« הקודםהמשך »
B. C. 1728.
Joseph relates his two dreams. CHAP. XXXVII, His brethren conspire against him. A. M. 2276.
yet the more for his dreams, and for sagain. So he sent him out of the A. M. 2276. B. C. 1728. his words.
vale of Hebron, and he came to 9 And he dreamed yet another dream, and Schehem. told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have 15 And a certain man found him, and, bedreamed a dream more ; and, behold, the hold, he was wandering in the field : and the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made man asked him, saying, What seekest thou ? obeisance to me.
16 And he said, I seek my brethren : otell 10 And he told it to his father, and to his me, I pray thee, where they feed their brethren: and his father rebuked him, and flocks. said unto him, What is this dream that thou 17 And the man said, They are departed hast dreamed ? Shall I and thy mother and hence ; for I heard them say, Let us go to i thy brethren indeed come to bow down our- Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, selves to thee to the earth?
and found them in P Dothan.
11 And * his brethren envied him ; but his 18 And when they saw him afar off
father l observed the saying.
before he came near unto them, a they con12 And his brethren went to feed their spired against him to slay him. father's flock in Shechem.
19 And they said one to another, Behold, 13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy this dreamer cometh. brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, 20. Come now therefore, and let us slay and I will send thee unto them. And he said him, and cast him into some pit, and we will to him, Here am I.
say, Some evil beast hath devoured him : 14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, and we shall see what will become of his
see whether it be well with thy brethren, dreams. , and well with the flocks; and bring me word 21 And Reuben heard it, and he delivered
Ch. xlvi. 29. Li Ch. xxvii. 29. -k Acts vii. 9. Dan. a I Sam. xix. 1; Pza. xxxi. 13 ; xxxvii. 12, 32; xciv. 21; vii. 28; Luke ü. 19, 51. -m Heb, see the peace of thy brethren, Matt. xxvii. 1; Mark xiv. 1; John xi. 53 ; Acts xxiii. 12. &c.; chapter xxix. 6. - Chapter xxxv. 27.- Cant i. 7. Heb. master of dreams.- Proverbs i. 11, 16; vi. 17; xxvii. 4. P 2 Kings vi. 13.
Chap. xlii. 22. his brethren there bowing in the most abjeet manner ver. 4. As Jacob's sons were now gone to feed the before him.
flock on the parcel of ground they had bought from the Verse 9. He dreamed yet another dream] This is Shechemites, (see chap. xxxiii. 19,) and where they as clear as the preceding. But how could Jacob say, had committed such a horrible slaughter, their father Shall I and thy mother, fc., when Rachel his mother might feel more solicitous about their welfare, lest the was dead some time before this? Perhaps Jacob might neighbouring tribes should rise against them, and rehint, by this explanation, the impossibility of such a venge the murder of the Shechemites. dream being fulfilled, because one of the persons who As Jacob appears to have been at this time in the should be a chief actor in it was already dead. But vale of Hebron, it is supposed that Shechem was about any one wife or concubine of Jacob was quite suffi- sixty English miles distant from it, and that Dothan cient to fulfil this part of the dream. It is possible, was about eight miles farther. But I must again adsome think, that Joseph may have had these dreams vertise my readers that all these calculations are very before his mother Rachel died; but were even this the dubious; for we do not even know that the same place case, she certainly did not live to fulfil the part which is intended, as there are many proofs that different appears to refer to herself.
places went by the same names, The sun and the moon and the eleven stars] Why Verse 19. Behold, this dreamer cometh.] nisbna bya eleven stars? Was it merely to signify that his bro- baal hachalomoth, this master of dreams, this master thers might be represented by stars ? Or does he not dreamer. A form of speech which conveys great rather there allude to the Zodiac, his eleven brethren contempt. answering to eleven of the celestial signs, and himself Verse 20. Come now and let us slay him] What to the twelfth? This is certainly not an unnatural unprincipled savages these must have been to talk thought, as it is very likely that the heavens were thus coolly about imbruing their hands in an innocent thus measured in the days of Joseph; for the zodiacal brother's blood! How necessary is a Divine revelation, constellations have been distinguished among the east- to show man what God hates and what he loves !. Feern nations from time immemorial. See the notes at rocious cruelty is the principal characteristic of the nathe end of chap. xlix.
tions and tribes who receive not the law at his mouth. Verse 14. Go—see whether it be well with thy bre- Verse 21. Reuben heard it) . Though Reuben apthren] Literally, Go, I beseech thee, and see the pears to have been a transgressor of no ordinary mag, peace of thy brethren, and the peace of the flock. Go nitude, if we take chap. xxxv. 22 according to the and see whether they are all in prosperily. See on letter, yet his bosom was not the habitation of cruelty,
Joseph sold to the Ishmaelites.
Jacob is deceived by his sons. A. M. 2276. him out of their hands ; and said, 27 Come, and let us sell him to A.M. 2276. B. C. 1728.
B. C. 1728. Let us not kill him.
the Ishmaelites, and let not our 22 And Reuben said unto them, Shed no hand be upon him; for he is our brother and blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the our flesh. And his brethren were content. wilderness, and lay no hand upon him ; that 28 Then there passed by a Midianites, merhe might rid him out of their hands, to de- chantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph liver him to his father again.
out of the pit, e and sold Joseph to the Ish23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was maelites for 'twenty pieces of silver; and they come unto his brethren, that they stripped Joseph brought Joseph into Egypt. out of his coat, his coat of many " colours that 29 And Reuben returned unto the pit : and was on him;
behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he 24. And they took him, and cast him into a rent his clothes. pit: and the pit was empty, there was no 30 And he returned unto his brethren, and water in it.
said, The child is not; and I, whither shall 25 And they sat down to eat bread : and I go?
31 hold, a company of w
a kid in Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery, and blood; * balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to 32 And they sent the coat of many colours, Egypt.
and they brought it to their father; and said, 26 And Judah said unto his brethren, What This have we found : know now whether it profit is it if we slay our brother, and 3 con- be thy son's coat or no. ceal his blood ?
33 And he knew it, and said, It is my son's u Or, pieces.
Prov. xxx. 20; Amos vi. 6. See verse © Heb. hearkened. — Judg. vi. 3; ch. xlv. 4,5.- Psa. cv. 28, 36.s Jer. viii. 22.-~ Chap. iv. 10; ver. 20; Job xvi. 18. 17; Wisd. x. 13; Acts vi. 9.
-See Matt. xxvii. 9.- Job z 1 Sam. xviii. 17.
Chap. xlii. 21. b Chap. xxix. 14. i. 20.- Chap. xlii. 13, 36; Jer. xxxi. 15.-_ Ver. 23. He determined, if possible, to save his brother from for a slave ; but the practice certainly did not commence death, and deliver him safely to his father, with whose now, it had doubtless been in use long before. Instead fondness for him he was sufficiently acquainted. Jo- of pieces, which our translators supply, the Persian has sephus, in his usual way, puts a long flourishing speech jüro miskal, which was probably intended to signify in the mouth of Reuben on the occasion, spoken in order a shekel; and if sh intended, taking them at to dissuade his brethren from their barbarous purpose ; three shillings each, Joseph was sold for about three but as it is totally unfounded, it is worthy of no regard. pounds sterling. I have known a whole cargo of
Verse 23. They stripped Joseph out of his coat] This slaves, amounting to eight hundred and thirteen, bought probably was done that, if ever found, he might not by a slave captain in Bonny river, in Africa, on an be discerned to be a person of distinction, and conse- average, for six pounds each; and this payment was quently, no inquiry made concerning him.
made in guns, gunpowder, and trinkets! As there Verse 25. They sat down to eat bread] Every act were only nine of the brethren present, and they sold is perfectly in character, and describes forcibly the Joseph for twenty shekels, each had more than two brutish and diabolic nature of their ruthless souls. shekels as his share in this most infamous transaction.
A company of Ishmaelites] We may naturally sup- Verse 29. Reuben returned unto the pil] It appears pose that this was a caravan, composed of different he was absent when the caravan passed by, to whom tribes that, for their greater safety, were travelling to the other brethren had sold Joseph. gether, and of which Ishmaelites and Midianites made Verse 30. The child is not ; and I, whither shall i the chief. In the Chaldee they are called Arabians, go ?] The words in the original are very plaintive, which, from ay arab, to mingle, was in all probability X3 X OJK '289 133'* abun haiyeled einennu, vaani used by the Targumist as the word Arabians is used anah, ani ba! among us, which comprehends a vast number of clans, Verse 32. Sent the coat of many colours—to their or tribes of people. The Jerusalem Targum calls them father] What deliberate cruelty to torture the feelings ipro Sarkin, what we term Saracens. In the Persian, of their aged father, and thus harrow up his soul !
Verse 33. Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces !)
It is karavanee ishmaaleem araban aya.
kely he inferred this from the lacerated state of
"A caravan of the coat, which, in order the better to cover their wickIshmaelite Arabs came." This seems to give the true edness, they had not only besmeared with the blood of
the goat, but it is probable reduced to tatters. And Verse 28. For twenty pieces of silver) In the Anglo- what must a father's heart have felt in such a case ! Saron it is pjitigum penegum, thirty pence. This, I As this coat rent, so is the body of my beloved son think, is the first instance on record of selling a man rent in pieces! and Jacob rent his clothes.
كارواني اشمعاببم عربان ایا : the clause stands thus
B. C. 1728.
B. C. 1728.
Jacob mourns for Joseph.
He is sold into Egypt. A. M. 2276. coat; kan evil beast hath devoured Imrose up to comfort him ; but he A. M. 2276.
him; Joseph is without doubt rent refused to be comforted: and he in pieces !
said, For I will go down into the grave unto my 34 And Jacob ? rent his clothes, and put son mourning. Thus his father wept for him. sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his 36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt, son many days.
unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharoah's, and 35 And all his sons and all his daughters 9 captain of the guard..:
* Ver. 20; chap. xliv. 28.- Ver. 29; 2 Sam. iii. 31. eunuchs, but also chamberlains, courtiers, and officers; Esth. i. 10. m 2 Sam. xii, 17.- - Chap. xlii. 38; xliv. 29, 31.- :- Chapter 9 Heb. chief of the slaughtermen or executioners.- s Or, chief χχχία. 1. - Heb. eunuch. But the word doth signify not only marshal.
Verse 35. Aų his sons and all his daughters] He them that love him. Joseph has often been considerhad only one daughter, Dinah; but his sons' wives may ed as a type of Christ, and this subject in the hands be here included. But what hypocrisy in his sons to of different persons has assumed a great variety of attempt to comfort him concerning the death of a son colouring. The following parallels appear the most who they knew was alive ; and what cruelty to put probable-; but I shall not pledge myself for the protheir aged father to such torture, when, properly speak- priety of any of them : “ Jesus Christ, prefigured by ing, there was no ground for it!
Joseph, the beloved of his father, and by him sent to Verse 36. Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's] The visit his brethren, is the innocent person whom his word dito saris, translated officer, signifies a eunuch; brethren sold for a few pieces of silver, the bargain and lest any person should imagine that because this proposed by his brother Judah, (Greek Judas,) the Potiphar had a wife, therefore it is absurd to suppose very namesake of that disciple and brother (for so him to have been a eunuch, let such persons know that Christ vouchsafes to call him) who sold his Lord and it is not uncommon in the east -for eunuchs to have Master; and who by this means became their Lord wives, nay, some of them have even a harem or sera- and Saviour ; nay, the Saviour of strangers, and of glio, where they keep many women, though it does not the whole world; which had not happened but for this appear that they have any progeny; and probably dis- plot of destroying him, the act of rejecting, and excontent on this ground might have contributed as much posing him to sale. In both examples we find the to the unfaithfulness of Potiphar's wife, as that less same fortune and the same innocence : Joseph in the principled motive through which it is commonly be- prison between two criminals ; Jesus on the cross lieved she acted.
between two thieves. Joseph foretells deliverance to Captain of the guard.] o:naon nu sar hattabbachim, one of his companions and death to the other, from the chief of the butchers; a most appropriate name for the same omens : of the two thieves, one reviles Christ, guards of an eastern despot. If a person offend one and perishes in his crimes ; the other believes, and is of the despotic eastern princes, the order to one of assured of a speedy entrance into paradise. Joseph the life-guards is, Go and bring me his head ; and this requests the person that should be delivered to be command is instantly obeyed, without judge, jury, or mindful of him in his glory; the person saved by any form of law, Potiphar, we may therefore sup- Jesus Christ entreats his deliverer to remember him pose, was captain of those guards whose business it when he came into his kingdom.”—See Pascal's was to take care of the royal person, and execute his Thoughts. Parallels and coincidences of this kind sovereign will on all the objects of his displeasure. should always be received cautiously, for where the Reader, if thou hast the happiness to live under the Spirit of God. has not marked a direct resemblance, British constitution, be thankful to God. Here, the and obviously referred to it as such in some other part will, the power, and utmost influence of the king, were of his word, it is bold, if not dangerous, to say “such he even so disposed, cannot deprive the meanest sub- and such things and persons are types of Christ.” We ject of his property, his liberty, or his life. All the have instances sufficiently numerous, legitimately atsolemn legal forms of justice must be consulted ; the tested, without having recourse to those which are of culprit, however accused, be heard by himself and his dubious import and precarious application. See the counsel ; and in the end twelve honest, impartial men, observation on chap. xl. chosen from among his fellows, shall decide on the va- 2. Envy has been defined, “pain felt, and maliglidity of the evidence produced by the accuser. For nity conceived, at the sight of excellence or happiness the trial by jury, as well as for innumerable political in another.” Under this detestable passion did the blessings, may God make the inhabitants of Great brethren of Joseph labour ; and had not God particuBritain thankful !
larly interposed, it would have destroyed both its sub
jects and its object. Perhaps there is no vice which 1. WITH this chapter the history of Joseph com- so directly filiates itself on Satan, as this does. In mences, and sets before our eyes such a scene of opposition to the assertion that we cannot envy that by wonders wrought by Divine Providence in such a which we profit, it may be safely replied that we may variety of surprising instances, as cannot fail to con- envy our neighbour's wisdom, though he gives us good firm our faith in God, show the propriety of resigna- counsel ; his riches, though he supplies our wants; and tion to his will, and confidence in his dispensations, his greatness, though he employs it for our protection. and prove that all things work together for good to 3. How ruinous are family distractions ! A house Judah marries a Canaanite,
of whom three sons are born. divided against itself cannnot stand. Parents should parents on the subject; they will give way to foolish take good heed that their own conduct be not the predilections, till, in the prevailing distractions of first and most powerful cause of such dissensions, by their families, they meet with the punishment of their exciting envy in some of their children through undue imprudence, when regrets are vain, and the evil past partiality to others; but it is in vain to speak to most | remedy.
CHAPTER XXXVIII. Judah marries the daughter of a Canaanite, 1, 2; and begets of her Er, 3, Qnan, 4, and Shelah, 5. ET
marries Tamar, 6 ; is slain for his wickedness, 7., Onan, required to raise up seed to his brother, refuses, 8, 9. He also is slain, 10. Judah promises his son Shelah to Tamar, when he should be of age ; but performs not his promise, 11. Judah's wife dies, 12., Tamar in disguise receives her father-in-law, he leaves his signet, bracelets, and staff in her hand, and she conceives by him, 13-23. Judah is informed that his daughter in-law is with child ; and, not knowing that himself was the father, condemns her to be burnt, 24. She produces the signet, bracelets, and staff, and convicts Judah, 25, 26. She is delivered of
twins, who are called Pharez and Zarah, 27-30. A. M. cir. 2251.
AND it came to pass at that 4. And she conceived again, A. M. cir. 2253. B. C. cir. 1753.
B. C. cir. 1751. time, that Judah went down and bare a son; and she called from his brethren, and a turned in to a certain his name f Onan. • Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.
5 And she yet again con- A. M. cir. 2256.
B. C. cir. 1749. 2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a ceived, and bare a certain Canaanite, whose name was a Shuah; called his name & Shelah : and he was at and he took her, and went in unto her.' Chezib, when she bare him. A. M. cir.-2252. 3 And she conceived, and 6 And Judah h took a wife for A. M. cir. 2273. B. C. cir. 1752.
B. C. cir. 173). bare a son ; and he called his Er, his first-born, whose name name . Er.
was Tamar. * Chap. xix. 2, 3 ; Judg. iv. 18; 2 Kings iv. 8; Prov. xiii. 20. d 1 Chron. ii. 3. Chap. xlvi. 12; Num. xxvi. 19.
1 Ch. Josh. xv. 35; I Sam. xxii. 1; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13; Mic. i. 15. xlvi. 12 ; Num. xxvi. 19.—s Chapter xlvi. 12 ; Num. xxvi. 20. Chap. xxxiv. 2.
Chap. xxi. 21.
chem, chap. xxxiii. 18, before the history of Dinah, Verse 1. And it came to pass at that time] The chap. xxxiv., though Moses for special canse relates it facts mentioned here could not have happened at the in this place.". I should rather suppose that this chaptimes mentioned in the preceding chapter, as those ter originally stood after chap. xxxiii., and that it got times are all unquestionably too recent, for the very by accident into this place. Dr. Hales, observing that earliest of the transactions here recorded must have some of Jacob's sons must have married remarkably occurred long before the selling of Joseph. Mr. Ains- young, says that “ Judah was about forty-seven years worth remarks “that Judah and his sons must have old when Jacob's family settled in Egypt. He could married when very young, else the chronology will not not therefore have been above fifteen at the birth of agree. For Joseph was born six years before Jacob his eldest son Er; nor Er more than fifteen at bis left Laban and came into Canaan; chap. xxx. 25, and marriage with Tamar; nor could it have been more xxxi. 41. Joseph was seventeen years old when he than two years after Er's death till the birth of Juwas sold into Egypt, chap. xxxvii. 2, 25; he was thirty dah's twin sons by his daughter-in-law Tamar; nor years old when he interpreted Pharaoh's dream, chap. could Pharez, one of them, be more than fifteen at the xli. 46. And nine years after, when there had been birth of his twin sons Hezron and Hamul, supposing seven years of plenty and two years of famine, did they were twins, just born before the departure from Jacob with his family go down into Egypt, chap. xli. Canaan. For the aggregate of these numbers, 15, 15, 53, 54, and : xlv. 6, 11. And - at their going down 2, 15, or 47 years, gives the age of Judah ; compare thither, Pharez, the son of Judah, whose birth is set, chap. xxxviii, with chap. xlvi. 12." See the remarks down at the end of this chapter, had two sons, Hezron of Dr. Kennicott, at the end of chap. xxxi. and Hamul, chap. xlvi. 8, 12. Seeing then from the Adullamite] An inhabitant of Adullam, a city of selling of Joseph unto Israel's going down into Egypt Canaan, afterwards given for a possession to the sons there cannot be above twenty-three years, how is it of Judah, Josh. xv. 1, 35. It appears as if this Adulpossible that Judah should take a wife, and have by lamite had kept a kind of lodging house, for Shuah the her three sons successively, and Shelah the youngest Canaanite and his family lodged with him; and there of the three be marriageable when Judah begat Judah lodged also. As the woman was a Canaanitess, Pharez of Tamar, chap. xxxviii. 14, 24, and Pharez Judah had the example of his fathers to prove at least be grown up, married, and have two sons, all within so the impropriety of such a connection. short a space ? The time therefore here spoken of Verse 5. And he was at Chezib when she bare him.) seems to have been soon after Jacob's coming to She- This town is supposed to be the same with Achaib,
um Deut. xxv. 6.
n Heb, was evil in
1 Verse 11, 26.
-y Ezek. xvi. 33.
Er and Onan are slain.
CHAP. XXXVIII. Judah deceived by Tamar. A, M. cir. 2273. 7 And i Er, Judah's first-born, went up unto his sheep-shearers A. M. cir. 2277. B. C. cir. 1731.
B. C. cir. 1727. was wicked in the sight of the to Timnath, he and his friend LORD ; and the LORD slew him.
Hirah the Adullamite. A. M. cir. 2274: 8 And Judah said unto Onan, 13 And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold, B. C. cir. 1730. Go in unto 1 thy brother's wife, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnath to and marry her, and raise up seed to thy shear his sheep. brother.
14 And she put her widow's garments off 9 And Onan knew that the seed should not from her, and covered her with a veil, and be his; and it came to pass, when he went wrapped herself, and 'sat in an open place, in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it which is by the way to Timnath; for she saw on the ground, lest that he should give seed - that Shelah was grown, and she was not to his brother.
given unto him to wife. 10 And the thing which he did - displeased 15 When Judah saw her, he thought her to the LORD: wherefore he slew him also. be a harlot: because she had covered her face.
11 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter- 16 And he turned unto her by the way, and in-law, Remain a widow at thy father's said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto house, till Shelah my son be grown: (for thee; (for he knew not that she was his he said, Lest peradventure he die also, as his daughter-in-law.) And she said, What wilt brethren did.) And Tamar went and dwelt thou give me, that thou mayest come in 4 in her father's house.'
unto me? A. M. cir. 2277. 12 And in process of time 17 And he said, y I will send thee z a kid B. C. cir. 1727.
the daughter of Shuah Judah's from the flock." And she said, - Wilt thou wife died, and Judah was comforted, and give me a pledge till thou send it?
Chap. xlv. 12; Num. xivi. 19.-kl Chron. ii. 3. --- Deut. * 2 Samuel xii. 39.- Joshua xv. 10, 57; Judges xiv. 1. XXV. 5, Matt. xxii. 24.
u Judith x. 3.- - Prov. vii. 12. _w Heb. the door of eyes or The eyes of the LORD.- Chap. xlvi. 12; Num. xxvi. 19. of Enajim.
- Heb. a P Ruth i. 13. — Lev. xxi. 13.—Heb. the days were multiplied. kid of the goats.- - Ver. 20. which fell to the tribe of Judah, Josh. xv. 44.
Verse 12. In process of time] This phrase, which name,” says Ainsworth, “has in Hebrew the signifi- is in general use in the Bible, needs explanation ; the cation of lying; and to it the prophet alludes, saying original is D'977 1974 vaiyirbu haiyamim, and the days the houses of Achzib shall be (Achzab) a lie to the were multiplied. Though it implies an indefinite time, kings of Israel, Mic. i. 14."
yet it generally embraces a pretty long period, and in Verse 7. Er--was wicked in the sight of the Lord] this place may mean several years. What this wickedness consisted in we are not told ; Verse 15. Thought her to be a harlot] See the but the phrase sight of the Lord being added, proves original of this term, chap. xxxiv. 31. The Hebrew that it was some very great evil. It is worthy of is 731 zonah, and signifies generally a person who remark that the Hebrew word used to express Er's prostitutes herself to the public for hire, or one who wickedness is his own name, the letters reversed. Er lives by the public; and hence very likely applied to a w; wicked, yn ra. As if the inspired writer had publican, a tavern-keeper, or hostess, Josh. ii. 1'; transsaid, “ Er was altogether wicked, a completely aban- lated by the Septuagint, and in the New Testament, doned character."
Tropvn, from nepvaw, to sell, which certainly may as Verse 9. Onan knew that the seed should not be his] well apply to her goods as to her person. That is, that the child begotten of his brother's widow It appears that in very ancient times there were should be reckoned as the child of his deceased public persons of this description ; and they generally brother, and his name, though the real father of it, veiled themselves, sat in public places by the highway sbould not appear in the genealogical tables.
side, and received certain hire. Though adultery was Verse 10. Wherefore he slew him also.] The sin reputed a very flagrant crime, yet this public prostituof Onan has generally been supposed to be self-pollu- tion was not ; for persons whose characters were on lion ; but this is certainly a mistake ; his crime was the whole morally good had connections with them. his refusal to raise up seed to his brother, and rather But what could be expected from an age in which there than do it, by the act mentioned above, he rendered was no written Divine revelation, and consequently the himself incapable of it. We find from this history bounds of right and wrong were not sufficiently ascerthat long before the Mosaic law it was an established tained? This defect was supplied in a considerable custom, probably founded on a Divine precept, that if measure by the law and the prophets, and now coma man died childless his brother was to take his wife, pletely by the Gospel of Christ. and the children produced by this second marriage Verse 17. Will thou give me a pledge till thou send were considered as the children of the first husband, it ?) The word jaw erabon signifies an earnest of and in consequence inherited his possessions. something promised, a part of the price agreed for