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The consecration of Aaron

CHAP. VIII.

and his sons commanded.

CHAPTER VIII. Moses is commanded to consecrate Aaron and his sons, 1-3. Moses convenes the congregation ; washes,

clothes, and anoints Aaron, 4-12. He also clothes Aaron's sons, 13. Offers a bullock for them as a sinoffering, 14-17. And a ram for a burnt-offering, 18-21. And another ram for a consecration-offering, 22–24. The fat, with cakes of unleavened bread, and the right shoulder of the ram, he offers as a waveoffering, and afterwards burns, 25–28. The breast, which was the part of Moses, he also waves, 29. And sprinkles oil and blood 'upon Aaron and his sons, 30. The flesh of the consecration ram is to be boiled and eaten at the door of the tabernacle, 31, 32. Moses commands Aaron and his sons to abide seven days at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, which they do accordingly, 33–36. A. M. 2514. ND the Lord spake unto sanointed the tabernacle and all A. M. 2514. B. C. 1490.

B. C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2. Moses, saying, that was therein, and sanctified An. Exod. Isr

. 2. Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan. 2 a Take Aaron, and his sons them. with him, and the garments, and e-the anoint-|- 11 And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar ing oil, and a bullock for the sin-offering, and seven times, and anointed the altar and all his two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread; vessels, both the laver and his foot, to sanctify

3 And gather thou all the congregation them. together. unto the door of the tabernacle of 12 And he " poured of the anointing oil upon the congregation.

Aaron's head, and anointed him, to sanctify 4 And Moses did as the LORD commanded him. him; and the assembly was gathered together 13 * And Moses brought Aaron's sons, and unto the door of the tabernacle of the congre- put coats upon them, and girded them with gation.

girdles, and put bonnets upon them; as the 5 And Moses said unto the congregation, LORD commanded Moses. * This is the thing which the. LORD com- 14 PAnd he brought the bullock for the sinmanded to be done.

offering : and Aaron and his sons laid their 6 And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, hands upon the head of the bullock for the e and washed them with water.

sin-offering. 7 Ånd he put upon him the 6 coät, and 15 And he slew it; ' and Moses took the girded him with the girdle, and clothed him blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar with the robė, and put the ephod upon him, round about with his finger, and purified the and he girded him with the curious girdle of altar, and poured the blood at the bottom of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith the altar, and sanctified it, to make reconcilia

8 And he put - the breastplate upon him : tion upon it. also he put in the breastplate the Urim and 16 • And he took all the fat that was upon the Thummim.

the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and g i And he put the mitre upon his head; the two kidneys, and their fat, and Moses also upon the mitre, even upon his forefront, burned it upon the altar. did he put the golden plate, the holy crown; 17 Bụt the bullock, and his hide, his flesh, as the LORD & commanded Moses.

and his dung, he burnt with fire without the 10 And Moses took the anointing oil, and camp; as the Lord commanded Moses.

a Exod. xxix. 1, 2, 3. - Exod. xxvii. 2, 4. _c Exod. xxx. Ecclus. xlv. 15. - Exod. xxix. 8. 9. Lo Heb. bound. 24, 25,- Exod. xxix. 4.- Exod. xxix, 4. . Exod. xxix. PExod. xxix. 10; Ezek. xliii. 19. -9 Chap. iv. 4. Exod.

- Exod. xxviii. 4.-h Exod. xxviii. 30.- -i Exod. xxix. xxix. 12, 36; chap. iv. 7; Ezek. xliii. 20, 26; Heb. ix. 22.

Exod. xxviii. 37; &c.- - Exod. xxx. 26, 27, 28, 29. • Exod. xxix. 13; chap. iv. 8.- - Chap. iv. il, 12; Exod. Chap. xxi. 10, 12; Exod. xxix. 7 ; XXX. 30; Psa. cxxxiii. 2 ; xxix. 14. NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.

Verse 8. He put in the breastplate. the Urim and the Verse 2. Take Aaron and his sons) The whole Thummim.] The Urim and Thummim are here supsubject of this chapter has been anticipated in the notes posed to be something different from the breastplate . on Exod. xxviii. 1, &c.; and xxix. 1, &c., in which all itself

. See the notes on Exod. xxviii. 15, 16, 30. the sacrifices, rites, and ceremonies have been explain-| Verse 9. And he put the milre]. See the note on ed in considerable detail ; and to those notes the reader Exod. xxviii. 37. is referred. It is only necessary to observe that Aaron Verse 14. The bullock for the sin-offering] This and his sons were not anointed until now. Before, was offered each day during the seven days of consethe thing was commanded; now, first performed. cration. See Exod. xxix. 36. VOL. I. ( 35 )

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A. M. 2514.
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A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

The offerings made at the

LEVITICUS.

consecration of the priests. 18 And he brought the ram right ear, and upon the thumb An. Exod. Isr. 2. for the burnt-offering : and Aaron of his right hand, and upon the An. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. and his sons laid their hands great toe of his right foot. upon the head of the ram.

24 And he brought Aaron's sons, and Moses 19 And he killed it; and Moses sprinkled put of the blood upon the tip of their right the blood upon the altar round about. ear, and upon the thumbs of their right

20. And he cut the ram into pieces; and Mo- hands, and upon the great toes of their right ses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the fat. feet : and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the

21 And he washed the inwards and the legs altar round about. in water; and Moses burnt the whole ram upon 25 ? And he took the fat, and the rump, and the altar : it was a burnt-sacrifice for a sweet all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the savour, and an offering made by fire unto the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses. their fat, and the right shoulder : 22 And w he brought the other ram,

26 y And out of the basket of unleavened of consecration : and Aaron and his sons laid bread, that was before the LORD, he took one their hands upon the head of the ram. unleavened cake, and a cake of oiled bread,

23. And he slew it; and Moses took of the and one wafer, and put them on the fat, and blood of it, and put it upon the tip of Aaron's upon the right shoulder :

the ram

u Exod. xxix. 15.

- Exod. xxix. 18.

- Exod. xxix. 19, 31.

Exod. xxix. 22.- Exod. xxix. 23.

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Verse 23. Put it upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, Pateat minutis ut frequens hiatibus.fc.) See this significant ceremony explained in the Hic ut statuta est immolanda bellua, note on Exod. xxix. 20. Calmet remarks that the Pectus sacrata dividunt venabulo, consecration of the high priest among the Romans bore Eructat amplum vulnus undam sanguinis,&c. a considerable resemblance to the consecration of the Tum per frequentes mille rimarum vias Jewish high priest. “ The Roman priest, clothed with Illapsus imber, tabidum rorem pluit, a garment of silk, his head covered with a crown of Defossus intus quem sacerdos excipit, gold adorned with sacred ribbons, was conducted into Guttas ad omnes turpe subjectans caput, a subterranean place, over which there was a floor of Et veste et omni putrefacius corpore : planks pierced through with many holes. On this Quin os supinat, obvias offert genas floor they saerificed a bullock, whose blood was freely Supponit aures, labra, nares objicit, poured out on the planks or floor, which running Oculos et ipsos perluit liquoribus, through the holes fell upon the priest, who stood un- Nec jam palato parcit, et linguam rigat, der to receive this sacred aspersion, and who, in order. Donec cruorem totus atrum combibat.to be completely covered with the blood, took care to Procedit inde pontifex visu horridus-&c. present the whole of his body, his clothes, face, eyes, Omnes salutant atque adorant eminus, · nose, lips, and even his tongue, to receive the drops Vilis quod illum sanguis, et bos mortuus of blood falling through the pierced floor above. Be- Fædis latentem sub cavernis laverint." ing completely covered with this sanguineous shower, he ascended from his subterranean place, and was ac

Of these lines the reader will not be displeased to knowledged and adored by the people as Pontifex Mar- find the following poetical version : imus, or supreme high priest." These rites, which

“For when, with sacred pomp and solemn state, bear a striking allusion to those used in the consecra

Their great high priest the Romans consecrate, tion of Aaron, and from which they were probably bor

His silken vest in Gabine cincture bound, rowed, and disguised by the introduction of their own

A festal fillet twines his temples round: superstitions, are particularly described by Aurelius

And, while aloft the gorgeous mitre shines, Prudentius, in his poem entitled Romani Martyris

His awful brow a golden crown confines. Supplicium, from which I shall select those verses,

In a deep dyke, for mystic ritual made, the subject of which is given above, as the passage is He stands, surrounded with terrific shade. curious, and the work not common.

High o'er his holy head a stage they place, “Summus sacerdos nempe sub terram scrobe Adorn with paintings, and with statues grace ; Acta in profundum consecrandus mergitur,

Then with keen piercers perforate the floor,
Mire infulatus, festa vittis tempora

Till thronging apertures admit no more.
Nectens, corona tum repexus aurea,

Thither the victim ox is now convey'd,
Cinctu Gabino sericam fultus togam.

To glut the vengeance of the thirsty blade.
Tabulis superne strata texunt pulpita,

The sacred spear his sturdy throat divides, · Remosa rari pegmatis compagibus,

Down, instant streaming, gush the gory tides,
Scindunt subinde vel terebrant aream,

Through countless crevices the gaping wood
Crebroque lignum perforant acumine,

Distils corrupted dew and smoking blood;
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A. M. 2514.
B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

Abib or Nisan'.

Aaron and his sons, being anointed, CHAP. VIII. abide in the tabernacle seven days.

27 And he put all · z upon | nacle of the congregation : and An. Exod. Isr. 2. Aarons' hands, and upon his there eat it with the bread that An. Exod. Isr. 2.

son's hands, and waved them for is in the basket of consecrations, a wave-offering before the LORD.

as I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons 28 a And Moses took them from off their shall eat it.

the

32. And that which remaineth of the flesh burnt-offering : they were consecrations for a and of the bread shall ye burn with fire. sweet savour : it is an offering made by fire 33 And ye shall not go out of the door of into the Lord.

the tabernacle of the Congregation in seven 29 And Moses took the breast, and waved it days, until the days of your consecration be at for a wave-offering before the LORD : for of an end : forf seven days shall he consecrate you the ram of consecration it was Moses' part ; 34 8 As he hath done this day, so the LORD as the LORD commanded Moses.

hath commanded to do, to make an atonement 30 And • Moses took of the anointing oil, for you. and of the blood which 'was upon the altar, 35 Therefore shall ye abide at the door of and sprinkled it upon Aaron, and upon his the tabernacle of the congregation day and garments, and upon his sons, and upon his night seven days, and h keep the charge of sons' garments with him; and sanctified Aaron, the LORD, that ye die not: for' so I am comand his garments, and his sons, and his sons' manded. garments with him.

36 So Aaron and his sons did all things 31 nd Mosès said unto Aaron and to his which the Lord commanded by the hand of sons,

Boil the flesh at the door of the taber- Moses.

d

2 Exod. xxix. 24, &c.—a Exod. xxix. 25.

—Exod. xxix. e Exod. xxix. 34.- Exod. xxix. 30, 35; Ezek. xliii. 25, 26. — Exod. xxix. 21 ; xxx. 30; Num. u. 3.- _d Exod. 26. - Heb, vii. 16. - Num. ii. 7; it. 19; Deut. xi. I; xxix. 31, 32.

1 Kings ij. 3.

Drop after drop, in swift succession shed,

these were so many acts of atonement performed by Falls on the holy pontiff's mitred head ;

the high priest. While, to imbibe the sanctifying power,

Verse 33. For seven days shall he consecrate you:] His outspread garments drink the crimson shower ; This number was the number of perfection among the Then on his back in reeking streams he lies, Hebrews; and the seven days' consecration implied a And laves in livid blood his lips and eyes ;

perfect and full consecration to the sacerdotal office. Bares every limb, exposes every pore,

See the note on Exod. xxix. 30. To catch the virtue of the streaming gore ;

Verse 36. So Aaron and his sons did] This chapWith open mouth expects the falling flood, ter shows the exact fulfilment of the commands deliMoistens his palate and his tongue with blood ; vered to Moses, Exod. xxix. ;. and consequently the *Extends his ears to meet the sanguine rain, complete preparation of Aaron and his sons to fill the Nor lets a single drop descend in vain.

awfully important office of priests and mediators beThen from the gloomy cave comes forth to light, tween God and Israel, to offer sacrifices and make Bathed in black blood, and horrible to sight! - atonement for the sins of the people. By the vile torrent, and the victim slain,

“ Thus,” says Mr. Ainsworthy " the covenant of the In the dark cavern cleansed from mortal stain, priesthood was confirmed unto the tribe of Levi in Their priest, enveloped in atoning gore,

Aaron and his sons, which covenant was life and peace, With trembling awe surrounding throngs adore." Mal. ïi. 5. But these are made priests wilhout an

oath ; also, there were many priests, because they Prudentius was born about the middle of the fourth were not-suffered to continue by reason of death ; and century, and was no doubt intimately acquainted with they served unto the example and shadow of heavenly the circumstances he describes.

things, offering gifts and sacrifices which could not Verse 27. And waved them for a wave-offering] make him who did the service perfect as pertaining to See the nature of this and the heave-offering in the the conscience ; for they were carnal ordinances imnote on Exod. xxix. 27.

posed upon them till the time of reformation, that is, Verse 30. And Moses took the bloodand sprink- until the time of Christ, who was made a priest of God led it upon Aaron, fc.) Thus we find that the high with an oath, and made surety of a better covenant, priest himself must be sprinkled with the blood of the established on better promises. . And because he con sacrifice ; and our blessed Lord, of whom Aaron was tinueth for ever, he hath a priesthood which passeth a type, was sprinkled with his own blood. 1. In hís not from one to another, and is a minister of the truc agony in the garden. . 2. In his being crowned with tabernacle, which God pitched and not man.

Not by thorns. 3. In the piercing of his hands and his feet. the blood of bulls and of goats, but by his own blood, And, 4. In his side being pierced with the spear. All be entered once into the holy place, having found everAaron and the people are.

LEVITICUS. to make offerings to the Lord. lasting redemption for ús; and is therefore able to save these rites and ceremonies are significant and edifying; to the uttermost them who come unto God through him, but taken out of this relation, they would be as absurd as he ever liveth to make intercession for them.” Ta- and nugatory as the consecration of the Roman Pontiken in reference to his priesthood and sacrifice, all') fex Maximus, mentioned above by Prudentius.

CHAPTER IX:

B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

Aaron is commanded to offer, on the eighth day, a sin-offering and a burni-offering, 1, 2. The people are

commanded also to offer a sin-offering, a burnt-offering, peace-offerings, and a meat-offering, 3, 4. They do as they were commanded; and Moses promises that God shall appear among them, 5, 6. Aaron is commanded to make an atonement for the people, 7. He and his sons prepare and offer the different sacrifices, 8-21. Aaron and Moses bless the congregation, 22, 23. And the fire of the Lord consumes the sacrifice, 24. A. M. 2514. AND it came to pass on the manded before the tabernacle of A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 2. eighth day, that Moses called the congregation: and all the con- . An. Exod. Isr. 2

Aaron and his sons, and the elders gregation drew near and stood Abib or Nisan. of Israel;

before the LORD. 2 And he said unto Aaron, Take thee a 6 And Moses said, This is the thing which young calf for a sin-offering, and a ram for the Lord commanded that ye should do; and a burnt-offering, without blemish, and offer the glory of the LORD shall appear unto you, them before the Lord...

7 And Moses said unto Aaron, Go unto the 3 And unto the children of Israel thou shalt | altar, and offer thy sin-offering, and thy speak, saying, "Take ye a kid of the goats burnt-offering, and make an atonement for for a sin-offering; and a calf and a lamb, both thyself; and for the people: and i offer the of the first year, without blemish, for a burnt offering of the people, and make an atonement offering;

for thèm; as the LORD commanded. 4 Also a bullock and a ram for peace-offer- 8 Aaron therefore went unto the altar, and ings, to sacrifice before the LORD ; and a slew the calf of the sin-offering, which was for meat-offering mingled with oil: for fto-day himself

. the LORD will appear unto you.

9 k And the sons of Aaron brought the blood 5 And they brought that which Moses com- unto him: and he dipped his finger in the

a Ezek. xliii. 27.- Lo Chap. iv. 3; viii. 14; Exod. xxix. 1. & Ver. 23; Exod. xxiv. 16. Chap. iv. 3; 1 Sam. iii. 14; Chap. viii. 18.-0 Chap. iv. 23; Ezra vi. 17; x. 19.- Chap. Heb. v. 3; vii. 27; ix. 7.-i Chàp. iv. 16. 20; Heb. v. 1. - Ver. 6, 23; Exod. xxix. 43..

k Chap. viii. 15.

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NOTES ON CHAP. IX.

Verse 3. Take ye a kid] In chap. iv. 14 a young Verse 1. On the eighth day) This was the first bullock is commanded to be offered for the sin of the day after their consecration, before which they were people'; but here the offering is a kid, which was the deemed unfit to minister in holy things, being consi- sacrifice appointed for the sin of the ruler, chap. iv. dered as in a state of imperfection. “ All creatures,” 22, 23, and hence some think that the reading of the says Ainsworth, " for the most part were in their un- Samarilan and the Septuagint is to be preferred. cleanness and imperfection 'seven days, and perfected. Speak unto the ELDERS of Israel, these being the only on the eighth ; as children by circumcision, Lev. xii. princes or rulers of Israel at that time ; and for them 2, 3; young beasts for sacrifice, chap. xxii. 27; per- it is possible this sacrifice was designed. It is however sons that were unclean by leprosies, issues, and the supposed that the sacrifice appointed chap. iv. 14 was like, chap. xiv. 8–10 ;-Xv. 13, 14; Nom. vi. 9, 10. for a particular sin, but this for sin in general ; and So here, the priests, until the eighth day, were not that it is on this account that the sacrifices differ. adnritted to minister in their office."

Verse 6. And the glory of the Lord shall appear] Verse 2. Take thee a young calf, &c.]. As these God shall give the most sensible signs of his presence sacrifices were for Aaron himself, they are furnished among you ; this he did in general by the cloud on the by himself and not by the people, for they were de- tabernacle, but in this case the particular proof was signed to make atonement for his own sin. See chap. the fire that came out from before the Lord, and coniv. 3. And this is supposed by the Jews to have sumed the burnt-offering ;, see ver. 23, 24. been intended to make an atonement for his sin in Verse 7. Make an atonement for thyself ] This the matter of the golden calf. This is very probable, showed the imperfection of the Levitical law; the as no formal atonement for that transgression had yet high priest was obliged to make an expiation for his been made.

own sins before he could make one for the sins of the

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B. C. 1490.

Abib or Nisan.

The sacrifice being ended,

CHAP. IX.

Aaron blesses the people. Á. M. 2514.

blood, and put it upon the horns 17 And he brought the meat- A. M. 2514. An. Exod. Isr. 2. of the altar, and poured out the offering, and w took a handful an. Exod. Isr. 2. Abib or Nisan. blood at the bottom of the altar : thereof, and burnt it upon

the 10 m But the fat, and the kidneys, and the altar, - beside the burnt-sacrifice of the morning. caul above the liver, of the sin-offering, he 18 He slew also the bullock and the ram for burnt upon the altar ; :" as the Lord com- Ya sacrifice of peace-offerings, which was for manded Moses.

the people : and Aaron's sons presented unto 11 ° And the flesh and the hide he burnt him the blood, which he sprinkled upon the with fire without the camp.

altar round about ; 12 And he slew the burnt-offering; and 19 And the fat of the bullock and of the Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, ram, the rump, and that which covereth the P which he sprinkled round about upon the inwards, and the kidneys, and the caul above altar.

the liver: 13 9 And they presented the burnt-offering 20 And they put the fat upon the breasts, unto him, with the pieces thereof, and the 2 and he burnt the fat upon the altar: head: and he burnt thein' upon the altar. 21 And the breasts and the right shoulder

14 And he did wash the inwards and the Aaron waved for a wave-offering before the legs, and burnt them upon the burnt-offering Lord; as Moses commanded. on the allar.

22 And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the 15 • And he brought the people's, offering, people, and blessed them, and came down and took the goat, which was the sin-offering from offering of the sin-offering, and the for the people, and slew it, and offered it for burnt-offering, and peace-offerings. sin, as the first.

23 And Moses and Aaron went into the 16 And be brought the burnt-offering, and taberriacle of the congregation, and came out, offered it according to the manner. and blessed the people : and the glory of See chap. iv. 7. m Chap. viii. 16. Chap. iv. 8. ii, 1, 2. -w Heb. filled his hand out of it.

* Exod. xxix. 38. • Chap. iv. 11; viii. 17.-- Chap. i. 5; viii. 19. - Chap. viii. ♡ Chap. ii. 1, &c.- Chap. iii. 5, 16.

La Exod. xxix. 24, 26 ; Chapvili: 21. Ver. 3; Isa. liii. 10; Heb. ii. 17; 1 chap. vii. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34:—- Num. vi. 23; Deut. xxi. 5;

- Chap. i. 3, 10. — Or, ordinance. - Ver. 4; chap. Luke xxiv. 50.- -c Ver. 6; Num. xiv. 10; xvi. 19, 42. people. See the use made of this by the apostle, ance of the sacrifice. This was done probably, 1. In Heb. v. 3; vii. 27 ; ix. 7.

the case of Abel, Gen. iv. 4. 2. In the case of Aaron ; Verse 22. And Aaron lifted up his hand toward see above, ver. 24. 3. In the case of Gideon, Judg. the people, and blessed them] On lifting up the hands vi. 21. 4." In the case of Manoah and his wife. in prayer, see Exod. ix. 29. The form of the bless- Compare Judg. xiii. 19-23.-5. In the case of David ing we have in Num. vi. 23, &c. : " The Lord bless dedicating the threshing-floor of Ornan, 1 Chron. xxi. thee and keep thee!" The Lord make his face shine 28. 6. In the case of Solomon dedicating the temple, upon thee, and be gracious unto thée ! The Lord lift 2 Chron. vii. 1. 9. In the case of Elijah, 1 Kings up his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace !" | xviii. 38. Hence to express the accepting of an offerSee the notes on these passages.

ing, sacrifice, &c., the verb peso dishshen is used, And came down from offering of the sin-offering, which signifies to reduce to ashes, i. e., by fire from fc.) A sin-offering, a burnt-offering, a meat-offering, heaven. See Psa. xx. 3. In such a case as this, it and peace-offerings, were made to God that his glory was necessary that the fire should appear to be dimight appear to the whole congregation. This was vinely sent, and should come in such a way as to prethe end of all sacrifice and religious service ;- not to clude the supposition that any art or deceit had been confér any obligation on God, but to make an atone- practised on the occasion. Hence it is not intimated ment for sin, and to engage him to dwell among and that Moses and Aaron brought it out of the tabernacle, influence his worshippers.

professing that God had kindled it there for them, but Verse 23. Moses and Aaron went into the taberna- the fire CAME OUT from before the Lord, and all the cle] It is supposed that Moses accompanied Aaron PEOPLE' saw it. The victims were consumed by a fire into the tabernacle to show him how to offer the in-evidently of no human kindling. Josephus says that cense, prepare the lamps and the perfume, adjust the "a fire proceeded from the victims themselves of its shew-bread, &c., &c.

own accord, which had the appearance of a flash of And the glory of the Lord appeared] To show that lightning;" eş avtwv Tup avnpon avropátov, kaL ÓHOLOV every thing was done according to the Divine mind, aorpanns aauandove opwuevov pn proyco " and con1. The glory of Jehovah appears unto all the people ; sumed all that was npon the altar."-Antiq., lib. iii., 2. A fire' came out from before the Lord, and con- c. 3, s. 6, edit. Haverc., And it is very likely that sumed the burnt-offering This was the proof which by the agency of the elhereal or electric spark, sent Gnd gave upon extraordinary occasions of his accept- immediately from the Divine presence, the victims

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