVerse 1. And the Lord spake unto Moses] In the per expiations and sacrifices for both. In chap. xvii. preceding chapter the priests are expressly forbidden he continues the subject, and gives particular directions to drink wine; and the reason for this law is given concerning the mode of offering, &c. In chap. xviii. also, that they might be able at all times to distinguish he treats of unclean matrimonial connections. In chap. between clean and unclean, and be qualified to teach the xix. he repeats sundry laws relative to these subjects, children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord had and introduces some new ones. In chap. xx. he menspoken, chap. x. 10, 11; for as inebriation unfits' a tions certain uncleannesses practised among the idolperson for the regular performance of every function atrous nations, and prohibits them on pain of death. of life, it must be especially sinful in those who minis- In chap. xxi. he treats of the mourning, marriages, ter in holy things, and to whom the teaching of the and personal defects of the priests, which rendered them ignorant, and the cure of souls in general, are intrusted. unclean. And in chap. xxii. he speaks of unclean sa
Scheuchzer has remarked that no Christian state has crifices, or such as should not be offered to the Lord. made any civil law against drunkenness, she must only After this, to the close of the book, many important mean the German states, for we have several acts of and excellent political and domestic regulations are enparliament against it in England,) and that it is only joined, the whole forming an ecclesiastico-political syspunished by contempt. “Custom," says he, “that ty- tem superior to any thing the world ever saw. rant of the human race, not only permits it, but in some Bishop Wilson very properly observes that, “by sort authorizes the practice, insomuch that we see priests these laws of clean and unclean animals, &c., God did and ministers of the Church ascend the pulpit in a state keep this people separated from the idolatrous world : of intoxication, judges seat themselves upon the benches, and this is a standing proof, even to the present day, physicians attend their patients, and others attempt to of the Divine authority of these Scriptures; for no perform the different avocations of life, in the same power or art of man could have obliged so great and disgraceful state.”—Physic. Sacr., vol. iii., p. 64. tarbulent a nation to submit to such troublesome pre
This is á horrible picture of German manners; and cepts as the Jews always have submitted to, had they while we deplore the extensive ravages made by this not been fully convinced, from the very first, that the vice, and the disgrace with which its votaries are over- command was from God, and that it was to be obeyed whelmed, we have reason to thank God that it very at the peril of their souls." , rarely has ever appeared in the pulpil, and perhaps Verse 3. Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenwas never once seen upon the bench, in our own country.footed] These two words mean the same thing-a
Having delivered the law against drinking wine, divided hoof, such as that of the ox, where the hoof is Moses proceeds to deliver a series of ordinances, all divided into two toes, and each toe is cased with horn. well calculated to prevent the Israelites from mixing *Cheweth the cud) · Ruminates; casts up the grass, with the surrounding nations, and consequently from &c., which had been taken into the stomach for the being contaminated by their idolatry. In chap. xi. he purpose of mastication. Animals which chew the cud, treats of unclean MEATS. In chap. xii., xiii., xiv., or ruminate, are provided with two, three, or four stoand xv., he treats of unclean PERSONS, GARMENTS, and machs. The ox has four: in the first or largest, called PWELLINGS. In chap. xvi. he treats of the uncleanness the ventriculus or paunch, the food is collected without