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B. C. 1491.

Sivan.

Moses called up into the mount. EXODUS.

The glory of God appears. A. M. 2513. there was under his feet as it and, behold, Aaron and 'Hur are A. M. 2513.

B. C. 1491. An Exvd Isr: 1. were a paved work of a sapphire with you : if any man have any An. Exod. Iss. 1.

Sivan. stone, and as it were the body matters to do, let him come unto of heaven in his clearness.

them. 11 And upon the nobles of the children of 15 And Moses went up into the mount, and Israel he plaid not his hand : also a they saw a cloud covered the mount. God, and did ' eat and drink.

16 And the glory of the Lord abode upon 12 And the LORD said unto Moses, . Come Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six up to me into the mount, and be there : and I days : and the seventh day he called unto will give thee * tables of stone, and a law, Moses, out of the midst of the cloud. and commandments which I have written; 17 And the sight of the glory of the LORD that thou mayest teach them.

was like y devouring fire, on the top of the 13 And Moses rose up, and u his minister mount, in the eyes of the children of Israel. Joshua : and Moses went up into the mount 18 And Moses“ went into the midst of the of God.

cloud, and gat him up into the mount : and 14 And he said unto the elders, Tarty ye 2 Moses was in the mount forty days and here for us, until we come again unto you: forty nights.

7 구 n Ezek. i. 26 ; X. 1; Rev. iv. 3. Matt. xvii. 2:-p Chap. 16; Deut. v. 22: Chap. xxxii. 17; xxxii. 11. Ver. 2. xix. 21. -4 Ver. 10; chap. xxxiii. 20; Gen. xvi. 13 ; xxxii. 30 ; Chap. xix. 9, 16; Matt. xvii. 5.- * Chap. xvi. 10; Num. ziv. Deut. iv: 33; Judg. xiii. 22. - Gen. xxxi. 54 ; chap. xviii. 12; 10.-- Chapter in. 2 ; xix. 18; Deut. iv. 36; Heb. xii. 18, 29. Cor. x. 18. - Ver. 2, 15, 18. — Chap. xxxi. 18; xxxií. 15, : Chap. xxxiv. 28; Deut. ix. 9.

W

In Scheuchzer's Physica Sacra, among his numerous Verse 13. Moses rose up] In verse 16 it is said fine engravings, there is one of this glorious manifes- that the glory of the Lord abode on the mount, and the tation, which cannot be too severely reprehended. cloud covered it. The glory was probably above the The Supreme Being is represented as an old man, cloud, and it was to the cloud that Moses and his sersitting on a throne, encompassed with glory, having a vant Joshua ascended at this time, leaving Aaron and crown on his head, and a sceptre in his hand, the the elders below. After they had been in this region, people prostrate in adoration at the foot of the piece. viz., where the cloud encompassed the mountain, for A print of this kind should be considered as utterly six days, God appears to have called Moses up higher : improper, if not blasphemous.

compare the 16th and 18th verses. Moses then asVerse 11. Upon the nobles of Israel he laid not his cended to the glory, leaving Joshua in the cloud, with hand] This laying on of the hand has been variously whom he had, no doubt, frequent conferences during the explained. 1. He did not conceal himself from the forty days he continued with God on the mount. nobles of Israel by covering them with his hand, as he Verse 14. Tarry ye here for us] Probably Moses did Moses, chap. xxxiii. 22. - 2. He did not endue any did not know that he was to continue so long on the of the nobles, i. e., the seventy elders, with the gift of mount, nor is it likely that the elders'tarried the whole prophecy; for so laying on of the hand has been under forty days where they were : they doubtless, after stood. 3. He did not slay any of them ; 'none of them waiting some considerable time, returned to the camp; received any injury ; which is certainly one meaning and their return is supposed to have been the grand of the phrase : see Neh. xiii. 21.; Psa. lv. 20. Also cause why the Israelites made the golden calf, as they they saw God, i. e., although they had this discovery probably reported that Moses was lost. of his majesty, yet they did eat and drink, i. e., were Aaron and Hur are with you] Not knowing how preserved alive and unhurt. Perhaps the eating and long he might be detained on the mount, and knowing drinking here may refer to the peace-offerings on that many cases might occur which would require the which they feasted, and the libations that were then interference of the chief magistrate, Moses constituted offered on the ratification of the covenant. But they them regents of the people during the time he should rejoiced the more because they had been so highly be absent. favoured, and were still permitted to live ; for it was Verse 16. And the seventh day he called] It is very generally apprehended that God never showed his glory likely that Moses went up into the mount on the first in this signal manner but for the purpose of manifest day of the week ; and having with Joshua remained ing his justice ; and therefore it appeared a strange in the region of the cloud during six days, on the thing that these should have seen God as it were face seventh, which was the Sabbath, God spake to him, to face, and yet live. See Gen. xvi. 13 ; xxxij. 30 ; and delivered successively to him, during forty days and Judg. xiii. 22, 23.

and forty nights, the different statutes and ordinances Verse 12. Come up to me into the mount, and be which are afterwards mentioned. there) We may suppose Moses to have been, with Verse 17. The glory of the Lord was like devouring Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders, about fire) This appearance was well calculated to inspire midway up the mount; for it plainly appears that there the people with the deepest reverence and godly fear; were several stations on it.

and this is the use the apostle makes of it; Heb, xü.

The people required to bring CHAP. XXV.

free-will offerings to the Lord. 28, 29, where he evidently refers to this place, say- 1 of the people are suffered to come up to the Divine ing, Let us have grace whereby we may serve God glory, not even Aaron, nor his sons, nor the nobles of acceptably with reverence and godly fear; for our Israel. Moses was a type of Christ, who is the meGod is a CONSUMING FIRE. Seeing the glory of the díator of the New Covenant; and he alone has access Lord upon the mount like a devouring fire, Moses hav- to God in behalf of the human race, as Moses had in ing tarried long, the Israelites probably supposed that behalf of Israel. he had been devoured or consumed by it, and therefore 2. The law can inspire nothing but terror, when the more easily fell into idolatry. But how oould they viewed unconnected with its sacrifices, and those sado this, with this tremendous sight of God's glory crifices are nothing but as they refer to Jesus Christ, before their eyes ?

the Lamb of God, who alone by the sacrifice of himselt, Verse 18. Forty days and forty nights.] During bears away the sin of the world. the whole of this time he neither ate bread nor drank 3. The blood of the victims was sprinkled both on water; see chap. xxxiv. 28 ; Deut. ix. 9. Both his the altar and on the people, to show that the death of body and soul were so sustained by the invigorating Christ gave to Divine justice' what it demanded, and presence of God, that he needed no earthly support, to men what they needed. The people were sanctiand this may be the simple reason why he took none. fred by it unto God, and God was propitiated by it unto Elijah fasted forly days and forty nights, sustained by the people. By this sacrifice the law was magnified the same influence, 1 Kings xix. 8; as did likewise and made honourable, so Divine justiče received its our blessed Lord, when he was about to commence the due ; and those who believe are justified from all guilt, public ministry of his own Gospel, Matt. iv. 2. and sanctified from all sin, so they receive all that they

need. Thus God is well pleased, and believers eter1. Moses, who was the mediator of the Old Cove- nally saved. This is a glorious economy, highly nant, is alone permitted to draw nigh to God; none I worthy of God its author.

B, C. 1491.

CHAPTER XXV. The Lord addresses Moses out of the Divine glory, and commands him to speak unto the Israelites, that they

may give him free-will offerings, 1, 2. The different kinds of offerings, gold, silver, and brass, 3. Purple,
scarlet, fine linen, and goats' hair, 4. Rams' skins, badgers' skins, (rather violet-coloured skins,) and shittim
wood, 5. 'Oil and spices, 6. Onyx stones, and stones for the ephod and breastplate, 7. A sanctuary is
to be made after the pattern of the tabernacle, 8, 9. The ark and its dimensions, 10. Its crown of gold, 11.
Its rings, 12. Its staves, and their use, 13-15. The testimony to be laid up in the ark, 16. The
mercy-seat and its dimensions, 17. The cherubim, how made and placed, 18-20. The mercy seat to be
placed on the ark, and the testimony to be put within it, 31. The Lord promises to commune with the
people from the mercy-seat, 22. The table of shew-bread, and its dimensions, 23. Its crown and border
of gold, 24, 25. Its rings, 26, 27. Staves, 28. Dishes, spoons, and, bowls, 29. Its use, 30. The
golden candlestick ; its branches, bowls, knops, and flowers, 31–36. Its seven lamps, 37. Tongs and
snuffers, 38. The weight of the candlestick and its utensils, one. talent of gold, 39. All to be made
according to the pattern showed to Moses on the mount, 40,
A. M. 2513. AND the Lord spake untojo of every man that giveth it A. M. 2513.

B. C. 1491.
An. Exod. Isr. I. Moses, saying,

willingly with his heart, ye shall An. Exod. Isr. i. Sivan.

Sivan. 2 Speak unto the children of take my offering. Israel, that they « bring me an b offering :: :3 And this is the offering which ye shall * Hebrew, take for me.

• Chap. xxxv. 5,21 ; 1 Chron. xxix. 3, 5, 9, 14; Ezra ii. 68; LbOr, heave-offering.

m. 5; vii. 16; Neh. xi. 2; 2 Cor. viii. 12; ix. 7. NOTES ON CHAP. XXV.

Verse 3. This is the offering] There were three Verse 2. That they bring me an offering] The kinds of metals : 1. Gold, 271 zahab, which may offering here mentioned is the 73190 terumah, a kind properly signify wrought gold; what was bright and of free-will offering, consisting of any thing that was resplendent, as the word implies. In Job xxviii. 15, necessary for the oceasion. It signifies properly any 16, 17, 19, gold is mentioned five times, and four of thing that was lifted up, the heave-offering, because the words are different in the original. 1. VD SEGOR, in presenting it to God it was lifted up to be laid on from 10 sagar, to shut up; gold in the mine, or shut his altar; but see on chap. xxix. 26. God requires up in its ore. 2. ONI KETHEM, from ond catham, to that they should build him a tent, suited in some sort sign, seal, or stamp; gold made current by being coined; to his dignity and eminence, because he was to act as standard or sterling gold, exhibiting the stamp exprestheir king, and to dwell among them; and they were sive of its value. 3. 3771 zahab, wrought gold, pure, to consider themselves as his subjects, and in this highly polished gold ; probably what was used for character to bring him presents, which was considered overlaying or gilding. 4. 70 Paz, denoting solidity, to be the duty of every subject appearing before his compactness, and strength; probably gold formed into prince. See chap. xxiii. 15.

different kinds of plate, as it is joined in ver. 17 of hair ;

The different offerings

EXODUS.

to be brought to the Lord. A. M. 2513. take of them ; gold, and silver, scarlet, and a fine linen, and goats' A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. L. and brass,

An. Exod. Isr. 1. Sivan.

Sivan. 4. And blue, and purple, and 5 And rams' skins dyed red,

d Or, silk; | Gen. xli. 42. the above chapter with a keley, vessels. The zahab, a single fold was meant, 72 bad is the term used. See or pure gold, is here mentioned, because it was in a the note on Gen. xli. 42. state that rendered it capable of being variously manu- Goats' hair] d'iy izzim, goals, but used here ellipfactured for the service of the sanctuary.

tically for goats' hair. In different parts of Asia Minor, 2. Silver, 737 keseph, from casaph, to be pale, wan,. Syria, Cilicia, and Phrygia, the goats have long, fine, or white; so called from its well-known colour. and beautiful hair, in some cases almost as fine as silk,

3. Brass, nun) nechosheth, copper; unless we sup- which they shear at proper times, and manufacture into pose that the factitious metal commonly called brass garments. From Virgil, Georg. iii., v. 305-311, we is intended : this is formed by a combination of the learn that goats' hair manufactured into cloth was oxide or ore of zinc, called lapis calaminaris, with nearly of equal value with that formed from wool. copper. Brass seems to have been very anciently in

Hæ quoque non cúra nobis lcviore tuendæ ; use, as we find it mentioned Gen. iv. 22; and the

Nec minor usus erit : quamvis Milesia magno preparation of copper, to transform it into this facti

Vellera mutentur, Tyrios incocta rubores.tious metal, seems to be very pointedly referred to

Nec minus interea barbas incanaque menta Job xxviii. 2 : Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass

Cinyphii tondent hirci, setasque comantes, is molten out of the stone ; Joins pis'j?x eben yatsuk

Usum in castrorum, et miseris velamina nautis. nechushah, translated by the Vulgate, Lapis, solutus calore, in es vertitur, "The stone, liquefied by heat, “For hairy goats of equal profit are is turned into brass.” Is it going too far to say that With woolly sheep, and ask an equal care. the stone here may refer to the lapis calaminaris, which 'Tis true the fleece when drunk with Tyrian juice was used to turn the copper into brass ? Because brass Is dearly sold, but not for needful use : was capable of so fine a polish as to become exceedingly Meanwhile the pastor shears their hoary beards bright, and keep its lustre a considerable time, hence And eases of their hair the loaden herds. it was used for all weapons of war and defensive armour Their camelots, warm in tents, the soldier hold, among ancient nations; and copper seems to have been And shield the shivering mariner from the cold." in no repute, but for its use in making brass.

DRYDEN Verse 4. Blue bon techeleth, generally supposed to mean an azure or sky colour ; rendered by the Sep: oroth eylim meoddamim, literally, the skins of red rams.

Verse 5, Rams' skins dycd red] b'oxydbox nry tuagint úarıvčov, and by the Vulgate hyacinthum, à sky-blue or deep violet.

It is a fact attested by many respectable travellers, Purple) 2278 argaman, a very precious colour,

that in the Levant sheep are often to be met with that

And almost all extracted from the purpura or murex, a species of have red or violet-coloured fleeces. shell-fish, from which it is supposed the famous Tyrian

ancient writers speak of the same thing, Homer purple came, so costly, and so much celebrated in describes the rams of Polyphemus as having a violet

coloured fleece, antiquity. See this largely described, and the manner of dying it, in Pliny, Hist. -Nat., lib. ix., c. 60-65, Αρσενες οίες ησαν εύτρεφεες, δασυμαλλοι, edit. Bipont.

Καλοι τε, μεγαλοι τε, ιοδνεφες ειρος εχοντες. Scarlet] Tibor tolaath, signifies a worm, of which

Odyss, lib. ix., ver. 123. this colouring matter was made; and, joined with '

" Strong were the rams, with native purple fair, shani, which signifies to repeat or double, implies that

Well fed, and largest of the fleecy care.” Pore. to strike this colour the wool or cloth was twice dipped : hence the Vulgate renders the original coccum bis

Pliny, Aristotle, and others mention the same. And linctum, “scarlet twice dyed ;" and to this Horace from facts of this kind it is very probable that the fable refers, Odar., lib. ii., od. 16, v. 35 :

of the golden fleece had its origin. In the Zetland Isles -Te Bis Afro

I have seen sheep with variously coloured fleeces, some Murice TINCTÆ

white, some black, some black and white, some of a very

fine chocolate colour. Beholding those animals brought Vestiunt LANÆ.—

to my rècollection those words of Virgil :“ Thy robes the twice dyed purple stains.". It is the same colour which the Arabs call al kermez,

Ipse sed in pratis Aries jam suave rubenti whence the French cramoisi, and the English crimson.

Murice, jam crocèo mutabit vellera luto. On this subject much may be seen in Bochart, Calmet,

Eclog. iv., ver. 43. and Scheuchzer.

“No wool shall in dissembled colours shine ; Fine linen] vw shesh ; . whether this means linen, But the luxurious father of the fold, colton, or silk, is not agreed on among interpreters. With native purple or unborrow'd gold, Because we shesh signifies six, the rabbins suppose Beneath his pompous fleece shall proudly sweat, that it always signifies the fine linen of Egypt, in And under Tyrian robes the lamb shall bleat." which six folds constituted one thread; and that when

DRYDEN,

The people directed

CHAP. XXV.

to make the sanctuary. A. M. 2513. and badgers' skins, and shittim 7 Onyx stones, and stones to A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. wood;.

be set in the hephod, and in the An. Exod. Isr. 1. Sivan.

Sivan. 6 · Oil for the light, f spices i breastplate. for anointing oil, and for & sweet incense; 8 And let them

make me a

k

sanctuary; • Chapter xxvii. 20. Chapter xxx. 23. 5 Chapter xxx. 34. Chap. xxviii. 15. Lk Chap. xxxvi. 1, 3, 4 ; Lev. iv. 6; X. 4; Chap. xxviii. 4, 6.

xxi. 12; Heb. ix. 1, 2.

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Badgers' skins) Diviin nyoroth techashim. Few cross upon the stomach, and then carried round the terms have afforded greater perplexity to critics and waist, and thus made a girdle to the tunic. Where commentators than this. Bochart has exhausted the the ephod crossed on the breast there was a square subject, and seems to have proved that no kind of ani- ornament called jun choshen, the breastplate, in which mal is here intended, but a colour. None of the ancient twelve precious stones were set, each bearing one of versions acknowledge an animal of any kind except the the names of the twelve sons of Jacob engraven on it. Chaldee, which seems to think the badger is intended, There were two sorts of ephods, one of plain linen for and from it we have borrowed our translation of the the priests, the other very much embroidered for the word. The Septuagint and Vulgate have skins dyed high priest. As there was nothing singular in this a violet colour; the Syriac, azure; the Arabic, black scommon sort, no particular description is given; but the Coptic, violet; the modern Persic, ram-skins, &c. that of the high priest is described very mụch in detail The colour contended for by Bochart is the hysginus, chap. xxviii. 6–8. It was distinguished from the comwhich is a very deep blue, So Pliny, Coccaque tinc- mon ephod by being composed of gold, blue, purple, tum Tyrio tingere, ut fieret hysginum. They dip scarlet, fine twisted linen, and cunning work, į. e., crimson in purple to make the colour called hysgi- superbly ornamented and embroidered. This ephod nus." —Hist. Nat., lib. ix., C. 65, edit. Bipont. was fastened on the shoulders with two precious stones,

Shittim wood) By some supposed to be the finest on which the twelve names of the twelve tribes of species of the cedar; by others, the acacia Nilotica, Israel were engraved, six names on each stone. These a species of thorn, solid, light, and very beautiful. two stones, thus engraved, were different from those This acacia is known to have been plentiful in Egypt, on the breastplate, with which they have been conand it abounds in Arabia Deserta, the very place in founded. From Calmet's description. the ephod seems which Moses was when he built the tabernacle ; and to have been a series of belts, fastened to a collar, hence it is reasonable to suppose that he built it of that which were intended to keep the garments of the wood, which was every way, proper for his purpose. priest closely attached to his body : but there is some

Verse 6. Oil for the light] This they must have reason to believe that it was a sort of garment like brought with them from Egypt, for they could not get that worn by our heralds; it covered the back, breast, any in the wilderness where there were no olives ; and belly, and was open at the sides. A piece of the but it is likely that this and some other directions same kind of stuff with itself united it on the shoulders, refer more to what was to be done when in their where the two stones, already mentioned, were placed, fixed and settled residence, than while wandering in and it was probably without sleeves. See on chap. the wilderness.

xxviii. 2, &c. Spices) To make a confection for sweet incense, Verse 8. Let them make me a sanctuary] wipe abounded in different parts of these countries. mikdash, a holy place, such as God might dwell in ;

Verse 7. Onyr stones] We have already met with this was that part of the tabernacle that was called the the stone called Dou shoham, Gen. ii. 12, and'acknow- most holy place, into which the high priest entered ledged the difficulty of ascertaining what is meant by only once a year, on the great day of atonement. it. Some think the onyx, some the sardine, and some That I may dwell among them.) “ This,” says Mr. the emerald, is meant. We cannot say precisely what Ainsworth, “.was the main end of all; and to this all it was; possibly it might have been that fine pale the particulars are to be referred, and this ney pebble, called the Egyptian pebble, several specimens are to be opened. For this sanctuary, as Solomon's of which now lie before me, which were brought from temple afterwards, was the place of prayer, and of the coast of the Red Sea, and other parts in Egypt, the public service of God, Lev. xvii. 4-6 ; Matt: xxi. by a particular friend of mine, on purpose to add to 13; and it signified the Church which is the habitamy collection of minerals.

tion of God through the Spirit, 2 Cor. vi. 16; Eph. Stones to be set in the ephod): dixhoa '23x abney ii. 19-22 ; Rev. xii. 2, 3; and was a visible sign of milluim, stones of filling up. Stones so cut as to be God's presence and protection, Lev. xxvi. 11, 12; proper to be set in the gold work of the breastplate. Ezek. xxxvii. 27, 28 ; 1 Kings vi. 12, 13; and of his

The 798 ephod. It is very difficult to tell what this leading them to his heavenly glory. For as the high was, or in what form it was made. It was a garment priest entered into the tabernacle, and through the veil of some kind peculiar to the priests, and ever consi- into the most holy place where God dwelt ; so Christ dered essential to all the parts of Divine worship, for entered into the holy of holies, and we also enter without it no person attempted to inquire of God. As through the veil, that is to say his flesh. See the use the word itself comes from the root nox aphad, he tied made of this by the apostle, Heb. ix. and x. Thus or bound close, Calmet supposes that it was a kind of the sanctuary is to be applied as a type, 1. To-Christ's girdle, which, brought from behind the neck and over person, Heb. viii. 2; ix. 11, 12; John ii. 19-21. the shoulders, and so hanging down before, was put | 2. - To overy Christian, 1 Cor. vi. 19. 3. To the

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491:

Sivan.

Sivan

Directions for the

EXODUS.

construction of the ark that I, may dwell among 12 And thou shalt cast four An. Exod. Isr. 1. them.

rings of gold for it, and put them an. Exod. Isr. 1. 9. m According to all that I in the four corners thereof; and show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, two rings shall be in the one side of it, and and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, two rings in the other side of it. even so shall ye make it.

13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim 10 n And they shall make an ark of shittim wood, and overlay them with gold. wood: two cubits and a half shall be the 14 And thou shalt put the staves into the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the be borne with them. height thereof.

15 • The staves shall be in the rings of the 11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, ark; they shall not be taken from it. within and without shalt thou overlay it, and 16 And thou shalt put into the ark p the shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about. testimony which I shall give thee.

"Chap. xxix. 45; 1 Kings vi. 13; 2 Cor. vi. 16; Heb. iii, 6; • 1 Kings viii. 8. -P Chapter xvi. 34 ; xxxi. 18; Deut. x. 2, Rev. xxi. 3.-_m Ver. 40,- Chapter xxxvii. l; Deut. x. 3; 5; xxxi. 20; 1 Kings viii. 9; 2 Kings xi. 12; Hebrews Heb. ix. 4.

ix. 4.

1

Church; both particular, Heb. iii. 6; 1 Tim. iii. 15; deposit the two tables of stone in, which had been and universal, Heb. x. 21: and it was because of the written by the finger of God, we may very reasonably very extensive signification of this building, that the conjecture that the length of those tables was not less different things concerning this sanctuary are particu- than four feet and their breadth not less than two. ·larly set down by Moses, and so variously applied by As to their thickness we can say nothing, as the depth

the prophets and by the apostles.”~-See Ainsworth of the ark was intended for other matters besides the As the dwelling in this tabernacle was the highest two tables, such as Aaron's rod, the pot of manna, &c., proof of God's grace and mercy towards the Israelites, &c., though probably these were laid up beside, not so it typified. Christ's dwelling by faith in the hearts in, the ark. of believers, and thus giving them the highest and Verse 11. A crown of gold round about.) A border, surest proof of their reconciliation to God, and of his or, as the Septuagint have it, kupatia xpvoa OTPETTA love and favour to them; see Eph. i. 22, iii. 17. KUK26), waves of gold wreathed round about.

Verse 9. After the pattern of the tabernacle] It has Verse 15. The staves--shall not be taken from it.] been supposed that there had been a tabernacle before Because it should ever be considered as in readiness that erected by Moses, though it probably did not now to be removed, God not having told them at what hour exist; but the tabernacle which Moses is ordered to he should command them to strike their tents. If the . make was to be formed exactly on the model of this staves were never to be taken out, how can it be said, ancient one, the pattern of which God showed him in as in Num. iv. 6, that when the camp should set forthe mount, ver. 40. The word you mishcan signifies ward, they should put in the staves thereof, which inliterally the dwelling or habitation ; and this was so timates that when they encamped they took out the called because it was the dwelling place of God; and staves, which appears to be contrary to what is here the only place on the earth in which he made himself said? To reconcile these two places, it has been supmanifest, See the note on ver. 40, and on chapter posed, with great show of probability, that besides the xxxiii. 7-10.

staves which passed through the rings of the urk, and Verse 10. They shall make an ark] 119 aron sig- by which it was carried, there were two other slaves nifies an ark, chest, coffer, or coffin. It is used par- or poles in the form of a bier or hand-barrow, on which ticularly to designate that chest or coffer in which the the ark was laid in order to be transported in their testimony or two tables of the covenant was laid up, journeyings, when it and its own staves, still in their on the top of which was the propitiatory or mercy-seal, rings, had been wrapped up in the covering of what is (see on ver. 17,) and at the end of which were the called badgers' skins and blue cloth. The staves of cherubim of gold, (ver. 18–20,) between whom the visi- the ark itself, which might be considered as its handles ble sign of the presence of the supreme God appeared simply to lift it by, were never taken out of their rings; as seated upon his throne. The ark was the most but the staves or poles which served as a bier were excellent of all the holy things which belonged to the taken from under it when they encamped. Mosaic economy, and for its sake the tabernacle and Verse 16. The testimony] The two tables of stone, the temple were built, chap. xxvi. 33 ; xl. 18, 21. It which were not yet given; these tables were called was considered as conferring a sanctity wherever it nty eduth, from w forward, onward, to bear witness was fixed, 2 Chron. viii. 11; 2 Sam. vi. 12. to or of a person or thing. Not only the tables of

Two cubits and a half shall be the length, fc.] stone, but all the contents of the ark, Aaron's rod, the About four feet five inches in length, taking the cubit pot of manna, the holy anointing oil, &c., bore testias twenty-one inches, and two feet sir inches in breadthmony to the Messiah in his prophetic, sacerdotal, and and in depth. As this ark was chiefly intended to I regal offices.

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