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Moses builds an altar,

CHAP. XVIII.

and calls it Jehovah-nissi.

.ki yad al_kes yah | got it כי יד על כס יה מלחמה of the words

A. M. 2513. the name of it " JEHOVAH. " the Lord hath sworn that the A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. nissi :

LORD will have war with Amalek, An. Exod. Isr. 1. Tjar or Zif. 16 For he said, "Because from generation to generation.

Ijar or Zit. That is, the LORD my banner ; see Judg. vi. 24. — Or, therefore, &c. - Heb. the hand upon the throne of the because the hand of Amalek is against the throne of the LORD, LORD. the direction of God, and in the defence of his truth; tinue the cup of wrath, portending continual war, against and therefore the name of Jehovah became the armo- | Amalek for ever. I prefer Houbigant's exposition. rial bearing of the whole congregation. By his direction they fought, and in his name and strength they 1. This first victory of Israel must have inspired conquered; each one feeling himself, not his own, but them with a considerable measure of confidence in the Lord's soldier.

God, and in his servant Moses. Though God alone Verse 16. The Lord hath sworn that the Lord will could give them the victory, yet it was necessary to have war with Amalek, gc.] This is no translation show them that it was by the influence of Moses they

y . Moses could not deliver Amalek into their milchamah, which have been variously rendered by hands; yet if Moses did not continue to hold up his different translators and critics ; the most rational ver- hands, i. e., to pray, Amalek must prevail

. God, sion of which is the following: Because the hand of therefore, wrought this work in such a way as to in Amalek is against the throne of God, therefore will I strućt the people, promote his own glory, and secure the have war with Amalek from generation to generation. true honour of his servant. The Divine Being always This gives a tolerably consistent sense, yet still there performs the greatest number possible of ends, by the is considerable obscurity in the passage. Houbigant, fewesl, and simplest means, In every work of God a most judicious though bold critic, supposes that, as there is as much of wisdom and economy, as there is ojnino Jehovah-nissi, Jehovah my ensign, was spoken of sovereign uncontrolled power. of immediately before, bɔ kes, a throne, in this verse, 2. It is not probable that the people whom Joshua is an error of some transcriber for bi nes, an ensign, chose out to lead against Amalek were unarmed ; and which might be readily occasioned by the great simi- we have already seen that it is not at all likely that larity between the ) caph and the ; nun. He thinks they came armed out of Egypt. And as the whole farther that the two letters i yah, which are supposed circumstances of this case show that those who fought to be here a contraction of the word min: Yehovah, against the Amalekites were properly equipped for the are separated, the 'yod from the os nes, which should fight, we may then safely presume that they got their be written og nissi, and the 7 he, from 173852 mil- 'arms from the Egyptians, whose bodies were thrown chamah, which should be written onhan hammilcha- on the shore after having been overwhelmed in the mah, and then the whole verse will run thus : For the Red Sea. Thus, what was a judgment in the one hand shall be upon the ensigns of war unto the Lord, case, was a most gracious providence in the other. against Amalek for ever, i. e., God makes now a de- Judgment on God's foes is mercy to his friends. claration of war against the Amalekites, which shall 3. Of the efficacy of prayer we have already had continue till their final destruction. The conjecture the most striking examples. He who has the spirit of Mr. Julius Bate, in his Literal Translation of the of prayer, has the highest interest in the court of heaPentateuch, deserves attention. He supposes that, as ven; and the only way to retain it, is to keep it in DJ cos signifies a cup, and a cup is emblematically used constant employment. Apostasy begins in the closet: for wrath, on one of the stones of the altar, mentioned no man ever backslid from the life and power of Chrisin the preceding verse, a hand holding a cup was sculp- tianity who continued constant and fervent, especially tured, this being a memorial, according to the custom in private prayer. He who prays wilhout ceasing is of hieroglyphical writing, that the Lord would con- likely to rejoice evermore.

CHAPTER XVIII. Jethro, called the father-in-law of Moses, hearing of the deliverance which God had granted to Israel, 1, took

Zipporah and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, and brought them to Moses, when the Israelites were encamped near Horeb, 2-5. He sends to Moses, announcing his arrival, 6. Moses goes out to meet him, 7, and gives him a history of God's dealings with the Israelites, 8. Jethro greatly rejoices, and makes striking observations on the power and goodness of God, 9-11. He offers burnt-offerings and sacrifices to Jehovah, and Aaron and all the elders of Israel feast with him, 12. The next day Jethro, observing how much Moses was fatigued by being obliged to sit as judge and hear causes from morning to evening, 13, inquires why he did so, 14. Moses answers, and shows that he is obliged to determine causes between man and man, and to teach them the statutes and laws of God, 15, 16. Jethro finds fault, and counsels him to appoint men who fear God, love truth, and hate covetousness, to be judges over thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, to judge and determine in all smaller inatters, and refer only the greater and most important to himself, 17–22 ; and shows that this plan will be advantageous both to himself and to the people, 23. Moses hearkens to the counsel of Jethro, and appoints proper officers over the people, who enter upon their functions, determine all minor causes, and refer only the most difficult to Moses, 24-26. . Moses dismisses Jethro, who returns to his own country, 27.

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B: C. 1490. An. Exod. Isr. 2.

Zipporah and her two sons

EXODUS.

brought to Moses at lloreb. A. M. 2514.

WHEN - Jethro, the priest of I have been an alien in a
An. Exod. Isr. 2. Midian, Moses' father-in- strange land:
Ijar or Zir.
law, heard of all that God had 4 And the name of the other

Ijar or Zif. done for Moses, and for Israel his people, and was 6 Eliezer; for the God of my father, that the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt ; said he, was mine help, and delivered me

2 Then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took from the sword of Pharaoh : Zipporah, Moses' wife, after he had, sent

cafter he had, sent 5 And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came her back.

with his sons and his wife unto Moses into 3 And her two sons; of which the name the wilderness, where he encamped at the of the one

I Gershom ; for he said, 'mount of God:

was

· Chap. ii. 16; iii. 1.

cv. 5, 43 ; coi. 2, 8.

- That is, my -b Psa. xliv. I ; lxxvii. 14, 15;" lxxviii, 4; Chap. ii. 22. That is, a stranger there. Chap. iv. 26. —d Acts vii. 29.

God is a help:

wh Chap. lll. 1, 12.

C

NOTES ON CHAP. XVIII.

the government of a people so numerous; and that it Verse 1. When Jethro, the priest of Midian, &c.] was at that time that he established judges and capConcerning this person and his several names, see the tains over thousands and hundreds and fifties and tens, notes on chap. ii. 15, 16, 18; iii. 1; and iv. 20, 24. which appears to be the very transaction recorded in Jethro was probably the son of Reuel, the father-in- this place; the measure itself being recommended by law of Moses, and consequently the brother-in-law of Jethro, and done in consequence of his advice. Moses; for the word inn chothen, which we translate 3. From Num. x. 11, 29, &c., we find that when father-in-law, in this chapter means simply a relative the cloud was taken up, and the Israelites were about by marriage. See the note on chap. iii: 1.

to depart from Horeb, that Moses addressed Hobah, Verse 2. After he had seni her back] Why Zippo- who is supposed to have been the same as Jethro, and rah and her two sons returned to Midian, is not cer- who then was about to return to Midian, his own countainly known. From the transaction recorded chap. try, entreating him to stay with them as a guide while iv. 20, 24, it seems as if she had been alarmed at the they travelled through the wilderness. . It therefore danger to which the life of one of her sons had been seems necessary that the transaction recorded in this exposed, and fearing worse evils, left her husband and chapter should be inserted Num. X., between the 10th returned to her father. It is however possible that and 11th verses. Moses, foreseeing the troubles to which his wife and 4. It has been remarked, that shortly after they children were likely to be exposed had he taken them had departed from Sinai the dispute took place bedown to Egypt, sent them back to his father-in-law till tween Miriam, Aaron, and Moses, concerning the it should please God to deliver his people. Jethro, Æthiopian woman Zipporah whom he had married, now finding that God had delivered them, and totally (see Num. xii. 1, &c. ;) and this is supposed to have discomfited the Egyptians, their enemies, thought it taken place shortly after she had been brought back proper to bring Zipporah and her sons to Moses, while by Jethro. he was in the vicinity of Horeb,

5. In the discourse between Moses and Jethro, Verse 3. The name of the one was Gershom] See mentioned in this chapter, we find that Moses speaks the note on chap. ii. 22.

of the statutes and laws of the Lord as things already Verse 5. Jethro ---came with his sons]. There are revealed and acknowledged, which necessarily implies several reasons to induce us to believe that the fact that these laws had already been given, (ver. 16,) related here is out of its due chronological order, and which we know did not take place till several months that Jethro did not come to Moses till the beginning after the transactions mentioned in the preceding of the second year of the exodus, (see Num. x. 11,) chapters. some time after the tabernacle had been erected, and 6. Jethro offers burnt-offerings and sacrifices to the Hebrew commonwealth established, both in things God apparently in that way in which they were comcivil and ecclesiastical. This opinion is founded on manded in the law. Now the law respecting burntthe following reasons :

offerings was not given till after the transactions men1. On this verse, where it is said that Jethro came tioned here, unless we refer this chapter to a time posto Moses while he was encamped at the mount of God. terior to that in which it appears in this place. See Now it appears, from chap. xix. 1, 2, that they were the note on ver. 12. not yet come to Horeb, the mount of God, and that From all these reasons, but particularly from the they did not arrive there till the third month after their two first and the two last, it seems most likely that departure from Egypt; and the transactions with which this chapter stands out of its due chronological order, this account is connected certainly took place in the and therefore I have adjusted the chronology in the second month ; see chap. xvi. I.

margin to the time in which, from the reasons above 2. Moses, in Deut. i. 6, 9, 10, 12–15, relates that alleged, I suppose these transactions to have taken when they were about to depart from Horeb, which place; but the matter is not of much importance, and was on the 20th day of the second month of the second the reader is at liberty to follow the common opinion. year from their leaving Egypt, that he then complain- As Moses had in the preceding chapter related the ed that he was not able to bear the burden alone of war with Amalek and the curse under which they were

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The meeting of Moses and Jethro. CHAP. XVIII. Jethro offers a burnt-offering.

6 And he said unto Moses, I had delivered out of the hand an. Exod. 1st. 2. thy father-in-law Jethro am come of the Egyptians.

An. Exod. Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif.

unto thee, and thy wife, and her 10 And Jethro said, Blessed Ijar or Zif. two sons with her.

be the Lord, who hath delivered you out of 7 And Moses i went out to meet his father- the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the in-law, and did obeisance, and k kissed him; hand of Pharaoh, who hath delivered the peoand they asked each other of their l welfare ; ple from under the hand of the Egyptians. and they came into the tent.

.11 Now I know that the Lord is P greater 8 And Moses told his father-in-law all that than all gods : 4 for in the thing wherein they the Lord had done unto Pharaoh' and to the dealt ' proudly he was above them. Egyptians for Israeľs sake, and all the travail 12 And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took that had » come upon them by the way, and a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God: and how the LORD * delivered thein.

Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to 9 And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness eat bread with Moses' father-in-law, before which the LORD had done to Israel, whom he God.

i Gen. xiv. 17; xviii. 2; xix. 1; 1 Kings ii. 19.- k Gen. xxix. | xviii. 28; Luke i. 68. -P 2 Chron. ii. 5; Psa. xcv. 3 ; xcvii. 9; 13; xxxiii. 4. Heb. peace ; Gen. xliii. 27 ; 2 Samuel xi. 7. cxxxv. 5.- Ch. i. 10, 16,22 ; v. 2,7; xiv. 8, 18.- tl Sam. ii. - Heb. found them ; Gen. xliv. 34; Numbers xx. 14. - Psalm 3; Neh. ix. 10, 16, 29; Job xl. H, 12; Psa. xxxi. 23 ; cxix. 21; lxxviii. 42; lxxxi. 7 ; cvi. 10; cvii. 2.- Gen. xiv. 20; 2 Sam. Lukei.51.- Deut. xii. 7; 1 Chron. xxix. 22; 1 Cor. x. 18, 21, 31.

laid, he may be supposed to have introduced here the blesses God for the preservation of Moses, and next account concerning Jethro the Midianite, to show that for the deliverance of the people from their bondage. he was free from that curse, although the Midianites Verse 11. Now I know that the Lord is greater than and the Kenites, the family of Jethro, were as one all gods] Some think that Jethro 'was now converted people, dwelling with the Amalekites. See Judg. i. to the true God; but it is very probable that he en16; 1 Chron. ii. 55 ; 1 Sam. xv. 6. For although joyed this blessing before he knew any thing of Moses, the Kenites were some of those people whose lands for it is not likely that Moses would have entered into God had promised to the descendants of Abraham, (see an alliance with this family had they been heathens. Gen. xv. 18, 19,) yet, in consideration of Jethro, the Jethro no doubt had the true patriarchal religion. relative of Moses, all of them who submitted to the Wherein they dealt proudly) Acting as tyrants over Hebrews were suffered to live in their own country; the people of God; enslaving them in the most unprinthe rest are supposed to have taken refuge aniong the cipled manner, and still purposing more tyrannical acts. Edomites and Amalekites. See Calmet, Locke, &c. He was above them—he showed himself to be infinitely

Verse 6. And he said unto Moses]. That is, by a superior to all their gods, by the miracles, which he messenger; in consequence of which Moses went out wrought. Various translations have been given of this to meet him, as is stated in the next verse, for an clause; the above I believe to be the sense. interview had not yet taken place. This is supported Verse 12. Jethra-look a burnt-offering) by olah. by reading on hinneh, behold, for '8 ani, I, which Though it be trae that in the patriarchal times we read is the reading of the Septuagint and Syriaē, and seve- of a burnt-offering, (see Gen. xxii. 2, &c.,) yet we only ral Samaritan MSS. ; instead therefore of I, thy fa- read of one in the case of Isaac, and therefore, though ther, we should read, Behold thy father, &c.—Kenni- this offering made by Jethro is not a decisive proof cole's Remarks.

that the law relative to burnt-offerings, &c., had alVerse 7. And did oheisance] 'nnu's vaiyishtachu, ready been given, yet, taken with other circumstances he bowed himself down, (see on Gen. xvii. 3, and Exod. in this account, it is a presumptive evidence that the iv. 31;) this was the general token of respect. And meeting between Moses and Jethro took place after the kissed him; the token of friendship. And they asked erection of the tabernacle. See the note on ver. 5. each other of their welfare ; literally, and they in- Sacrifices for God] Dinai zebachim, slain beasts, quired, each man of his neighbour, concerning peace as the word generally signifies. We have already seen or prosperity; the proof of affectionate intercourse. that sacrifices were instituted by: God himself as soon These three things constitute good breeding and polite- as sin entered into our world ; and we see that they ness, accompanied with sincerily.

were continued and regularly practised among all the And they came into the tent.) Some think that the people who had the knowledge of the only true God, tabernacle is meant, which it is likely had been erect from that time until they became a legal establishment. ed before this time; see the note on ver. 5. Moses Jethro, who was a priest, (chap. ii. 16,) had a right might have thought proper to take his relative first to offer these sacrifices ; nor can there be a doubt of to the house of God, before he brought him to his his being a worshipper of the true God, for those Keown tent.

nites, from whom the Rechabites came, were descended Verse 9., And Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness] from him; 1 Chron. ii. 55. See also Jer. xxxv. Every part of Jethro's conduct proves him to have been And Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat a religious man and a true believer. His thanksgiving bread] The burnt-offering was wholly consumed ; to Jehovah (ver. 10) is a striking proof of it; he first every part was considered as the Lord's portion, and

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Jethro's counsel to Moses on

EXODUS.

the government of the people. A. M. 2514. 13 And it came to pass on another; and I do w make them A. M. 2514.

B. C. 1490.
An. Exod. Isr: 2. the morrow, that Moses sat to know the statutes of God, and An Exod. Isr: 2.
Ijar or Zif.

Ijar or Zif. judge the people : and the people his laws. stood by Moses from the morning unto the 17 And Moses' father-in-law said unto hiin, evening.

The thing that thou doest is not good. 14 And when Moses' father-in-law saw all 18 - Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, that he did to the people, he said, What is and this people that is with thee: for this this thing that thou doest to the people ? why thing is too heavy for thee; y thou art not sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people able to perform it thyself alone. stand by thee, from morning unto even ?. 19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will

15 And Moses said unto his father-in-law, give thee counsel, and z God shall be with Because the people come unto me to inquire thee: Be thou for the people to God-ward, of God:

that thou mayest bring the cause unto God : 16 When they have " a matter, they come 20 And thou shalt c teach them ordinances unto me; and I judge between 'one and and laws, and shalt show them the way

Lev. xxiv. 12; Num. XV. 34. -u Chap. xxiii. 7; xxiv. 14; * Heb. fading thou will fade. - Num. xi. 14, 17 ; Deut. i. 9, Deut. xvii. 8 ; 2 Sam. xv.3; Job xxxi. 13; Acts xviii. 15; I Cor. 12. - Chap. iii. 12. - Chap. iv. 16; xx. 19; Deut. 6.5. vi. 1.- Heb. a man and his fellow,- -w.Lev. xxiv. 15; Num. Num. xxvii. 5. — Deut. iv. I, 5; v. 1; ri. 1, 2; vii. 11. xv. 35 ; xxvii. 6, &c.; xxxvi. 6, 7, 8, 9.

d Psa. cxliii. 8.

therefore it was entirely burnt up. The other sacrifices their patience must be soon necessarily worn out, as mentioned here were such that, after the blood had there is no one to hear every cause but' thyself.” been poured out before God, the officers and assistants Verse 19. I will give thee counsel, and God shall be might feed on the flesh. Thus, in ancient times, con- with thee) Jethro seems to have been a man of great tracts were made and covenants sealed; see the netes understanding and prudence. His advice to Moses was on · Gen. xv, 13, &c. It is very likely, therefore, most appropriate and excellent; and it was probably that the sacrifices offered on this occasion, were those given under the immediate inspiration of God, for after on the flesh of which Aaron and the elders of Israel such sacrificial rites, and public acknowledgment of feasted with Jethro.

God, the prophetic spirit might be well expected to Before God.] Before the tabernacle, where God descend and rest upon him. God could have showed dwelt ; for it is supposed that the tabernacle was now Moses the propriety and necessity of adopting such erected. See on ver, 5; and see Deut. xii. 5-7, measures before, but he chose in this case to help man and i Chrón. xxix. 21, 22, where the same form of by man, and in the present instance a permanent basis speeeh, before the Lord, is used, and plainly refers to was laid to consolidate the union of the two families, his manifested presence in the tabernacle. •

and prevent all future misunderstandings. Verse 13. To judge the people] To hear and de- Verse 20. Thou shall teach them ordinances] dipr termine controversies between man and man, and to chukkim, all such precepts as relate to the ceremonies give them instruction in things appertaining to God. of religion and political economy. laws, ,

From the morning unto the evening.) Moses was hattoroth, the instructions relative to the whole sysobliged to sit all day, and the people were continually tem of morality. coming and going.

And shalt show them the way) 7777 nå eth hadderech, Verse 15. The people come unto me to inquire of that very way, that only way, which God himself has God] To know the mind and will of God on the sub- revealed, and in which they should walk in order to ject of their inquiries. Moses was the mediator between please him, and get their souls everlastingly saved. God and the people ; and as they believed that all jus- And the work that they must do.) For it was not tice and judgment must come from him, therefore they sufficient that they should know their duty both to God came to Moses to know what God had spoken. and man, but they must do it too ; 1107* yaasun, they

Verse 16. I do make them know the statutes of God, must do it diligently, fervently, ejfectually; for the and his laws.] These words are so very particular paragogic 9 nun deepens and extends the meaning of that they leave little room for doubt that the law had the verb. been given. Such words would scarcely have been What a very comprehensive form of a preacher's used had not the statutes and laws been then in exist- duty does this verse exhibit! 1. He must instruct ence. And this is one of the proofs that the transac- the people in the nature, use, and importance of the tion mentioned here stands out of its due chronological ordinances of religion. 2. He must lay before them order; see on ver. 5.

the whole moral law, and their obligations to fulfil all Verse 18. Thou wilt surely wear away] ban has its precepts. 3. He must point out to each his parnabol tibbol, in wearing away, thou wilt wear away-ticular duty, and what is expected of him in his situaby being thus continually employed, thou wilt-soon be- tion, connections, &c. And, 4. He must set them all come finally exhausted. And this people that is with their work, and see that they do it. On such a plan thee; as if he had said, “ Many of them are obliged as this he will have full opportunity to show the to wait so long for the determination of their suit that people, 1. Their sin, ignorance, and folly; 2. The

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Moses hearkens to Jethro's counsel, CHAP. XVIII. and appoints judges over the

people. A. M, 2514. wherein they must walk, and to endure, and all this people A. M. 25!4. An. Exod. Isr. 2. • the work that they must do. shall also go to o their place in An. Exod. Isr. 2. Ijar or Zif. 21 Moreover thou shalt provide peace.

Ijar or Zif. out of all the people fable men, such as & fear 24 So Moses hearkened to the voice of God, h men of truth, i hating covetousness; his father-in-law, and did all that he had and place such over them, to be rulers of said. thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of 25 And P Moses chose able men out of all fifties, and rulers of tens:

Israel, and made them heads over the people, 22 And let them judge the people k at all rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers seasons : 1 and it shall be, that every great of fifties, and rulers of tens. matter they shall bring unto thee, but every 26 And they 9 judged the people at all seasmall matter they shall judge: so shall it be sons: the "hard causes they brought unto easier for thyself, and'm they shall bear the Moses, but every small matter they judged burden with thee.

themselves. 23 If thou shalt do this thing, and God 27 And Moses let his father-in-law depart ; command thee so, then thou shalt be n able and she went his way into his own land.

. Deut. i. 18.-Ver. 25; Deut. i. 15, 16; xvi. 18; 2 Chron. 1;. Deut. i. 17; xvii. 8. um Numbers xi. 17. n Verse 18. xix. 5-10; Acts vi. 3.- -6 Genesis xlii. 18; 2 Sam. xxiii. 3; Gen. xviii. 33; xxx. 25; chapter xvi. 29 ; 2 Samuel xix. 39. 2 Chron. xix.9. -h Ezek. xviii. 8. —i Deut. xvi. 19.- k Ver. Deut. i. 15; Acts vi. 5.- Verse 22.-Job xxix. 16. 26.- Ver. 26 ; Lev. xxiv. 11 ; Num. xv. 33 ; xxvii. 2; xxxvi. Num. x. 29, 30. pure and holy law which they have broken, and by posed that there were 600 rulers of thousands, 6000 which they are condemned ; 3. The grace of God that rulers of hundreds, 12,000 rulers of fiflies and 60,000 bringeth salvation, by which they are to be justified rulers of tens; making in the whole 78,600 officers. and finally saved; and, 4. The necessity of showing But Josephus says (Antiq., lib. iii., chap. 4) that their faith by their works ; not only denying ungodli- Moses, by the advice of Jethro, appointed rulers over ness and worldly lusts, but living soberly, righteously, myriads, and then over thousands ; these he divided and godly in this present world, looking for that blessed into five hundreds, and again into hundreds, and into hope, and the glorious appearing of the great-God and fiflies ; and appointed rulers over each of these, who our Saviour, Jesus Christ.

divided them into thirties, and at last into twenties and Verse 21. Able men] Persons of wisdom, discern- tens; that each of these companies had a chief, who ment, judgment, prudence, and fortitude ; for who can took his name from the number of persons who were be a ruler without these qualifications?

under his direction and government. Allowing what Such as fear God] Who are truly religious, with Josephus states to be correct, some have supposed that out which they will feel little concerned either for the there could not have been less than 129,860 officers bodies or souls of the people.

in the Israelitish camp. But such computations are Men of truth] Honest and true in their own hearts either fanciful or absurd. That the people were and lives; speaking the truth, and judging according divided into thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens, we to the truth.

know, for the text states it; but we cannot tell preHating covetousness] Doing all for God's sake, and cisely how many of such divisions there were, nor, love to man ; labouring to promote the general good; consequently, the number of officers. never perverting judgment, or suppressing the testi- Verse 23. If thou shalt do this thing, and God monies of God, for the love of money or through a command thee) · Though the measure was obviously base, man-pleasing spirit, but expecting their reward of the utmost importance, and plainly recommended from the mercy of God in the resurrection of the just. itself by its expediency and necessity; yet Jethro very

Rulers of thousands, fc.) Millenaries, centurions, modestly leaves it to the wisdom of Moses to choose quinquagenaries, and decurions; each of these, in all or reject it; and, knowing that in all things his rela probability, dependent on that officer immediately above tive was now acting under the immediate direction of himself. So the decurion, or ruler over ten, if he God, intimates that no measure can be safely adopted found a matter too hard for him, brought it to the without a positive injunction from God' himself. As quinquagenary, or ruler of fifty; if, in the course of the counsel was 'doubtless inspired by the Divine Spirit, the exercise of his functions, he found a cause too we find that it was sanctioned by the same, for Moses complicated for him to decide on, he brought it to the acted in every respect according to the advice he had centurion, or ruler over a hundred. In like manner received. the centurion brought his difficult case to the millenary, Verse 27. And. Moses let his father-in-law depart] or ruler over a thousand; the case that was too hard But if this be the same transaction with that mentioned for him to judge, he brought to Moses ; and the case Num. X. 29, &c., we find that it was with greal rethat was too hard for Moses, he brought immediately luctance that Moses permitted so able a counsellor to to God. It is likely that each of these classes had a leave him; for, having the highest opinion of his judg-. court composed of its own members, in which causes ment, experience, and discretion, he pressed him to were heard and tried. Some of the rabbins have sup- stay with them, that. he might be instead of eyes to

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