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A. M. cir. 2292.

Dukes of the house of Esau.

GENESIS Descendants of Seir, the Horite. A. M. cir. 2270. 13 And these are the sons Esau's wife; duke Jeush, duke From B. C, cir. 1734.

B, C. cir. 1575 of Reuel; Nahath, and Zerah, Jaalam, duke Korah: these were

B. C. cir. 1533. Shamimah, and Mizzah: these were the sons the dukes that came of Aholiof Bashemath Esau's wife,

bamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. 14 And these were the sons 19. These are the sons of Esau, who is B. C. cir. 1712.

of Aholibamah, the daughter of Edom, and these are their dukes. Anah the daughter of Zibeon, Esau's wife : 20 p These are the sons of A. M. cir. 2198.

B. C. cir. 1806. and she bare to Esau Jeush, and Jaalam, and Seir ? the Horite, who inhabited Korah.

the land ; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, First aristocracy 15 These were dukes of the and Anah. of dukes. From A. M. cir. 2429 sons of Esau : the sons of Eli- 21 And Dishon, and Ezer, and A. M. cir. 2204.

B. C. cir. 1800, A. M. cir. 2471. phaz the first-born son of Esaur; Dishan : these are the dukes of B. c.From 1575 duke Teman, duke Omar, duke the Horites, the children of Seir in the land Zepho, duke Kenaz,

of Edom. B. C. oir. 1533. 16 Duke Korah, duke Gatam, 22. And the children of Lotan A. M. cir. 2248.

B. C. cir. 1756. and duke Amalek :- these are the dukes that were Hori, and - Hemam; and came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom : these Lotan's sister was Timna. were the sons of Adah.

23 And the children of Shobal were these ; 17 And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's · Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, • Shepho, son ; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Sham- and Onam. mah, duke Mizzah: these are the dukes that 24 And these are the children of Zibeon , came of Reuel in the land of Edom : these both Ajah, and Anah: this was that Anah are the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. that found the mules in the wilderness, as

18 And these are the sons of Aholibamah he fed the asses of Zibeon his father.

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PI Chron. i. 38.

-2 Chapter xiv. 6; Deut. ii. 12, 22. Or, Or, Alian ; 1 Chron. i. 40.- Or, Shephi; 1 Chron. i. 40. Homam; 1 Chron. i. 39.

See Lev. xix. 19.

text to seize the land, and expel the ancient inhabit-fore, that some transcriber has improperly inserted ants, as we find they did, Deut. ii. 12.

duke Korah in the 16th verse; from which interpoAmalek] The father of the Amalekites, afterwards lation both the Samaritan téxt and the Samaritan verbitter enemies to the Jews, and whom God commanded sion are free.”—KENNICOTT's Remarks. Every thing to be entirely exterminated, Deut. xxv. 17, 19. considered, I incline to the opinion that these words

Verse 15. Dukes of the sons of Esau] The word were not originally in the text. duke comes from the Latin dux, a captain or leader. Verse 20. These are the sons of Seir the Horite] The Hebrew 9958 alluph has the same signification ; These Horites were the original inhabitants of the and as it is also the term for a thousand, which is a country of Seir, called the land of the Horites, and grand capital or leading number, probably the '15* afterwards the land of the Idumeans, when the descendalluphey or dukes had this name from being leaders-ants of Esau had driven them out. These people are of or caplains over a company of one thousand men ; first mentioned chap: xiv. 6. just as those among the Greeks called chiliarchs, whieh Verse 21. These are the dukes of the Horites] It signifies the same; and as the Romans called those appears pretty evident that the Horites and the decenturions who were captains over one hundred men, scendants of Esau were mixed together in the same from the Latin word centum, which signifies a hun- land, as before observed ; and Calmet has very prodred. The ducal government was that which prevailed perly remarked, that if we compare this verse with first among the Idumeans, or descendants of Esau. verse 30, there were princes of Seir in the country Here fourteen dukes are reckoned to Esau, seven that of Seir, and in that of Edom; and in comparing the came of his wife Adah, four of Bashemath, and three generations of Seir and Esau, we are obliged to conof Aholibamah.

sider these princes as contemporary. Verse 16. Duke Korah] This Dr. Kennicott pro- Verse 24. This was that Anah that found the mules nounces to be an interpolation. . “It is certain, from in the wilderness) The words op'n nå eth haiyemim, verse 4, that Eliphaz was Esau's son by Adah ; and here translated mules, has given rise to a great variety from verses 11, 12, that Eliphaz had but six sons, of conjectures and discordant opinions. St. Jerome, Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, Kenaz, and Amalek. who renders aquas calidas, warm springs, or hot It is also certain, from verses 5 and 14, that Korah baths, says there are as many opinions concerning it was the son of Esau (not of Eliphaz) by Aholibamah; as there are commentators. and as such he is properly mentioned in ver. 18 : The Septuagint has tov lauelv, which seems to be These are the sons of Aholibamah, Esau's wife : duke the name of a man; but this is expressed in a .greatJeush, duke Jaalam, DUKE KORAH. It is clear, there- variety of ways in different MSS. of that version.

B. C. cir. 1756.

B. C. cir. 1756.

are

Dukes of the Horiles,

CHAP. XXXVI. and kings of the Edomites. A. M. cir. 2248. 25 And the children of Anah| 30 Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, A. M. cir. 2248.

were these ; Dishon, and Aholi- duke Dishan: these the bamah the daughter of Anah.

dukes that came of Hori, among their dukes 26 And these are the children of Dishon; in the land of Seir. Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran.

31 And x these are the kings Å. M. Cir. 2093, 27 The children of Ezer are these; Bilhan, that reigned in the land of B, C. cir. 1911, and Zaavan, and Akan.

Edom, before

there reigned A. M. cir. 2429, 28 The children of Dishan are these; Uz,, any king over the children of B. C. cir. 1575. and Aran.

Israel.

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Horites; duke Lotan, duke Shobal,, duke reigned in Edom: and the name

B. C. cir. 1911. Zibeon, duke Anah,

of his city was Dimhabah. Or, Amram ; I Chron. i. 41.

# Or, Jakan; 1 Chron. i. 42.- 11 Chron. i. 43. The Syriac renders it mayé, waters; the the wilderness. Is it not probable that from this Anah, author of this version having read in the Hebrew copy or ny enah, the Enelæ derived at least their fabulous from which he translated, bis mayim, waters, for an origin, whom Homer mentions as famous for their race yemim, the two first letters being transposed. of wild mules ? Onkelos translates the word ina gibbaraiya, giants,

Παφλαγονων δ' ήγειτο Πυλαιμενεος λασιον κηρ, or strong or powerful men.

Εξ Ενετων, όθεν ημιονων γενος αγροτεραων. The Samaritan text has LYN Y haaimim, and the · Samaritan version MALYMİ Lyo am

IL., lib. ii., v. 852.. aimai, the Emim, a warlike people, bordering upon the

The Paphlagonians Pylæmenes rules, Horites.

Where rich Henetia breeds her SAVAGE MULES. Pope. The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel paraphrases The Eneta or Henetæ, who were a people contigua the place thus : “ This is the Anah who united the ous to Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, and Galatia, might onager with the tame ass, and in process of time he have derived their origin from this Anah, or Henah, found mules produced by them.” R. D. Kimchi says, out of which the Everol of the ancient Greek writers that "Zibeon was both the father and brother of Anah; might have been formed; and according to Theophrastus, and this Anah, intent on heterogeneous mixtures, caused Strabo, and Plutarch, the first mules were seen among asses and horses to copulate, and so produced mules." these people. See Ludov. De Dieu and Scheuchzer. R. S. Jarchi is of the same opinion. See his com- Verse 31. Before there reigned any king overment on this place.

Israel.] I suppose all the verses, from this to the 39th Bochart believes the Emim are meant; and argues inclusive, have been transferred to this place from forcibly, 1. That x37 matsa, he found, never signifies i Chron. i. 43–50, as it is not likely they could have to invent, but rather the meeting with or happening on been written by Moses ; and it is quite possible they a thing which already exists. 2. That mules are might have been, at a very early period, written in the never called on yemim in the Scriptures, but d'779 margin of an authentic copy, to make out the regal peradim. 3. That Anah fed Asses only, not horses. succession in Edom, prior to the consecration of Saul; And, 4. That there is no mention of mules in Palestine which words being afterwards found in the margin of till the days of David. From the whole he concludes a valuable copy, from which others were transcribed, that the Emim are meant, with whom Anah fought ; were supposed by the copyist to be a part of the text, and he brings many places of Scripture where the same which having been omitted by the mistake of the oriform of expression, he or they found, signifies the, on- ginal writer, had been since added to make up the deset to battle, Judg. i. 5; 1 Sam. xxxi. 3; 1 Kings ficiency; on this conviction he would not hesitate to xiii. 24; 2 Chron. xxii. 8; Num. xxxv. 27; Gen. iv. transcribe them consecutively in his copy. In most 14; with many others. See the Hierozoicon, vol. i., MSS. sentences and paragraphs have been left out by cap. 21, p. 238., edit. 1692.

the copyists, which, when perceived, have been added, Gusset, in Comment. Heb. Ling., examines what in the margin, either by the original writer, or by some Bochart has asserted, and supposes that mules, not the later hand. Now, as the margin was the ordinary Emim, were found by Anah.

place where glosses or explanatory notes were written, Wagenseil would credit what Bochart has asserted, it is easy to conceive how the notes, as well as the did not stronger reasons lead him to believe that the parts of the original text found in the margin, might word means a sort of plant !

be all incorporated with the text by a future transcriber; From the above opinions and versions the reader and his MSS., being often copied, would of course may choose which he likes best, or invent one for him- multiply the copies with such additions, as we have self. My own opinion is, that mules were not known much reason to believe has been the case. before the time of Anah; and that he was probably pears very frequently in the Vulgate and Septuagint; the first who coupled the mare and ass together to and an English Bible now before me, written some produce this mongrel, or was the first who met with time in the fourteenth century, exhibits several proofs creatures of this race in some very secluded part of of this principle. See the preface to this work.

215

This ap

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The kings and dukes

GENESIS.

of the Edomites. A. M. cir. 2135. 33 And Bela died, and Jobab 39 And Baal-hanan the son of A. M. cit. 2387. B. C. cir. 1869.

B. C. cir. 1617. the son of Zerah of Bozrah Achbor died, and » Hadar reignreigned in his stead.

ed in his stead : and the name of his city A. M. cir. 2177. 34 And Jobab died, and Hu- was Pau; and his wife's name was Mehetabel, B. C. cir. 1827.

sham of the land of Temani the daughter of Matred, the daughter of reigned in his stead.

Mezahab. A. M. cir. 2219, 35 And Husham died, and 40 And these are the names of Second aristo-, B. C. cir. 1785.

cracy of dukes.' Hadad the son of Bedad, who the dukes that came of Èsau,

From smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in according to their families, after B. C

.: 1533; his stead : and the name of his city was Avith. their places, by their names;

A. M. cir. 2513, A. M. cir. 2261. 36 And Hadad died, and duke Timnah, duke e Alvah, duke B. C. cir. 1491. B. C. cir. 1743.

Samlah of Masrekah reigned Jetheth. in his 'stead.

41 Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke A. M. cir. 2303. 37 And Samlah died, and Saul Pinon, B. C. cir. 1701.

of Rehoboth, by the river, reign- 42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar, ed in his stead.

43 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram : these be the A. M. cir. 2345. 38 And Saul died, and Baal- dukes of Edom, according to their habitations B. C. cir. 1659.

hanan the son of Achbor reigned in the land of their possession : he is Esau in his stead.

the d father of the Edomites.

to

y 1 Chron. i 50; Hadad Pai ; after his death was an aristo- • Ver. 31; Exod. xv. 15; Num. xx. 14.-_ Ver. 7,8; Deut. 1.5 cracy; Exodus xv. -21 Chron. i. 51.- Or, Aliah. 4 Chap. xxv.30; xlv. 8 ; xxxvi. 43 ; 1 Chron. iv, 14 ; Heb. Edom.

I know there is another way of accounting for those or Idumea at the time of the exodus of Israel from words on the ground of their being written originally Egypt. by Moses; but to me it is not satisfactory. It is sim- Verse 43. He is Esau the father of the Edomites.) ply this: the word king should be considered as imply- That is, The preceding list contains an account of the ing any kind of regular government, whether by chiefs, posterity of Esau, who was the father of Edom. Thus dukes, judges,' fc., and therefore when Moses says ends Esau's history; for after this there is no farther these are the kings which reigned in Edom, before account of his life, actions, or death, in the Pentateuch. there was any king in Israel, he may be only understood as saying that these kings reigned among the 1. As Esau is so considerable a person in polemic Edomites before the family of Jacob had acquired any divinity, it may be necessary, in this place especially, considerable power, or before the time in which his to say something farther of his conduct and character. twelve sons had become the fathers of those numerous I have already, in several places, endeavoured, and 1 tribes, at the head of which, as king himself in Jeshu- hope successfully, to wipe off the odium that has been run, he now stood.

thrown upon this man, (see the notes on chap. xxvii. Esau, after his dukes, had eight kings, who reigned and chap. xxxiii.,) without attempting to lessen his successively over their people, while Israel were in faults; and the unprejudiced reader must see that, prealfliction in Egypt.

viously to this last account we have of him, his chaVerse 33. Jobad the son of Zerah] Many have racter stands without a blot, except in the case of sellsupposed that Jobab is the same as Job, so remarkable ing his birthright, and his purpose to destroy his brother. for his afflictions and patience; and that Eliphaz, men- To the first he was led by his famishing sįtuation and tioned verse 10, &c., was the same who in the book the unkindness of his brother, who refused to save his of Job is called one of his friends : but there is no life but on this condition ; and the latter, made in the proper proof of this, and there are many reasons heat of vexation and passion, he never attempted to against it.

execute, even when he had the most ample means and Verse 35. Smote Midian in the field of Moab] the fairest opportunity to do it. Bishop Cumberland supposes that this was Midian, the Dr. Shuckford has drawn an impartial character of son of Abraham by Keturah, and that he was killed Esau, from which I extract the following particulars ; by Hadad some time before he was one hundred and“ Esau was a plain, generous, and honest man, for we nine years

of

age; and that Moses recorded this, pro- have no reason, from any thing that appears in his life bably, because it was a calamity to the ancestor of or actions, to think him wicked beyond other men of Jethro, his father-in-law.-Orig. of Nat.,

his age or times ; and his generous and good temper Verse 40. These are the names of the dukes that appears from all his behaviour towards his brother, came of Esau] These dukes did not govern the whole When they first met he was all humanity and affection, nation of the Idumeans, but they were chiefs in their and he had no uneasiness when he found that Jacob respective families, in their places--the districts they followed him not to Seir, but went to live near his fagoverned, and to which they gave their names. Calmet ther. And at Isaac's death we do not find that he made thinks that those mentioned above were dukes in Edom | any difficulty of quitting Canaan, which was the very

p. 14.

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Observations on

CHAP. XXXVII.
.

the preceding chapter, point which, if he had harboured any latent (evil) in- I thoughts do appear to have been such as to evidence tentions, would have revived all his resentments. He that God's purpose towards Jacob was founded on the is indeed called in Scripture the profane Esau ; and it truest wisdom."-SHUCKFORD's Connections, vol. ii., is written, Jacob have I loved, and Esau have I hated; p. 174, &c. but there is, I think, no reason to fer, from any of The truth is, the Messiah must spring from some those expressions, that Esau was a very wicked man, ONE family, and God chose Abraham's through Isaac, or that God hated or punished him for an immoral life. Jacob, fc., rather than the same through Ishmael, For, 1. The sentence here against him is said expressly Esau, and the others in that line ; but from this choice to be founded, not upon his actions, for it was deter- it does not follow that the first were all necessarily mined before the children had done good or evil. 2. saved, and the others necessarily lost. God's hatred of Esau was not a hatred which induced 2. To some the genealogical lists in this chapter will him to punish him with any evil, for he was as happy doubtless appear uninteresting, especially those which in all the blessings of this life as either Abraham, Isaac, concern Esau and his descendants; but it was as neor Jacob; and his posterity had a land designed by cessary to register the generations of Esau as to reGod to be their possession, as well as the children of gister those of Jacob, in order to show that the Mes. Jacob, and they were put in possession of it much siah did not spring from the former, but that he did sooner than the Israelites; and God was pleased to spring from the latter. The genealogical tables, so protect them in the enjoyment of it, and to caution the frequently met with in the sacred writings, and so little Israelites against invading them with a remarkable regarded by Christians in general, are extremely usestrictness, Deut. ü. 4, 5. And as God was pleased ful. 1. As they are standing proofs of the truth of thus to bless Esau and his children in the blessings of the prophecies, which stated that the Messiah should this life, even as much as he blessed Abraham, Isaac, come from a particular family, which prophecies were or Jacob, if not more, why may we not hope to find clearly fulfilled in the birth of Christ. 2. As they him with them at the last day, as well as Lot or Job testify, to the conviction of the Jews, that the Messiah or any other good and virtuous man, who was not de- thus promised is found in the person of Jesus of Nasigned to be a partaker of the blessing given to Abra- zareth, who incontestably sprang from the last, the only ham? 3. All the punishment inflicted on Esau was remaining branch of the family of David.

These rean exclusion from being heir to the blessing promised gisters were religiously preserved among the Jews till to - Abraham and to his seed, which was a favour not the destruction of Jerusalem, after which they were granted to Lot, to Job, to several other very virtuous all destroyed, insomuch that there is not a Jew in the and good men. 4. St. Paul, in the passage before universe who can trace himself to the family of David; cited, only intends to show the Jews that God had all consequently, all expectation of a Messiah to come is, along given the favours that led to the Messiah where even on their own principles, nugatory and absurd, as he pleased ; to Abraham, not to Lot; to Jacob, not to nothing remains to legitimate his birth. When Christ Esau; as at the time St. Paul wrote the Gentiles were came all these registers were in existence. When Șt, made the people of God, not the Jews. 5. Esau is Matthew and St. Luke wrote, all these registers were indeed called profane, (Beßrãos,) but I think that word still in existence; and had they pretended what could does not mean wicked or immoral, aceßns or ipaprw- not have been supported, an appeal to the registers hos he was called profane for not having that due value would have convicted them of a falsehood. But no for the priest's office which he should have had ; and Jew attempted to do this, notwithstanding the excess therefore, though I think it does not appear that he was of their malice against Christ and his followers; and cut off from being the heir of the promises by any because they did not do it, we may safely assert no particular action in his life, yet his turn of mind and Jew could do it. Thus the foundation standeth sure

CHAPTER XXXVII.

Jacob continues to sojourn in Canaan, 1. Joseph, being seventeen years of age, is employed in feeding the

flocks of his father, 2. Is loved by his father more than the rest of his brethren, 3. His brethren envy him, 4. His dream of the sheaves, 5–7. His brethren interpret it, and hate him on the account, 8. His dream of the sun, moon, and eleven stars, 9-11. Jacob sends him to visit his brethren, who were with the flock in Shechem, 13, 14. He wanders in the field, and is directed to go to Dothan, whither his brethren had removed the flocks, 15–17. Seeing him coming they conspire to destroy him, 18–20. Reuben, secretly intending to deliver him, counsels his brethren not to kill, but to put him into a pit, 21, 22. They strip Joseph of his coat af many colours, and put him into a pit, 23, 24. They afterwards draw him out, and sell him to a company of Ishmaelite merchants for twenty pieces of silver, who carry him into Egypt, 25-28. Reuben returns to the pit, and not finding Joseph, is greatly affected, 29, 30, Joseph's brethren dip his coat in goat's blood to persuade his father that he had been devoured by a wild beast, 31-33. Jacob is greatly distressed, 34, 35. Joseph is sold in Egypt to Potiphar, captain of Pharaoh's guard, 36.

217

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A. M. 2276.
B. C. 1728.

Commencement of the

GENESIS.

history of Joseph. AND Jacob dwelt in the land wherein father loved him more than all his 6. M: 2926.

b his father was a stranger, in the land of brethren, they hated him, and could Canaan.

not speak peaceably unto him. 2 These are the generations of 5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told

Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen it his brethren: and they hated him yet the years old, was feeding the flock with his bre- more. thren ; and the lad was with the sons of 6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his this dream which I have dreamed: father's wives : and Joseph brought unto his 7 For, 5 behold, we were binding sheaves in father their evil report.

the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also 3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood his children, because he was the son of his round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf old age: and he made him a coat of many 8 And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou e colours.

indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed 4 And when his brethren saw that their have dominion over us? and they hated him

a Heb. of his father's sojournings.- - Chap. xvii. 8 ; xxiii. 4; 1 xliv. 20.- - Or, pieces ; Judg. v. 30; 2 Sam. xiii. 18.

ICh. xxvin. 4; xxxvi. 7; Heb. xi. 9. 1 Sam. ii. 22-24. d Ch. xxvii. 41 ; xlix. 23.- 6 Chap. xlii. 6, 9; xliii. 26; xliv. 14.

manner.

salam hebibi , peace to سلام حبيبي

NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVII.

father had thus made him such a distinguished object Verse 1. Wherein his father was a stranger).'of his partial love. We have already seen some of Vox megurey abiv, Jacob dwelt in the land of his the evils produced by this unwarrantable conduct of father's sojournings, as the margin very properly parents in preferring one child to all the rest. The reads it. The place was probably the vale of Hebron, old fable of the ape and her favourite cub, which she see ver. 14.

hugged to death through kindness, was directed against Verse 2. These are the generations] nicho toledoth, such foolish parental fondnesses as these. the history of the lives and actions of Jacob and his

Verse 4. And could not speak peaceably unto him.) sons; for in this general sense the original must be Does not this imply, in our use of the term, that they taken, as in the whole of the ensuing history there is were continually quarrelling with him? but this is no no particular account of any genealogical succession meaning of the original : osob 1937 1938 xsi celo yaYet the words may be understood as referring to the chelu dabbero leshalom, they could not speak peace to tables or genealogical lists in the preceding chapter ; him, i. e., they would not accost him in a friendly and if so, the original must be understood in its com

They would not even wish him well. The mon acceptation.

eastern method of salutation is, Peace be to thee! Dibig The lad was with the sons of Bilhah] It is supposed 15 shalom lecha, among the Hebrews, and plus that our word lad comes from the Hebrew th' yeled, a child, a son ; and that lass is a contraction of ladess,

salam, peace, or the female of lad, a girl, a young woman. Some thee my friend, among the Arabs. Now as peace have supposed that King James desired the trans- among those nations comprehends all kinds of blesslators to insert this word ; but this must be a mistake, ings spiritual and temporal, so they are careful not to as the word occurs in this place in Edmund Becke's say it to those whom they do not cordially wish well. Bible, printed in 1549; and still earlier in that of It is not an unusual thing for an Arab or a Turk to Coverdale, printed in 1535.

hesitate to return the salam, if given by a Christian, Brought unto his father their evil report.] Conjec- or by one of whom he has not a favourable opinion : ture has been busily employed to find out what this and this, in their own country, may be ever considered evil report might be; but it is needless to inquire what as a mark of hostility; not only as a proof that they it was, as on this head the sacred text is perfectly do not wish you well, but that if threy have an opporsilent. All the use we can make of this information tunity they will do you an injury. This was precisely is, that it was one cause of increasing his brothers’ the case with respect to Joseph's brethren : they would hatred to him, which was first excited by his father's not give him the salam, and therefore felt themselves partiality, and secondly by his own dreams.

at liberty to take the first opportunity to injure him, Verse 3. A coat of many colours.] 'D'Od ning ke- Verse 7. We were binding sheaves in the field] thoneth passim, a coat made up of stripes of differently Though in these early times we read little of tillage, coloured cloth. Similar to this was the toga prætexta yet it is evident from this circumstance that it was of the Roman youth, which was white, striped or practised by Jacob and his sons. The whole of this fringed with purple; this they wore till they were dream is so very plain as to require no comment, unseventeen years of age, when they changed it for the less we could suppose that the sheaves of grain might toga virilis, or toga pura, which was all white. Such have some reference to the plenty in Egypt under vestures as clothing of distinction are worn all over Joseph's superintendence, and the scarcity in Canaan, Persia, India, and China to the present day. It is no which obliged the brethren to go down to Egypt for wonder that his brethren should envy him, when his corn, where the dream was most literally fulfilled,

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