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negligences more inexcusable, and fear a sin when there is none, and are ready to accuse ourselves for
indiscretion, and think no repentance great enough for the foulness of our sins : at the same time, when we judge for others, we ought to esteem their certain good things better than they do, and their certain evils less, and their disputable good things certain, and their uncertain evils none at all, or very excusable. And, therefore, it was to very great purpose, that the apostle gave command, that "
every man should examine himself, and so let him eat;" that is, let it be done as it may be done thoroughly'; let him do it whose case it is, and who is most concerned that it be done well; let it be done so, that it may not be allayed and lessened by the judgment of charity; and, therefore, let a man do it himself. For when the curate comes to do it, he cannot do it well, unless he do it with mercy; for he must make abatements, which the sinner's case does not often need in order to his reconciliation and returns to God, where severity is much better than gentle sentences. But the minister of religion must receive, in some cases, such persons, who ought not to come, and who should abstain, when themselves give righteous judgment upon themselves.
For if it be lawful for Christian people to communicate with evil persons, it is lawful for Christian priests to minister it: it being commanded to the people, in some cases, 'to withdraw themselves from a brother that walks inordinately;'
In hâc ergo pænitentià, majorem quisque in se severitatem debet esercere, ut à seipso judicatus non judicetur à Deo, sicut idem apostolus ait, Si enim nos judicaremus, à Domino non judicaremur.' Ascendat itaque homo adversum se tribunal mentis suæ, si timet illud quod oportet nos exhiberi ante tribnnal Christi, ut illud recipiat unusquisqne, quod per corpus gessit, sive bonum, sive malum;' constituat se ante faciem suam, ne hoc ei postea fiat. Nam minatur hoc Deus peccatori, dicens, 'arguam te, et statuam te ante faciem tuam.' Atque ita constituto in corde judicio, adsit accusatrix cogitatio, testis conscientia, carnifex timor. Inde quidam sanguis animi confitentis per lacrymas profluat. Postremo ab ipsa mente talis sententia proferatur, ut se indignum bomo judicet participatione corporis et sanguinis Domini; ut qui separari à regno cælorum timet per ultimam sententiam summi judicis, per ecclesiasticam disciplinam à sacramento cælestis panis interim separetur. Versetur ante oculos imago futuri judicii, ut cum alii accedunt ad altare Dei, quo ipse non accedit, cogitet qnam sit contremis. cenda illa pæna, quà, recipientibus aliis vitam æternam, alii in mortem præcipitantur æternam. -S. Aug. homil. 50. c. 9.
but no where commanded, that “a minister of religion shall refuse to give it to him that requires it, and is within the communion of the church, and is not yet as a heathen and a publican:' and it is evident, that in the churches of Corinth, the communion was given to persons, who for unworthiness fell under the divine anger; 'and yet no man was reproved, but the unworthy communicants, and themselves only commanded to take care of it. For he that says, 'the people may not communicate with wicked persons, falls into the error of the Donatists, which St. Austin, and others, have infinitely confuted: but he that says, ' the people may,'ought not to deny but that the priests may; and if he may communicate with him, it cannot be denied but that he may minister to him. But this was the case of the sons of Israel, who did eat manna, and drank of the rock ; and yet that rock was Christ, and that manna was also his sacrament; and yet “ with many of these God was angry, and they fell in the wilderness.” And baptism was given as soon as ever men were converted, in the very day of their change, and that by the apostles themselves, and yet the same Christ is there consigned and exbibited. We may remember, that, in Scripture, we find no difference in the two sacraments, as to this particular. But in this there needs not much to be said ; they that think things can be otherwise, and have tried, have declared to all the world by the event of things, that although the guides of souls may, by wise and seasonable discourses, persuade and prevail with some few persons, yet no man can reform the world. And if all were rejected, whose life does not please the curate, some will not care, and will let it quite alone; and others that do care, will never the more be mended, but turn hypocrites; and they are the worst of men, but most readily communicated: some other evils do also follow; and when we have reckoned schisms, partialities, reproaches, animosities, and immortal hatreds between priest and people, we have not reckoned the one half'.
* Quemadmodum tu comedis Christi corpus, sic illi manna; et quomodo tu bibis sanguinem, sic illi aquam ex petra. -S. Chrysost. homil. 18. in 2 Corinth.
| Ne dum purgatissimam ecclesiam volont instituere, brevi nullam habeant. - Bullinger ad Bezam.
6. When to separate criminals can be prudent and useful, and is orderly, limited, and legal, it ought not to be omitted upon any consideration, because it is the sinews and whole strength of ecclesiastical discipline, and is a most charitable ministry to souls, and brings great regard to the holy sacrament, and produces reverence in the communicants, and is a deletory to sin, and was the perpetual practice of the best ages of the church, and was blessed with an excellent corresponding piety in their congregations; upon which account, and of other considerations, St. Cyprian", St. Basilo, St. Chrysostom P, and divers others, call upon prelates and people, to exercise and undergo respectively this ecclesiastical discipline.
But this hath in it some variety 1. For if the person be notorious, a great and incorrigible criminal, refusing to hear, the church proceeding against him upon complaint, confession, or notoriety, and consequently to be esteemed as a heathen' and a publican; then come in the apostolical rules, with such a one not to eat;' and, withdraw from such a one, for there is no accord between Christ and Belial,' between a Christian and a heathen, or an unbeliever; that is, one who is thrust into the place and condition of an infidel; and give not that which is holy, unto dogs.' 2. But if he be within the communion of the church, and yet a criminal, not delated, not convict, not legally condemned, and yet privately known to be such, or publicly suspected and scandalous; the minister of religion must separate him by the word of his ministry, and tell him his danger, and use all the means he can to bring him to repentance and amends before he admits him. If the minister of religion omits this duty, he falls under the curse threatened by God in the prophet, “ If he does not warn him, if he does not speak to the wicked, to give him warning to save his life ; his blood shall be upon him.” 3. If there be a regular jurisdiction established, and
m Quantum ruboris civitati turpiter se gerendo incusserunt, tantum landis graviter paniti adferant. — Valer. Max.
n De lapsis, lib. iii. et ep. 15. • Epist. ad Amphil. c. 2. 84. 85.
p. Non parva vobis imminet ultio, si quem, cujuspiam conscium nequitiæ, bujos mensæ participem concedatis : sanguis ejus de vestris manibus exqui. retur. – S. Chrysost, homil. 60. ad Pop. Antioch.
9 See Rule of Conscience, lib. iii. c. 4. rule 9. 11 Cor. v, 11. 2 Thess. iii. 6.
• Ezek, üi. 18.
this spiritual authority be backed with the secular, it must be used according to the measures of its establishment, and for the good of the church in general, and of the sinner in particular; that is, although the person be not as a heathen, and excommunicate by the church's sentence,- yet he must be rejected for a time, and thrust into repentance, and measures of satisfaction; and as he must not refuse, so must not the minister of the sacrament otherwise admit him; and in this sense it was, that St. Chrysostom' said, “ He would rather lose his life, than admit unworthy men to the Lord's table.”
7. But because piety hath suffered shipwreck, and all discipline hath been lost in the storm, and good manners have been thrown overboard ; the best remedy in the world that yet remains, and is in use amongst the most pious sons and daughters of the church, is that they would conduct their repentance by the continual advices and ministry of a spiritual guide ; for by this alone, or principally, was the primitive piety and repentances advanced to the excellency, which we often admire, but seldom imitate. And the event will be, that besides we shall be guided in the ways of holiness in general, we shall be at peace, as to the times and manner of receiving the holy sacrament, our penitential abstentions, and seasonable returns: and we shall not so frequently feel the effects of the divine anger upon our persons, as a reproach of our folly, and the punishment of our unworthy receiving the divine mysteries. And this was earnestly advised and pressed upon the people by the holy fathers, who had as great experience in their conduct, as they had zeal for the good of souls. “ Let no man say, I repent in private, I repent before God in secret. God, who alone does pardon, does know that I am contrite in heart. For was it in vain? Was it said to no purpose, whatsoever ye shall loose in earth, shall be loosed in heaven?' We evacuate the Gospel of God, we frustrate the words of Christ :” so St. Austin
And, therefore, when a man hath spoken the sentence of the most severe medicine, let him come to the presidents of the church, who are to minister in the power of the keys to him; and beginning now to be a good son, keeping the order of his mother, let him receive the measure and manner of his
1 Homil. 83. in Matth.
u Homil. 49.
repentance from the presidents of the sacraments?” Concerning this thing, I shall never think it fit to dispute, for there is nothing to enforce it, but enough to persuade it; but he that tries, will find the benefit of it himself, and will be best able to tell it to all the world.
Penitential Soliloquies, Ejaculations, Exercises, and prepara
tory Prayers, to be used in all the Days of Preparation to the Holy Sacrament.
I. ALMIGHTY and eternal God, the Fountain of all virtue, the Support of all holy hopes, the Author of pardon, of life, and of salvation; thou art the Comforter of all that call upon thee: thou hast concluded all under sin, that thou mightest have mercy upon all. Look upon me, O God, and have pity on me, lying in my blood and misery, in my shame, and in my sins, in the fear and guilt of thy wrath, in the shadow of death, and in the gates of hell. I confess to thee, O God, what thou knowest already; but I confess it to manifest thy justice, and to glorify thy mercy, who hast spared me so long ;—that I am guilty of the vilest and basest follies, which usually dishonour the fools, and the worst of the sons of men.
I have been proud and covetous, envious and lustful, angry and greedy, indevout and irreligious; restless in my passions, sensual and secular, but hating wise counsels, and soon weary of the offices of a holy religion. I cannot give an account of my time, and I cannot reckon the sins of my tongue. My crimes are intolerable, and my imperfection shameful, and my omissions innumerable: and what shall I do, O thou Preserver of men? I am so sile, that I cannot express it; so sinful, that I am hateful to myself,—and much more abominable must I needs be in thy eyes. I have sinned against thee without necessity, sometimes without tempta
* Homil. 49.