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A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

The Lord commands the

EXODUS.

Sabbath to be sanctifieds 21 And they gathered it every 25 And Moses said, Eat that A. M. 2513. An. Exod. Isr. 1. morning, every man according to to-day; for to-day is a Sabbath An Exod. 1st. 1. Ijar or Zif. his eating: and when the sun unto the Lord : to-day ye shall

Ijar or Zif. waxed hot, it melted.

not find it in the field. 22 And it came to pass, that on the sixth 26 • Six days ye shall gather it-; but on the day they gathered twice as much bread, two seventh day, which is the Sabbath, in it there omers for one man : and all the rulers of the shall be none. congregation came and told Moses.

27 And it came to pass, that there went out 23 And he said unto them, This is that some of the people on the seventh day for to which the Lord hath said, To-morrow is c the gather, and they found none. rest of the holy Sabbath unto the Lord: bake 28. And the Lord said unto Moses, How that which ye will bake to-day, and seethe long refuse .ye to keep iny commandments that ye will seethe ; and that which remaineth and my laws ? over, lay up. for you to be kept until the 29 See, for that the Lord hath given you morning.

the Sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the 24 And they laid it up till the morning, as sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye Moses bade ; and it did not d stink, neither every man in his place ; let no man go out of was there any worm therein.

his place on the seventh day.

Gen. ii. 3; chapter xx. 8;, xxxi. 15; xxxv. 3; Lev. xxiii. 3.

Ver, 20.

• Chapter xx. 9, 10.-12 Kings xvii. 14; Psalm lxxviii.

10, 22; coi. 13.

Verse 22. On the sixth day they gathered twice as the camp, and have generally supposed that no man much] This they did that they might have a provision should go out of the place, i. e., the city, town, or vilfor, the Sabbath, for on that day no manna fell, ver. lage in which he resides, any farther than one thousand 26, 27. What a convincing miracle was this ! No cubits, about an English mile, which also is called a manna fell on the Sabbath! Had it been a natural Sabbath day's journey, Acts i. 12; and so many cuproduction it would have fallen on the Sabbath as at bits they consider the space round the eity that constiother times; and had there not been a supernatural tutes its suburbs, which they draw from Num. xxxv. influence to keep it sweet and pure, it would have 3, 4. Some of the Jews have carried the rigorous been corrupted on the Sabbath as well as on other observance of the letter of this law to such a length, days. By this series of miracles God showed his that in whatever posture they find themselves on the own power, presence, and goodness, 1. In sending the Sabbath morning when they awake, they continue in manna on each of the six days; 2. In sending none on the same during the day; or should they be up and the seventh, or Sabbath ; 3. In preserving it from pu- happen to fall, they refuse even to rise till the Sabbath trefaction when land up for the use of that day, though it be ended ! Mr. Stapleton tells a story of one Rabbi infallibly corrupted if kept over night on any other day. Solomon, who fell into a slough on the Jewish Sab

Verse 23. To-morrow is the rest of the holy Sabbath) bath, Saturday, and refused to be pulled out, giving his There is nothing either in the text or context that seems reason in the following Leonine complet :to intimate that the Sabbath was now first given to the

Sabbatha sancta colo, De stercore surgere nolo. Israelites, as some have supposed : on the contrary, it is here spoken of as being perfectly well known, from

“Out of this slough I will not rise, its having been generally observed. The command

For holy Sabbath day I prize.” ment, it is true, may be considered as being now re- The Christians, finding him thus disposed, deternewed; because they might have supposed that in mined he should honour their Sabbath in the same their unsettled state in the wilderness they might have place, and actually kept the poor man in the slough all been exempted from the observance of it. Thus we Sunday, giving their reasuns in nearly the same way: find, 1. That when God finished his creation, he insti

Sabbatha nostra quidem, Solomon, celebrabis ibidem. tuted the Sabbath; 2. When he brought the people out of Egypt, he insisted on the strict observance of it ;

In the same slough, thou stubborn Jew, 3. When he gave the LAW, he made it a tenth part

Our Sabbath day thou shalt spend too." of the whole, such importance has this institution in This might have served to convince him of his folly, the eyes of the Supreme Being! On the supposed but certainly was not the likeliest way to convert him change of the Sabbath from what we call Sunday to to Christianity. Saturday, effected on this occasion, see the note on Fabyan, in his Chronicles, tells the following story Deut. v. 15.

of a case of this kind. * In this yere also (1259) Verse 29. Abide ye every man in his place] Neither fell that happe of the lewe of Tewkysbury, which go out to seek manna nor for any other purpose ; rest fell into a gonge upon the Satyrday, and wolde not at home and devote your time to religious exercises. for reverence of his sabbot day be pluckyd out; Several of the Jews understood by place in the text, I whereof heryng the Erle of Gloucetyr, that the lewe Moses is commanded to

CHAP. XVI.

preserve a pot of manna. A. M. 2513. 30 So the people rested on the 33 And Moses said unto Aaron,

A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Isr. 1. seventh day.

h Take a pot, and put an omer An. Exod. Isr. I. Ijar or Zif. 31 And the house of Israel full of manna therein, and lay it

Ijar or Zif. called the name thereof Manna: and s it was up before the LORD, to be kept for your like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it generations. was like wafers made with honey.

34 As the LORD commanded Moses, so Aaron 32 And Moses said, This is the thing which laid it up before the testimony, to be kept. the Lord commandeth, Fill an omer of it to 35 And the children of Israel did eat manna be kept for your generations ; that they may forty years, \until they came to a land insee the bread wherewith I have fed you in habited ; they did eat manna, until they came the wilderness, when I brought you forth from unto the borders of the land of Canaan. the land of Egypt.

36 Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. Num. xi. 7, 8. h Heb. ix. 4,- - Chap. xxv. 16, 21; xl. 20; 1 * Num. xxxiii. 38; Deut. viii. 2, 3; Neh. ix. 20, 21; John vi. Num. xvii. 10; Deut. 3. 5; 1 Kings viii. 9.

31, 49. - Josh. v. 12; Neh. ix. 15.

Let us,

dyd so great reverence to his sabbot daye, thought he tion which he has provided for man, there can be no wolde doo as moche unto his holy day, which was doubt, for in this way it is applied by Christ himself ; Sonday, and so kepte hym there tyll Monday, at and from it we may gather this general conclusion, that whiche season he was foundyn dede.” Then the earl salvation is of the Lord. The Israelites must have of Gloucester murdered the poor man.

perished in the wilderness, had not God fed them with Verse 31. Called the name thereof Manna) See bread from heaven; and every human soul must have note on ver. 15.

perished, had not Jesus Christ come down from heaven, Verse 32. To be kept for your generations] See and given himself for ihe life of the world. note on ver. 9.

2. God would have the Israelites continually deVerse 34. Laid it up before the testimony] The pendent on himself for all their supplies; but he would n17 edulh or testimony belonged properly to the taber- make them, in a certain way, workers with him. He nacle, but that was not yet built. Some are of opinion provided the manna; they gathered and ate it. The that the tabernacle, built under the direction of Moses, first was God's work; the latter, their own. They was only a renewal of one that had existed in the could not produce the manna, and God would not patriarchal times. See the note on ver. 9. The gather it for them. Thus the providence of God word signifies reference to something beyond itself ; appears in such a way as to secure the co-operation thus the tabernacle, the manna, the tables of stone, of man. Though man should plant and water, yet it. Aaron's rod, &c., all bore reference and testimony to is God who giveth the increase.. But if man neither that spiritual good which was yet to come, viz., Jesus plant nor water, God will give no increase. We canCHRIST and his salvation.

not do God's work, and he will not do ours. Verse 35. The children of Israel did eat männa therefore, both in things spiritual and temporal, be forty years] From this verse it has been supposed workers together with HIM. that the book of Exodus was not written till afler the 3. This daily supply of the manna probably gave miracle of the manna had ceased. But these words rise to that petition, Give us to-day our daily bread. might have been added by Ezra, who under the direc- It is worthy of remark, 1. That what was left over tion of the Divine Spirit collected and digested the night contrary to the command of God bred worms and different inspired books, adding such supplementary, stank; 2. That a double portion was gathered on the erplanatory, and connecting sentences, as were deemed day preceding the Sabbath ; 3. That-this alone conproper to complete and arrange the whole of the sacred tinued wholesome on the following day; and, 4. That

For previously to his time, according to the none fell on the Sabbath! Hence we find that the universal testimony of the Jews, all the books of the Sabbath was considered a Divine institution previously Old Testament were found in an unconnected and to the giving of the Mosaic law; and that God condispersed state.

tinued to honour that day by permitting no manna to Verse 36. Now an omer is the tenth part of an fall during its course. Whatever is earned on the ephah.) About six pints, English. See the note on Sabbath is a curse in a man's property. They who ver. 16. The true place of this verse seems to be im- will be rich, fall into temptation and into a snare, &c.; mediately after ver. 18, for here it has no connection. for, using illicit means to acquire lawful things, they

bring God's curse upon themselves, and are drowned : 1. On the miracle of the manna, which is the chief in destruction and perdition. Reader, dost thou work subject in this chapter, a good deal has already been on the Sabbath to increase thy property ? See thou said in the preceding notes. The sacred historian has do it not ! Property acquired in this way will be a given us the most círcumstantial proofs that it was a curse both to thee and to thy posterity. supernatural and miraculous supply; that nothing of 4. To show their children and children's children the kind had ever been seen before, and probably no- what God had done for their fathers, a pot of manna thing like it had ever afterwards appeared. That it was laid up before the testimony. We should rememwas a type of our blessed Redeemer, and of the salva- I ber our providential and gracious deliverances in such Vol. I. ( 26 )

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canon.

The people murmur

EXODUS.

for lack of water a way as to give God the praise of his own grace. , will even that faith be to us, if we hold the truth in An ungrateful heart is always associated with an un- unrighteousness! Our fathers had religion enough to believing mind and an unholy life. Like Israel, we enable them to burn gloriously for the truth of God! should consider with what bread God has fed our fa- Readér, hast thou so much of the life of God in thy thers, and see that we have the same; the same Christ soul, that thou couldst burn to ashes at the stake rather -the bread of life, the same doctrines, the same ordi- than lose it? In a word, couldst thou be a martyr ? nances, and the same religious experience. How little Or hast thou so little grace to lose, that thy life would are we benefitted by being Protestants, if we be not be more than an equivalent for thy loss ? Where is partakers of the Protestant faith!. And how useless ) the manna on which thy fathers fed ?

CHAPTER XVII.

The Israelites journey from the wilderness of Sin to Rephidim, 1, whore they murmus for lack of water, 2, 3.

Moses asks counsel of God, 4, who commands him to take his rod and smite the rock, 5, and promises that water should proceed from it for the people to drink, 6. The place is called Massah and Meribah, 7. The Amalekites attack Israel in Rephidim, 8. Joshua is commanded to fight with them, 9. Moses, Aaron, and Hur, go to the top of a hill, and while Moses holds up his hands, the Israelites prevail ; when he lets them down, Amalek prevails, 10, 11. Moses, being weary, sits down, and Aaron and Hur hold up his hands, 12. The Amalekites are totally routed, 13, and the event commanded to be recorded, 14. Moses builds an altar, and calls it JEHOVAH-NISSI, 15. Amalek is threatened with continual wars, 16. A. M. 2513. AND

* all the congregation of and said, Wherefore is this that A. M. 2513. B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491. An. Exod. Iss. 1. the children of Israel jour- thou hast brought us up out of An. Exod. Isr. 1. ljar or Zif. neyed from the wilderness of Sin, Egypt, to kill us and our chil

ljar or Zif. after their journeys, according to the command-dren and our cattle with thirst ? ment of the Lord, and pitched in Rephídim :1 4. And Moses e cried unto the Lord, saying, and there was no water for the people to drink. What shall I do unto this people ? they be

2 Wherefore the people did chide with almost ready to stone me. Moses, and said, Give us water that we may 5. And the Lord said unto Moses, & Go on drink. And Moses said unto them, Why before the people, and take with thee of the chide ye with me? wherefore do ye • tempt elders of Israel ; and thy rod, wherewith h thou the LORD?

smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. 3 And the people thirsted there for water; 6 i Behold, I will stand before thee there, and the people d murmured against Moses, upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt-smite

a

Chapter xvi. 1'; Num. xxxiii. 12, 14. _b Numbers xx. 3, 4. Samuel xxx. 6; John viii. 59; X. 31.- Ezekiel ü. 6. · Deut. vi. 16; Psa. Ixxviii. 18, 41; Isa. vii. 12; Matt. iv. 7; " Chap. vii. 20; Num. xx. 8. Num. xx. 10,11; Psa. lxxviii. 1 Cor. x. 9. La Chap. xvi: 2.-e Chap. xiv, 15.

15, 20 ; cv. 41; cxiv. 8; Wisd. xi. 4; I Cor. x. 4:

NOTES ON CHAP. XVII.

A strong argument however may be drawn from this Verse 1. Pilched in Rephidim] In Num. xxxiii. in favour of their supernatural escape from Egypt. 12-14 it is said, that when the Israelites came from Had it been a scheme concerted by the heads of the Șin they encamped in Dophkah, and next in Alush, people, provision would necessarily have been made for after which they came to Rephidim.. Here, therefore, such exigencies as these. But as God chose to keep two stations are omitted, probably because nothing them constantly dependent upon himself for every neof moment took place at either. See the notes on cessary of life, and as they had Moses alone as their Num.- xxxiii.

mediator to look to, they murmured against him when Verse 2. Why chide ye with me?] God is your brought into straits and difficulties, regretted their leader, complain to him ; Wherefore do ye lempt the having left Egypt, and expressed the strongest desire to Lord ? As he is your leader, all your murmurings return. This shows that they had left Egypt reluctagainst me he considers as directed against himself ; antly; and as Moses and Aaron never appear to have why therefore do ye tempt him? Has he not given any resources but those which came most evidently in a you sufficient proofs that he can destroy his enemies supernalural way, therefore the whole exodus or depart and support his friends? And is he not among you ure from Egypt proves itself to have been no human to do you good ? ver. 7. Why therefore do ye doubt contrivance, but a measure concerted by God himself. his power and goodness, and thus provoke him to treat Verse 6. I will stand before thee there, upon the rock you as his enemies ?

in Horeb] The rock, 7187 hatstsur. It seems as if God Verse 3. And the people murmured) The reader had directed the attention of Moses to a particular must not forget what has so often been noted relating rock, with which he was well acquainted ; for every to the degraded state of the minds of the Israelites. part of the mount and its vicinity must have been well 386

( 26* )

B. C. 1491.

Moses smiles the rock,

CHAP.XVII.

from which water issues A. M. 2513. the rock, and there shall come they tempted the LORD, saying, A. M. 2513.

B. C. 1491.
An. Exod. Isr... water out of it, that the people is the Lord among us, or not? An. Exod. Isr. 1.
Ijar or Zif.
And Moses did so 8 Then came. Amalek, and

Ijar or Zif. in the sight of the elders of Israel.

fought with Israel in Rephidim. 7 And he called the name of the place 9 And Moseş said unto • Joshua, Choose us Massah, and Meribah, because of the out men, and go out, fight with Amalek : to chiding of the children of Israel, and because morrow I will stand on the top of the hill,

may drink.

m

1

Num. xx. 13; Psa. Ixxxi. 7; xcv. 8; Heb. ii. 8. That is,

lempiation. -m That is, chiding or strifé.

n Gen. xxxvj. 12; Num. xxiv. 20; Deut. xxv. 17; 1 Sam. xv. 2;

Wisd. xi. 3.- Called Jesus, Acts vii. 45.; Heb. iv. 8.

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known to Moses during the time he kept Jethro's flocks their being made partakers of the grace and mercy in those quarters. Dr. Priestley has left the following of God through Christ Jesus ;' and yet many who sensible observations upon this miracle :-

drank fell and perished in the wilderness in the very " The luminous cloud, the symbol of the Divine act of disobedience! Reader, be not high minded, presence, would appear on the rock, and Horeb was but fear! probably a part of the same mountain with Sinai. This On the smiting of the rock by the rod of Moses, supply of water, on Moses only striking the rock, Mr. Ainsworth has the following pious note : “This where no water had been before nor has been since, rock signified Christ, and is therefore called a spirilual was a most wonderful display of the Divine power. -Rock, 1 Cor. x. 4. He being smilten with Moses's The water must have been in great abundance to sup- rod, and bearing the curse of the law for our sins, ply two millions of persons, which excluded all possi- and by the preaching of the Gospel crucified among bility of artifice or imposture in the case. The miracle his people, Gal. iii. ?, from him floweth the spiritual must also have been of some continuance, no doubt so drink wherewith all believing hearts are refreshed.” long as they continued in that neighbourhood, which John vii. 37, and Isa. liii. 1-3. was more than a year. There are sufficient traces of Verse 8. Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel] this extraordinary miracle remaining at this day. This The Amalekites seem to have attacked the Israelites rock has been visited, drawn, and described by Dr. in the same way and through the same motives that Shaw, Dr. Pocock, and others; and holes and channels the wandering Arabs attack the caravans which anappear in the stone, which could only have been formed nually pass through the same desert. It does not apby the barsting out and running of the water. No art pear that the Israelitos gave them any kind of provoof man could have done it, if any motive could be sup- cation, they seem to have attacked them merely through posed for the undertaking in such a place as this." the hopes of plunder. The Amalekites were the pos

This miracle has not escaped the notice of the ancient terity of Amalek, one of the dukes of Eliphaz, the Greek poets.

Callimachus represents Rhea bringing son of Esau, and consequently Israel's brother, Gen. forth water from a rock in the same way, after the xxxvi. 15, 16.: birth of Jupiter.

Fought with Israel] In the most treacherous and

dastardly manner; for they came at the rear of the Πληξεν ορος σκηπτρω, το δε οι διχα πουλυ διεστη. Εκ δ' εχεεν μεγα χευμα. Hymn ad Jov., ver. 31.

camp, smote the hindmost of the people, even all that

weré feeble behind, when they were faint and weary ; With her sceptre struck

see Deut. xxv. 18. The baggage, no doubt, 'was the The yawning cliff; from its disparted height

object of their avarice; but finding the women, chilAdown the mount the gushing torrent ran. PRIOR.

dren, aged and infirm persons, behind with the bagThe rock mentioned above has been seen and de- gage, they smote them and took away their spoils. scribed by Norden, p. 144, 8vo. ; Dr. Shaw, p. 314, Verse 9. Moses said unto Joshua) This is the first 4to., where there is an accurate drawing of it; Dr. place in which Joshua the son of Nun is mentioned : , Pocock, yol. i., p. 143, &c., where the reader may find the illustrious part which he took in Jewish affairs, till some fine plates of Mount Horeb and Sinai, and four the settlement of his countrymen in the promised land, different views of the wonderful rock of Meribah. It is well known. He was captain-general of the Heis à vast block of red granite, fifteen feet long, ten brews under Moses"; and on this great man's death he broad, and twelve high. See Dr. Shaw's account at became his successor in the government. Joshua was the end of Exodus. My nephew, who visited this at first called Hoshea, Num. xiii. 16, and afterwards rock in 1823, confirms the account of the preceding called Joshua by Moses. Both in the Septuagint and travellers, and has brought a piece of this wonderful Greek Testament he is called Jesus: the name signistone. The granite is fine, and the quartz, mica, and fies Saviour; and he is allowed to have been a very feldspar equally mixed in it. This rock or block of expressive type of our blessed Lord. He fought with granile is the only type of Christ now existing. and conquered the enemies of his people, brought them

Verse 7. He called the name of the place Massah, into the promised land, and divided it to them by lot. and Meribah] 3 Massah signifies temptation or The parallel between bim and the Saviour of the world trial ; and 777'77 Meribah, contention or litigation. is too evident to require pointing out. From 1 Cor. x. 4, we learn that this rock was a type Top of the hill] Probably some part of Horeb or of Christ, and their drinking of it is represented as Sinai, to which they were then near.

A. M. 2513.
B. C. 1491.

B. C. 1491.

The Amalekites

EXODUS

are totally routed. A. M. 2513. with P the rod of God in mine up his hands, the one on the one An. Exod. Isr. 1. hand.

side, and the other on the other An. Exod. Isr. 1. Ijar or Zif. 10 So Joshua did as Moses side ; and his hands were steady

Ijar or Zif. had said to him, ånd fought with Amalek : and until the going down of the sun. Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of 13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his the hill.

people with the edge of the sword. 11 And it came to pass, when Moses 9 held 14 And the Lord said unto Moses, • Write up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. in the ears of Joshua ; for I will utterly put

12 But Moses' hands were heavy; and out the remembrance of Amalek from under they took a stone, and put it under him, and heaven. he sat thereon ; and Aaron and Hur stayed 15 And Moses built an altar, and called

of 13

p Chap. iv. 20. — 9 James v. 16. Psa. xxxv. 3 ; James i. 6; | Num. xxiv. 20; Deut. xxv. 19; 1 Sam. xv. 3, 7; xxx. 1, 17; Heb. xii. 12. Chap. xxxiv. 27.

2 Sam. viii. 12; Ezra ix. 14.

XXX.

Verse 10. Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up] It is ver. 8,) as Pharaoh was the name of all succeeding very likely that the Hur mentioned here is the same kings in Egypt. If this were the case, then Amalek with that Hur mentioned i Chron. ii. 19, who appears and his people mean the prince and the army that from the chronology in that chapter to have been the fought under him. But if Amalek stand here for the son .of Caleb, the son of Ezron, the son of Pharez, Amalekites, then his people must mean the confederates the son of Judah. The rabbins and Josephus say he he had employed on this occasion. was the brother-in-law of Moses, having married his Verse 14. Write this for a memorial in a book] sister Miriam. . He was a person in whom Moses put This is the first mention of writing on record : what much confidence; for he left him conjoint governor of it signified, or how it was done, we cannot tell.

But the people with Aaron, when he went to confer with it is evident that either this passage is introduced here God on the mount, chap. xxiv. 14. His grandson instead of Deut. xxv. 17, by way of anticipation, or Bezaleel was the chief director in the work of the that by the words 100 an) kethob and sepher was intabernacle ; see chap. xxxi. 2-5.

tended only a monumental declaration of the defeat of Verse 11. When Moses held up his hand] We can- Amalek by Joshua, by some action or symbolical renot understand this transaction in any literal way; for presentation ; for it is immediately subjoined, " And the lifting up or letting down the hands of Moses could Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovahnot, humanly speaking, influence the battle. It is likely nissi." See Dr. A. Bayley, and see the note on chap. that he held up the rod of God in his hand, ver. I, as It is very likely that the first regular alphabetan ensign to the people. We have already seen that-ical writing in the world was that written by the finger in prayer the hands were generally lifted up and spread of God himself on the two tables of stone. What is out, (see the note on chap. ix. 29,) and therefore it is said here was probably by way of anticipation, or likely that by this act prayer and supplication are in- means some other method of registering events than tended. The Jerusalem Targum says, " When Moses by alphabetical characters, if we allow that God gave held up his hands in prayer, the house of Israel pre- the first specimen of regular writing on the tables of vailed; and when he let down his hands from prayer, stone, which did not take place till some time after this. the house of Amalek prevailed.” We may therefore Rehearse it in the ears, of Joshua Thus showing conclude, that by holding up the hands in this case that Joshua was to succeed Moses, and that this charge these two things were intended: 1. That hereby a should be given to every succeeding governor. reference was made to God, as the source whence all

I will utlerly put out the remembrance of Amalek] help and protection must come, and that on him alone This threatening was accomplished by Saul, 1 Sam. they must depend. 2. That prayer and supplication xv. 3, &c., four hundred and twelve years after. Judgto God are essentially necessary to their prevalence ment is God's strange work; but it must take place

It is indisputably true that, when the sins which incensed it are neither repented while the hands are stretched out, that is, while the of nor forsaken. This people, by their continued soul exerts itself in prayer and supplication to God, transgressions, proved themselves totally unworthy of we are sure to conquer our spiritual adversaries ; but a political existence; and therefore said God to Saul, fore God, Amalek will prevail-every spiritual foe, i Sam. xv. 18.

in Several cause of their final destruction. every internal corruption, will gain ground. of the fathers consider Moses, with his stretched-out Verse 13. Jehovah-nissi] Jehovah is my ensign or mankind, and getting a complete victory over sin and as soldiers are wont to hold up their standards in the hands, as a figure of Christ on the cross, suffering for banner. The hands and rod of Moses were held up

time of battle ; and as these standards bear the arms Verse 13. Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people) of the country, the soldiers are said to fight under that Amalek might have been the name of the ruler of this banner, i. e., under the direction and in the defence people continued down from their ancestor. (see on of that government. Thus the Israelites fought under

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over all their enemies.

Satan.

a

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